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Full text of "Flood hazard management and natural resource protection : instructor's manual"

DOC. 

FEM 1.8: 

F65/ 

instructor 






Ur 

III 
atU:fca-i**Vr»»w?aign 



UNIVERSITY ur 

ILLINOIS LIBRARY 

AT URBANA CHAMPAIGN 



BOOKSTACKS 



INTERIM IG- 14 1980 



FLOOD HAZARD 

MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL 

RESOURCE PROTECTION 



INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL 



MAV . a 



federal emergency 
management agency 







■■ 



I 



INTERIM IG-14 
September 1980 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION 
INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL 



. 



Prepared by The Conservation Foundation* under contract to 
the Federal Emergency Management Agency 



* 



WITHDRAWN 

University of 

Illinois Library 

at U; ban S -Clnrrpaign 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/floodhazardmanagOOcons 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Pc 

PREFACE 



fCf/rts+tu- ^3£ 



! 

SAMPLE COURSE TIME PLAN 3 

MODEL PROGRAM OUTLINE 

(Lesson Plan Titles and Scopes) 

INFORMATION FOR THE INSTITUTE DIRECTOR 13 

A. Organizational Guidance I 3 

1. Objectives of the Training Program 14 

2. Preparing a Work Schedule 15 

3. Staff and Staff Functions 15 

4. Budgeting ..... 1° 

5. Selection of Conference Facility 19 

6. Scheduling of Institute 21 

B. Program Development ^ J 

1. Modifying the Model Program 

2. Steering Committee ^4 

a. Selecting the Committee 

b. Steering Committee Role ^6 

3. Participant Selection 

o o 

a. Target Communities 

b. Identification of Participants 

c. Scholarships 

32 

d. Invitations 

e. Follow-up Correspondence 



Page 

4. Resource People 35 

a. Selection 35 

b. Invitations 37 

c. Briefings 37 

d. Funding 38 

5. Pre-Conf erence Mailings 39 

6. Training Materials 40 

a. Resource Manual 40 

b. Community Action Guide Summary .... 41 

c. Model Student Manual 41 

d. Mapping Exercise Materials 42 

e. Slide Presentation 42 

f. Simulation/Game 42 

7. Pre-Institute Checklist 43 

8. Registration 44 

9. Institute Evaluation 44 

10. Post Institute Follow-up 45 

C. Tips on Conducting the Institute 46 

1. Role of the Institute Director 46 

2. Functions of Various Institute Sessions . . 46 
a. Plenary Sessions 48 

• Speeches 48 

• Roundtable Discussions 48 

• Reactor Panels 50 

• Room Arrangements 51 






Page 
b. Small Group Discussions 52 

• Training Workshops 

• Information Workshops 

• Working Groups 

• Basic Procedures for Discussion Groups 5 

• Guidelines for Small Group Discussion 

Leaders 

• Brainstorming ->6 

LESSON PLANS 

A. Coastal Training Institute 

1 -37 

B. Riverine Training Institute 

APPENDICES 

A. Sample Invitation Letters, Briefing Memos .... A "l 

B. Mapping Exercise Materials (Blue lines, U.S.G.S. 
maps, Handouts, Briefing Memo) B ~l 

C. Slide Show Script c_1 

D. Case Study Materials D-1 

E. Simulation Exercise (PAGAN) E_1 

F. Sample Evaluation F_1 

c— ~\ 

G. Model Student Manual - Riverine 

H. Model Student Manual - Coastal 



H-l 



I. Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: Community Action Guide .... 



1-1 



PREFACE 

This Trainers' Manual is designed to serve as a detailed 
guide for individuals or organizations interested in conducting 
the training program on community flood hazard management and 
natural resource protection developed by The Conservation 
Foundation for FEMA. Many of the principles discussed here are 
also applicable to training programs on a wide range of topics. 

This manual supplements the two model training institute 
programs developed by CF, for FEMA, following an evaluation of 
two pilot training institutes conducted in May, 1980. One model 
program addresses coastal flooding problems, and the other, riverine 
flooding problems. 

These programs, designed for local officials and key citizen 
leaders, have several important objectives: 

• educating community leaders on the causes of 
flooding (natural and man-induced) and the role 
which natural resources can play in mitigating 
flood hazards; 

• educating community leaders about alternative 
strategies for flood hazard management including 
the requirements of the National Flood Insurance 
Program (NFIP) and strategies which go beyond 
the minimum requirements of the NFIP; 

• educating community leaders on the importance of 
public participation in the decision-making process, 
the key steps where public input can be most 
valuable and the range of tools and techniques 
available to achieve effective public participation; 

• instilling in community leaders a desire to apply the 
lessons of the institute in their own communities; and 

• providing participants with an opportunity to develop 
specific follow-up plans to improve flood hazard 
management in their community and/or region. 

Each of the pilot training institutes from which this 
final program model was derived was organized around a multi- 
state region. The pilot programs were designed for 100-125 
participants. Most participants came from communities within 
the region, with no more than three or four from any given 
community—each representing a local community perspective 
(local government, business, environmentalist, civic leadership). 
The program as presented in this training manual, however, 
is applicable for use or adaptation to a variety of small- 
and large-scale geographic divisions, and with audience 
sizes ranging from 25 to 125 — so long as the program is 
directed to the community level. 



-2- 



The Trainers' Manual is intended to assist you, the Training 
Institute Coordinator, in conducting a successful training 
program which meets these objectives. Included in this manual 
are : 

1) Summaries of the model training programs; 

2) Detailed guidance for the Training Institute Coordinator 
on how to organize the institute from start to finish; 

3) Detailed lesson plans for each program describing the 17 
elements which comprise the 2-1/2 day program; and 

4) Detailed Appendices including samples of invitation 
letters, briefing memos, and training materials. 

Those of you planning to organize a training institute should 
read through this manual carefully before taking your first step. 
It's essential that you understand fully the nature and complexity 
of your job from the outset. Careful advance planning can help 
you avoid a multitude of disappointments and missed opportunities 
along the way and ensure a successful Institute. 

Specifically, you will probably want to refer to the section 
on "Information for the Institute Director" throughout your planning 
process. You will also want to provide each of your confirmed 
resource people (speakers, workshop leaders, etc.) with a copy of 
the detailed lesson plan for their respective sessions. 

Most of you will have no problem identifying which version 
of the program (Coastal or Riverine) best suits the needs of 
your community, state, or region. However, some of you may be 
considering a geographic area which includes both coastal and 
riverine communities and wish to address both types of flooding 
problems in a single training institute. If this is the case, we 
suggest you carefully study both programs, identify the elements 
which differ between the two programs, and then modify the program 
to include concurrent sessions addressing both coastal and riverine 
issues. 

The program has been designed to extend over a two-and-a-half 
day period (refer to Figure I Sample Time Plan for a layout of 
the model program). If utilized in a single community, it may be 
necessary or desirable to divide the training course into, for 
instance, two-hour components, and to run the course once a week 
(in the evenings) for nine weeks. 



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-5- 



• 



DAY ONE 



. 



•> 



MODEL PROGRAM OUTLINE 
(Lesson Plan Titles and Scope) 



11:00 a.m. - 

1:00 p.m. INSTITUTE REGISTRATION 

1:00 WORKSHOP INTRODUCTION (Lesson Plan No. 1) 

Scope : 

Official opening of the workshop by welcoming 
participants, officials and guests; a general 
description of the workshop purpose, objectives, 
scope and subject areas; welcoming remarks of 
dignitaries; introduction of group coordinators 
and/or staff instructors, assignment of participants 
to groups; orientation to sequence of workshop 
sessions, time schedules, and facilities 
(notation of agenda changes, if necessary) 
administrative announcements. 

Activity : 

Plenary Session. Speech. Questions and Answers. 

1:30 - 2:15 INTRODUCTION OF PARTICIPANTS (Lesson Plan No. 2) 

Scope : 

Introduction of participants to others sharing 
similar geographical area (state, substate, 
watershed). Participants share with each other 
what they bring to the Institute and what they 
hope to accomplish. Brief discussion of 
participant community flooding problems and 
review of purpose of small group discussions. 

Activity: 

Small Group Discussions within the Plenary 

room. Groups divided according to geographic 

criteria. 

2:15 - 2:30 BREAK 



-6- 



2:30 - 4:00 FLOODING AND FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT IN COASTAL 

AREAS: AN OVERVIEW (Lesson Plan No. 3) 

Scope: 

The nature of coastal flood hazards; the special 
economic, social, and environmental problems 
of protecting coastal populations and properties 
from flood damage; the difficulties of timely 
and accurate hurricane prediction; ecologically 
sensitive areas in the coastal floodplain; an 
historical perspective on coastal flood hazard 
management, the traditional problem solving 
approach vs. new directions; why government 
policies are changing. 

Activity : 

Plenary Session. Film followed by Reactor Panel 

Questions and Answers. 

4:00-4:45 ESTABLISHING THE GOALS OF COMMUNITY FLOOD 

HAZARD MANAGEMENT (Lesson Plan No. 4) 

Scope : 

Identification and discussion of major goals 
for community flood hazard management. Cate- 
gorization of goals according to interest group. 

Activity: 

Plenary Session. Participants complete exercise 
listing major goals. Institute Director records 
goals on newsprint according to categories of 
interest groups. Discussion followed by group 
ranking of goals. 

5:15 - 6:00 SOCIAL HOUR 

6:00 - 7:30 DINNER 

7:30 - 9:30 THE NATURE OF FLOODING IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES 

AND THE SPECIAL ROLE OF COASTAL ECOLOGICAL 
RESOURCES IN FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION 
(Lesson Plan No. 5) 

Scope : 

Description of special ecological characteristics 
and hazard mitigation functions of natural 
coas'tal systems: beaches, oceans, estuaries, 
bays, and tidal rivers. Presentation of land 



I 



DAY TWO 



* 



-7- 



use suitability analysis concepts. Actual 
experiences utilizing natural resource maps 
as decision-making tools. 

Activity: 

Concurrent Small Group Sessions. Mini-lecture 

followed by group discussions. 



•> 



8:30 a.m. FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT: THREE STORIES 

(Lesson Plan No. 6) 

Scope : 

Brief review of rationale for community flood 
hazard management. Presentation of three 
community approaches to particular flooding 
problems . 

Activity : 

Plenary Session. Slide Presentation. 

8:45 - 9:45 DESIGNING A FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT PROGRAM: 

IDENTIFYING GOALS, OPPORTUNITIES AND STRATEGIES 
(Lesson Plan No. 7) 

Scope : 

Review of flood hazard management goals used 
by communities depicted in the slide show. 
Discussion of various opportunities and strategies 
available to the communities in the slide show 
during both the pre- and post-stages of flood 
hazard management. Emphasis on importance of 
local initiative. Relating goals and actions 
of communities in the slide show to goals listed 
by participants early in the Institute. 

Activity : 

Small group discussions within plenary Session. 

Completion of group exercise. 

9:45 - 11:00 THE FEDERAL AND STATE FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY 

FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING 
(Lesson Plan No. 8) 

Scope : 

Various federal and state programs that affect 
coastal flood hazard management including: 
NFIP, Floodplains and Wetlands Executive 
Orders, Coastal Zone Management and State 
Natural Resource Management Programs. 



8- 



Activity ; 

Plenary Session. Speech followed by roundtable 
discussion of key questions posed by moderator. 
Questions and Answers. 

11:00 - 11:15 BREAK 

11:15 - 12:15 THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM: WHAT IT 

DOES AND DOESN'T DO (Lesson Plan No. 9) 

Scope : 

Minimum requirements of the NFIP, basic tools 
(maps, FIS study, flood profiles) provided by 
NFIP, issues which NFIP addresses, issues not 
addressed by NFIP. 

Activity : 

Plenary Session. Speech followed by roundtable 
discussion of key questions posed by moderator. 
Questions and Answers. 

12:15 - 1:30 LUNCH 

1:30 - 2:30 FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT: ISSUES AND PROGRAMS 

(Lesson Plan No. 10) 

Scope : 

Detailed look at various issues and programs 
relating to the NFIP including: building 
standards, NFIP regulations, Section 1362 of 
National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, flood 
hazard mapping, Coastal Zone Management. 

Activity: 

Concurrent small group sessions. Mini-pre- 
sentation by group leader followed by group 
discussions . 

2:45 - 3:45 LOCAL STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION: 

CASE EXAMPLES (Lesson Plan No. 11) 

Scope : 

Review of specific strategies that different 
communities have employed to manage coastal 
flood hazards, highlighting community goals, 
the design and implementation of the strategy, 
and the role of federal, state, local and 
public actors. The focus will be on key 



-9- 



factors in making the strategy work. Specific 
strategies addressed might include: relocation, 
recreation/acquisition, storm water management, 
zoning, critical areas protection, development 
standards . 

Activity: 

Concurrent small group sessions. Mini-lecture 
by group leader followed by group discussion 
of specific case examples. 

3:45 - 4:00 BREAK 

4:00 - 5:00 THE ROLE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY 

FLOOD HAZARD DECISION MAKING (Lesson Plan No. 12) 

Scope : 

Importance of public involvement, various publics 
affected by flood hazard management programs, 
performance standards for effective public 
involvement, tools and techniques for public 
involvement . 

Activity: 

Plenary Session. Speech followed by roundtable 
discussion of key questions posed by moderator. 
Completion of group exercise. Questions and 
Answers . 

5:00 - 6:00 SOCIAL HOUR 

6:00 - 7:30 DINNER 

7:30 - 9:30 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GROUP ACTION 

(Lesson Plan No. 13) 

Scope : 

Continuation of earlier group discussion of 
community problems, state problems, action 
required to resolve problems (i.e., better 
data and data analysis, public education and 
involvement, intergovernmental cooperation, 
social and economic considerations). 

Activity : 

Concurrent small group discussions. 



-10- 



DAY THREE 

8:30 - 9:30 a.m. ISSUES IN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 

(Lesson Plan No. 14) 

Scope : 

Specific issues and tools relating to effective 
public participation: goal setting, coalition 
building, bargaining and negotiation, communication 
skills, motivating the public. 

Activity : 

Concurrent small group sessions. Mini-lecture 

by group leader followed by group discussion. 

9:30 - 10:00 BREAK 

10:00 - 12:00 DESIGNING A FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 

IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES (Lesson Plan No. 15) 

Scope : 

Analysis of the tradeoffs involved in designing 
a community flood hazard management program 
uses. Group exercise case study information on 
physical characteristics, population, flood 
problems, economic/social considerations, politi- 
cal context; present community maps and flood 
hazard areas; pre-flood and post-flood 
opportunities, goals development, legal 
institutional framework, specific strategies. 

Activity: 

Concurrent small group sessions. Facilitator 
leads group in discussion of case study materials 
and set of specific questions. 

12:00 - 2:00 LUNCH 

2:00 - 3:00 FINAL SMALL GROUP DISCUSSIONS (Lesson Plan No. 16) 

Scope : 

Continued discussion of specific opportunities 
and strategies which should be implemented at 
the local and/or regional (state) level to 
improve flood hazard management. Identification 
of specific steps which participants intend to 
take following the Institute to achieve their 
goals . 



-11- 



Activity : 

Concurrent small group sessions. 

3:30 - 4:30 COMMUNITY FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT: A CHALLENGE 

TO WORK TOGETHER (Lesson Plan No. 17) 

Scope : 

Presentation and discussion of group follow- 
up plans, concluding remarks by workshop 
director. Participant evaluation and verbal 
feedback. 

Activity: 

Plenary Session. Presentations by working 
group leaders. Concluding remarks. Completion 
of evaluation forms. 



-13- 



INFORMATION FOR THE INSTITUTE DIRECTOR 

Conducting a Training Institute of this scale and complexity 
is no easy task. At a minimum, it requires solid organizational 
skills, and a staff of at least two to three hard workers who 
have both the energy and the enthusiasm to make the program a 
success. 

Assuming your organization meets these minimum criteria, 
we offer in this section detailed guidance on key aspects of 
preparing and conducting such a program. This information 
reflects The Conservation Foundation's extensive experience 
in developing and conducting training programs. 

A. ORGANIZATIONAL GUIDANCE 

In calling this section organizational guidance we are 
making a rather arbitrary distinction between the administrative 
and logistical problems of organizing an Institute and the 
program itself. The two are interrelated and cannot be easily 
separated. Much of the success of the substantive program will 
depend upon the logistical details that back it up. 

An institute organizer should begin with the basic 
assumption that if anything can go wrong, it will. Some of 
the things that may happen, are: 

• speakers cancel at the last minute; 

• audio visual equipment doesn't arrive, 
or doesn't work, or isn't set up; 

• rooming lists are misplaced; and 

• rooms reserved by the Institute at the 
conference facility are switched by the 
staff of the facility at the last minute — 
and the new rooms no longer meet the needs 
of the Institute. 

You and your staff will need to stay a step ahead of the 
program at all times, and check on each detail, leaving yourself 
time to take care of emergencies. The logistical key to staging 
a successful conference is to ensure that no one except your own 
staff knows what's going wrong, and to think positively in solving 
problems. Confused conference logistics can leave everyone with 
a bad taste, and undermine the efforts of otherwise excellent 
speakers and discussion leaders. 



-14- 



1 . Objectives of Training Program 

Possibly the most important first step in implementing 
this type of training program is to ensure that you and your 
staff have a clear understanding of the objectives of the course. 
Although this may seem an obvious point, we believe it's one worth 
stating. For you are the ones who will have the job of "selling" 
the Training Institute to those you want to attend. You will 
also have to brief speakers and discussion leaders, and direct 
the training itself. Only if you are convinced of the importance 
of the Institute and sure of its intended objectives can you 
both hope to convince others to attend and make certain that 
the program runs smoothly. 

The major goal of the Training Institute is to educate 
local officials and citizen leaders about alternative approaches 
to flood hazard management so that they may incorporate for their 
communities a range of community values including natural resource 
protection. 

Specific objectives are: 

• to provide participants with a better understanding 
of the NFIP as a starting point or framework for 
community flood hazard mitigation and to focus on 
the strengths and limitations of the NFIP; 

• to provide participants with a greater understanding 
of the role which natural resources play in mitigating 
flood hazards; 

• to provide participants with a greater understanding 

of the importance of public participation at key points 
in the decision-making process and to instill in them a 
commitment to become or remain actively involved; and 

• provide participants with an opportunity to develop 
specific follow-up plans for activities which they intend 
to pursue in their own communities/regions in an effort 
to improve local flood hazard management. 

These may seem like ambitious goals and objectives to accomplish 
in a 2-1/2 day or even a 3-1/2 day period — and they are. But 
as two test-runs of the Training Institute prove, this training 
program as designed can be highly effective in achieving these 
goals and objectives. 

It's important that the Institute director clearly outlines 
these objectives at the beginning of the Training Institute, 
highlighting what participants will be expected to accomplish by 
the close of the Institute. Participants should be provided the 
opportunity to review these objectives, suggest modifications 
and ultimately adopt the modified objectives before proceeding 
with the Training Institute. 



-15- 



2. Preparing a Work Schedule 

Once you are clear on the goals and objectives of the 
Institute your next step should be to outline the major tasks 
to be accomplished in preparing for the institute and to 
develop a time schedule for completion of those tasks. Be 
sure to allow sufficient time to accomplish the various tasks 
assuming that in most instances things will take more time than 
initially expected. Events such as staff turnovers, printing 
delays, or even natural events such as hurricanes or floods can 
seriously disrupt your planning schedule unless you build in 
adequate flexibility. 

We estimate that the minimum lead time for planning an 
Institute of this sort is six months. We include here a model 
timetable (Figure 2) which outlines the major tasks you'll be 
expected to accomplish in preparing for a Training Institute. 
You may want to fill in additional details as you see fit. 

3 . Staff and Staff Functions 

As was mentioned earlier, depending on the make-up of 
your organization, you will need to assign a minimum of two 
to three hard working staff to ensure the success of the 
training institute. Each of these staff will not need to 
work full time on the training institute for all six months, 
but they will each at some point need to give priority full-time 
attention to the institute. The way in which staffing needs 
will be fulfilled will vary from organization to organization. 
Normally, the staff will be comprised of an: 

• institute coordinator; 

• assistant coordinator; and 

• a secretary. 

The staffing functions will be: 

• Substantive — as mentioned earlier, the accomplishment 
of the goals of the training program will depend on 
you and your staff's understanding of its goals 

and objectives. One key person (the Institute Coordinator) 
should have a deeper understanding of the substance of 
the training program. The Institute Coordinator will 
have a number of duties that should only be delegated to 
someone with adequate substantive knowledge to accomplish 
the required tasks. Some of these tasks will be: 

— briefing speakers; 

-- coordinating steering committee activities; 



-16- 





Figure 


2 




MO 


DEL TIME 


TABLE 








Month 








1 


ic 


tasks 




X 



Task 



• Develop time table and 

assign staff to specific tasks 

• Review relevant background 

material X 

• Select regional steering 

committee members and send 
invitation materials (1st) X 

• Hold (1st) steering committee 

meeting X 

• Select site for Institute 

and make administrative 

arrangements X 

• Revise Model Program based on 

steering committee comments. X 

• Identify potential participants XXX 

• Send invitations XXX 

• Hold 2nd steering committee 

meeting (optional) X 

• Identify and invite potential 

resource people XXX 

• Follow-up on initial invitations 

with phone calls X X 

• Send pre-Institute reading materials X 

• Prepare workbooks X 

• Hold Institute X 

• Evaluate Institute X 



-17- 



-- modifying the institute program and workbook to reflect 
steering committee suggestions; and 

— moderating the program. 

• Administrative--the importance of the logistical component 
of conference organizing should never be underestimated. 

A number of administrative and organizing tasks must be 
accomplished before, during and after the conference. 
The individual responsible for administrative matters 
should not be the same person in charge of the substantive 
end of the program. Both jobs are too demanding and 
demands often occur concurrently. For example, the 
substantive person moderating the conference cannot at 
the same time be responsible for checking the rooms and 
audio visual equipment necessary for subsequent sessions. 

Some of the administrative responsibilities include: 

— making all conference facility arrangements; 

— making certain that appropriate financial records 
are kept regarding registration fees and scholarship 
awards; 

-- managing conference registration; 

— arranging for and checking on all special conference 
needs such as audio-visuals, easels, newsprints, 
markers, etc. 

— staying one step ahead of the program by making 
certain that facility arrangements work 
smoothly; 

-- dealing with special problems participants have 
with rooming arrangements, meals, etc. 

• Secretarial — good secretarial support is essential in 
conducting a training program of the sort described here. 
Secretarial responsibilities will include: 

— typing and mailing invitation letters and registration 
forms ; 

-- maintaining scholarship and registration records; 

— typing and getting printed participant 
program material, workbooks and lists; 

— mailing pre-conf erence materials to registered 
participants ; 



-18- 



-- making certain that registration packets are complete; 
and 

— assisting with the variety of administrative 
responsibilities described above. 



4 . Budgeting 

A multi-state or single-state training institute of the 
type described in this manual will cost between $25,000-30,000. 

The major cost categories are: 

a. Administrative/Program Development costs ($15,000- 
20,000). Variables in this cost category include: 

— size of geographic area and resultant 
travel and telephoning costs; 

— salary level for staff, and overhead of 
organization. 

Budget categories for the coordinating organization 
would include: staff, benefits, travel (including 
payments for steering committee travel), other direct 
costs (telephone, xerox, postage), and indirect costs. 

b. Direct Conference costs -- vary between $7,000-15,000 
for a single-state or multi-state organization. 
Budget categories include: scholarships for 
participants, travel, per diem, speakers' expenses, 
printing (workbooks, programs, name tags) renting 
audio-visual equipment. 

Major variables in conference expenses will include: 

• distances to be traveled; 

• base cost of the conference facility (room and board); 

• number of people invited needing scholarships; 

If the conference is conducted in a smaller geographic 
area, costs may be even further reduced. Such smaller scale 
conferences will not only be subject to the same variables 
listed above, but will present an additional question of whether 
an overnight stay is in fact necessary. 



i 



-19- 



5 . Selection of Conference Facility 

Selection of the facility for the Training Institute is 
an important decision which can have a great impact on the 
ultimate success of the Institute. You should be sure to 
reserve your facility very early in the planning process since 
good ones are often booked months or years in advance. 

When evaluating various possibilities, you will want to 
consider a number of factors including costs, capacity, location 
and accessibility, conference facilities, and amenities. 

Cost — room and board for participants will comprise the 
major cost of the facility. Keeping the cost down is important 
not only for your own budget but also in order to achieve the 
full audience you might seek. Under most circumstances 
scholarship payments will provide assistance for no more than 
one third to one half of the participants. The remainder will 
have to pay their own expenses. 

We have found that conference facilities and hotels are 
usually willing to establish a special package that includes a 
fixed price per person per day for room and board, coffee breaks, 
and conference rooms. We have always used double occupancy as 
the base price. Participants and scholarship recipients pay 
extra if they wish a single room. In the current market, 
you will probably wish to limit your search to those facilities 
which can offer you a rate of less than $50 per person per 
day for double occupancy. This is a reasonable limit which should 
not be prohibitive to those participants who'll be paying their 
own way to attend the Institute. Be sure to check with the facility 
to determine what costs are included in the per diem rate. In 
many cases, there are extra charges for coffee breaks, meeting 
rooms, bartenders, audio-visual equipment, etc., but some facilities 
include these in their flat rate. 

Size — You should, of course, limit your search to facilities 
which can adequately handle the number of participants you 
expect to attend. If your group is large, and the facility 
relatively small, you'll want assurance that you will not have 
to compete with another group for space and staff assistance. 
If your group is small, you should select a facility which 
will not dwarf the group but rather will provide an intimate 
environment which can enhance group dynamics. 

Location — Another criterion to consider is that of location 
and accessibility. Those facilities with the best access are 
usually located in the downtown of a major city or adjacent to 
a major airport. However, in most instances the downtown 
facility will be too expensive and offer too many distractions 
which could lure participants away from the sessions. On the 
other hand, an airport location might meet the cost requirements 
but would not offer the type of attractive and varied environ- 
ment conducive to this type of intensive Training Institute. 



-20- 



We consider the optimal setting for this type of Training 
Institute to be a relatively remote facility located in a pleasant 
environment no more than a one to two hour bus ride from a 
major airport. Ideally, this facility might offer amenities 
such as a swimming pool, hiking or nature trails, etc. Although 
the program is tightly scheduled and will not offer much time 
for recreation, our experience has been that participants take 
advantage of the moments they do have and appreciate the oppor- 
tunity to walk outside in a pleasant atmosphere. 

You will want to evaluate the facility carefully and make 
certain it's isolated, with a pleasant environment, but without 
so many attractions that the location competes with the program. 
One of the pilot institutes was held in an historic small 
beach town, in a magnificent historic facility. Although the 
location was remote (one hour drive from a major metropolitan 
area) and the facility beautiful, it provided too many attractive 
alternative activities to the conference program. 

Physical Requirements --The training program described in 
this manual is designed for 100-125 people. It contains a 
mixture of small and large group sessions. Some sessions use 
speakers, panels, roundtable discussions, and a variety of 
audio visual activities. Other sessions use case studies and maps, 
and are designed to foster small group discussion. The physical 
requirements of each element of the program are described in 
the detailed Lesson Plans, and are also addressed in Section C - 
Tips on Conducting the Institute. 

Summarizing physical needs, however, you will find you 
need a variety of modern conference facilities. The conference 
facility must have modern lighting and acoustical features. 
In addition, it might ideally have available xerox capacity, 
audio-visual equipment, audio-visual assistance (in case equip- 
ment breaks) and easels with newsprint for small group sessions. 
If the facility does not have the appropriate audio-visual 
equipment and easels for small group sessions, you will have 
to rent them. 

The minimum space needs for the program described in 
this manual will be: 

• One large room for plenary sessions. Ideally 
this room should have a seating capacity of 
no more than 150 people, as you won't want your 
group to be dwarfed by the size of the room. 
If the conference facility is otherwise ideal, 
and you are willing to accept a larger room, you 
should arrange to rope off the extra space in 
the back of the room so that the participants will 
be concentrated up front. 



I 



-21- 



We have found that auditorium style rooms with a stage 
and tiered seating can work very poorly as the large 
meeting room. That style room can create a sense of 
distance between panelists and the audience and discourage 
questions and dialogue from the audience. It is helpful 
to have panelists and speakers on the same level as 
the audience, with several microphones in the audience 
to encourage their active participation in sessions. 

• Six or seven break-out rooms for small group sessions. 
At various points in the program, participants divide 
into small groups to accomplish a variety of purposes. 
The small group sessions are designed for no more than 
20 people. Each break-out room should be large enough 
to accommodate 20 people comfortably. Occasionally 
you may find it necessary to use the large plenary room 
for one of the small group sessions. In that instance, 
you will wish to make certain that the group occupies 
only one corner of the large room and that chairs are 
arranged informally. To the extent possible, these rooms 
should be located in close proximity to the plenary 
session room. Given the tight program schedule 
you should try to minimize the participants' travel time 
between sessions. 

6 . Scheduling of Institute 

The model training program we are proposing in this 
trainer's guide involves a 2-1/2 day time period. We find that 
in order to accomplish the goals of this program a certain 
dynamic interaction among participants must take place. This 
interaction begins at a low level on the first day. During the 
second day participants interaction increases, producing a 
high level of, energy and enthusiasm. The third day can be 
viewed as a winding down period. 

In scheduling an institute of this sort, it is important 
to realize that it takes a day for people to get to know each 
other and work together. It is equally important to realize 
that people will begin leaving and/or winding down two or 
three hours before the formal end of the program. 

The program format described in this manual is very 
intensive and involves few breaks. It can be exhausting for 
participants. We have tried to intersperse a number of quite 
informal sessions to allow participants to relax. One of 
the pilot Institutes tested by The Conservation Foundation 
stretched over a 3-1/2 day period and involved an afternoon 
break one day and an evening break the next day. This may be 
desirable from a programmatic viewpoint, but will cost more 
money and will require more of a time commitment on the part 
of participants. 



-22- 



Using a 2-1/2 day program, there are a number of ways you 
might schedule the Institute: 

a) three week days; 

b) one weekend day and two week days; or 

c) two weekend days and one week day. 

It's up to you to select the schedule which you believe will 
best meet the needs of the majority of your participants. 
You may want to consult your steering committee (see page 24) 
on this before making a final decision. 

Based on our experience, we would argue for option c - 
two weekend days and one week day. We recognize that weekends 
are special days and that people are reluctant to give them up. 
However, we also recognize that many of the participants you 
invite (particularly the local citizen leaders and local govern- 
mental officials serving in a voluntary capacity) have full 
time jobs unrelated to flood hazard management. Therefore, 
an Institute scheduled to include weekdays will require these 
individuals to take off from work in order to attend. We feel 
option c offers the best compromise and since it involves only 
one full weekend out of 52, we believe you shouldn't meet with 
too much resistance. 

The program described in this manual can be divided into 
2 to 2-1/2 hour modules and run for a local community over an 
eight or nine-week period. Sessions could be held in 
the evening to maximize attendance from the community. We 
would advise that such a training course be designed for no 
more than 30 people, breaking into two small groups when 
appropriate. 

The advantages of such an approach are reduced travel and 
per diem costs, and improved ability to reach a larger group of 
people in a single community. The disadvantages may involve 
reducing the dynamic interaction among participants who would 
otherwise have been closeted with each other for a short intensive 
time period. Many participants may miss several sessions and 
not get as much out of the program. We have not yet tested 
this approach and if any of the readers of this manual choose 
to do so we would appreciate receiving comments. 



§ 



r 



-23- 

B. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT 

1 . Modifying the Model Program 

The Institute program presented in this training manual 
is a model that has been revised after being tested in two 
different parts of the country, and with two slightly different 
formats. In many instances you will be able to use the program 
exactly as designed. In other instances, modification may be 
in order. 

Some of the questions you will wish to ask in evaluating 
the model program's applicability to your situation are: 

• How closely will the target audience from my state or 
region resemble the audience for which this program was 
designed? 

• If the audience will differ from the planned audience, 
what are the programmatic implications? 

• How sophisticated and knowledgeable is the audience 

in my state or region likely to be concerning the NFIP 
program or the relationship of natural resources to 
hazard mitigation? (Remember, if you are inviting 
only two or three carefully chosen people from targeted 
communities, they might be very sophisticated indeed!) 

• What is the nature of the flooding problems faced 
by communities likely to attend the Institute? 

• What is the nature of the natural resource base of 
communities in my region? 

Depending upon how you answer these questions, you may 
wish to consider a variety of actions in modifying the program. 

• We have often found it helpful to plan an optional 
pre-institute tutorial that takes place during 
registration. This pre-institute program may cover 
issues not addressed during the Institute, but which 
participants need to understand to benefit from the 
Institute. A pre-institute tutorial, as we have used 
it, is designed to help bring the audience to a basic 
common level of knowledge as they start the training 
program. 

• You will wish to consider the range of alternative 
concurrent workshops offered by the program, dropping 
some workshops and adding others. 



-24- 



• You will wish to examine carefully materials prepared ( 
for the Institutes--case examples and maps — and 
determine if you need to develop materials that more 
closely reflect the flooding problems and natural 
resource base of your region. (Remember, the case 
examples and the maps are simply teaching tools that 
are used during the Institute. They need not exactly 
approximate the real life situation of communities 
in your region. ) 

The decision to make modifications to the model program 
must be made early in the training institute planning process. 
If major modifications are contemplated, you will have to 
devote staff time to revising the model student manual possibly 
including case materials and maps. You should make the modifi- 
cations with the advice and assistance of a steering committee 
comprised of individuals who are both knowledgeable about flood 
hazard management problems in your region and representative 
of your target audience. 

2. Steering Committee . 

Selection of the Steering Committee is an important task, 
as this group serves as the major advisory body to you, the 
Coordinator. The Steering Committee will have major responsibilities 
both for identifying participants and resource people and for 
modifying the Model Training Program to best meet the needs of 
the geographic area represented at the conference (multi-state 
region, state, or community). If you've done a good job choosing 
your committee, the members should be able to provide you with 
valuable assistance throughout the planning period and can 
contribute significantly to the success of the Institute. 

a. Selecting the Committee 

Ideally, the Committee should include between 20 and 25 
individuals. They should represent the broad range of interest 
groups and geographic regions you hope to attract to the Institute. 
Thus, you should be looking for bankers, insurance agents, civil 
defense agents, social service representatives, environmentalists, 
developers, planners, local officials, state officials, and FEMA 
regional officials. (See participant section - page 28 .) 
If you're conducting a multi-state or Regional Institute, you 
should ensure that the committee members represent fairly the 
various states involved. 

You should select your committee members on the basis of 
several key criteria including: 1) representation of the con- 
stituencies and the geographic areas you are trying to reach 
in the training Institute; 2) familiarity with flood hazard 
management and/or public involvement in community environmental 



-25- 



decision making; 3) willingness to invest considerable time 
and energy prior to the Institute helping you to identify 
potential participants and resource people and; 4) willingness 
to play a central leadership role both during and following 
the training Institute. When inviting these individuals to 
participate, stress the importance of their involvement and 
make sure they understand the level of commitment expected of 
them. The most active committee members are those who understand 
from the start and willingly accept their assignments. 

An approach we recommend you consider in selecting your 
Steering Comittee is to first identify those 12-15 geographic 
areas (watersheds or coastal community clusters), which you 
would like to "target" for the Institute and then identify an 
individual in each of those geographic areas who could best 
assist you in identifying and inviting potential participants 
from that area. That individual might be an active environ- 
mentalist, a member of the League of Women Voters, a realtor, 
a professional staff member of watershed authority, etc. What 
is most important is that the individuals selected meet the 
general criteria mentioned in the previous paragraph and that 
they be able to identify and persuade key people in their area 
to participate at the Institute. These 12-15 individuals 
should also represent a balance of the various interest groups 
being targeted. 

We offer no magic formula for selecting your steering 
committee members or determining an optional balance of interested 
groups. In some areas you may have to choose between several 
appropriate individuals representing different perspectives. In 
others you may discover one person who really stands out. Use 
your best judgment in selecting a group of people who you think 
can work well together and can provide you with essential assistance 

In addition to the 12-15 representatives of local communities, 
your Steering Committee should include the state FIA coordinator 
from each state being targeted, other prominent state-wide interest 
group leaders, and FEMA regional officials. 

The Steering Committee may comprise as many as 25 individuals, 
including your staff. Although this may sound like an unwieldy 
size, we have found that it need not be, and that the need for 
the right representation on the Steering Committee overrides 
concerns about the size of the group. 

Obviously, this approach to selecting a Steering Committee 
will require you to do some serious homework in advance. You will 
probably want to meet or talk with the FEMA regional officials, 
including the staff of the Insurance and Mitigation division, 
and the state FIA coordinator (s ) to get their assessment of 
the 12-15 geographic areas which are most important to target. 
These officials may even be able to provide you with some initial 
names of potential Steering Committee members who live in 
these areas. 



-26- 



We have found that contacting the state League of Women 
Voters chapter is often a good starting point for identifying 
steering committee members, when no other names have surfaced. 
For example, a call to the State League of Women Voters Environ- 
mental Quality chairperson might turn up the name of a League 
contact active in civic affairs in a particular watershed. 
That person may not be the right person for your steering 
committee, but is likely to be able to recommend names of other 
active civic leaders who might be appropriate representatives. 

Each person identified as a potential steering committee 
member should receive a formal invitation to participate on 
the committee even if you've already spoken with them over the 
phone. With the invitation letter you should include a brief 
fact sheet about the Institute, its primary goals and objectives, 
relevant background information, description of your organization, 
etc . 

b. The Steering Committee Role 

Once you've selected your Steering Committee, your next 
step will be to schedule at least one full-day committee meeting, 
at least 4-5 months prior to the Institute. You should schedule 
the meeting for a place convenient to the majority of committee 
members. If you're dealing with a large geographic region and 
the majority of members will be flying to the meeting, you might 
consider holding the meeting at the most convenient airport. 
This will reduce travel time to and from the meeting place and 
allow you more time during the actual meeting. On the other 
hand, if your region is small, you should select a meeting site 
which is centrally located and accessible by car. 

The Steering Committee meeting is intended to accomplish a 
number of objectives, the most important being to provide members 
with an opportunity to buy into the program and make it theirs. 
A face to face dialogue will help to establish a cohesive 
force among committee members, and enhances the credibility of 
your efforts by making certain that the program reflects the 
needs of the audience. 

Formal objectives which you will want to accomplish 
during your Steering Committee meeting include: (1) to explain 
the background and purpose of the Training Institute and the role 
of the Steering Committee members; (2) to obtain the input of 
committee members on regional goals and objectives and how these 
might be addressed at the Institute; (3) to identify (and perhaps 
modify) criteria for selection of participants and to develop 
a strategy for inviting potential participants; and (4) to 
review the model training program in detail, to suggest modifi- 
cations and to identify names of possible resource people to 
serve as speakers, moderators, workshop leaders, etc. 



-27- 



Although this list of objectives represents a great deal 
to accomplish in a single meeting, it can be done. You must, 
however, ensure that the meeting begins on time and that any 
extraneous discussion is kept to a minimum. In addition, it 
will help if steering committee members understand what they 
are expected to accomplish at the meeting and come prepared 
with questions and comments. 

We suggest that at least two weeks prior to the steering 
committee meeting you send a copy of the model training program 
to committee members. (The "Model Program Outline" included 
on pages 5-10, or something similar would be appropriate.) 
You might also want to send them additional reading material 
such as the Resource Manual or summary papers. Encourage 
committee members to read these materials carefully and come 
to the meeting prepared to discuss them at length. 

You will want to be certain the meeting begins with a 
discussion of the goals of the program and then quickly moves 
to an examination of participant selection criteria. You should 
never allow a discussion of the program before addressing and 
completing the previous two issues, since the program content 
cannot really be understood unless people clearly understand 
the goals of the training institute and the audience to which 
it's directed. 

Your agenda might be organized in the following manner: 

1. Goals/Purpose (1 hour) 

— your presentation of overall objectives; 
committee listing of their goals; and 
discussion. 

2. Participant selection (1-1/2 hours) 

— individuals; and 

— communities. 

3. Program (2 hours) 

4. Resource People (1/2 hour) 

(Discussion to be followed up by phone conversations.) 

5. Follow-up role of Steering Committee (1/2 hour) 

— submit lists of potential participants who meet 
selection criteria; 



-28- 



recommend appropriate resource people for various 
sessions; and 

participate at Institute, serve as speakers, 
resource people, discussion leaders. 

Some of you may want to consider holding two Steering 
Committee meetings; one very early in the process to introduce 
the overall goals and objectives and to discuss participant 
selection, and another four to six weeks later to discuss the 
model program in detail. This may be a desirable option if 
your region is small (meaning travel time and costs are 
relatively small) and your committee members are willing to 
commit two full days to meetings. Those of you planning an 
Institute for a large geographic area, however, may discover 
the time and costs associated with organizing two meetings 
outweigh the benefits. 

Speaking of costs, you should be prepared to cover the 
travel and room and board costs of those Steering Committee 
members who have no alternative means of financial support. 
At a minimum, this will include your citizen representatives 
and probably any local officials. If state agency travel budgets 
are tight, you might have to cover some of these expenses as well. 
Most business and industry representatives and federal officials 
should be able to cover their own expenses. 

You might also want to offer some of your committee members 
a small consultant's fee ($100-300) to perform certain tasks, 
such as actively inviting qualified individuals in their area 
to attend the Institute. A personal invitation extended by one 
of your Steering Committee members is likely to be far more 
effective than either a letter or a phone call from you (unless, 
of course, you know the person). Thus, this approach of actually 
paying Steering Committee members to carry out some of your 
responsibilities might be a cost-effective measure, particularly 
if you're dealing with a large geographical area. 

3 . Participant Selection . 

Perhaps the most difficult but also the most important 
task you'll undertake in planning for this Training Institute 
is that of identifying and inviting participants. You should 
get significant help from your Steering Committee, but you 
should be prepared to present them with a well developed 
strategy and essential guidance before putting them to work. 

a. Target Communities 

Your first step in selecting participants will be to 
identify those 20-25 communities which you want to "target" 
for your Institute. If you adopt the strategy we suggest for 



-29- 



identif ication of Steering Committee members, the geographic 
areas (watersheds or coastal community clusters) will have been 
selected by you before the Steering Committee meeting with the 
assistance of appropriate FEMA and state agency personnel. 
Yet,« within each geographic cluster, there will remain a number 
of choices concerning which communities to target. A given 
watershed, for example, may contain 50 to 100 communities. 

You will wish to target communities that you and your 
Steering Committee believe will most benefit from the Training 
Institute, and which can play a key leadership role in their 
geographic region. We suggest several criteria for selection 
of target communities, including: 

• enrollment in regular phase of NFIP (or about to enter 
the regular phase); 

• population of 10,000 or more; 






experiencing significant growth pressures; 

containing considerable amount of existing developable 
land in flood hazard areas; 



• experienced recent flooding problems (perhaps 
received a presidential disaster declaration); 

o in the case of a riverine community, shares a 
drainage area (watershed) with other communities 
which might be participating at the Institute; and 

9 in the case of a coastal community, shares 
development pressures with other communities 
attending the Institute. 

These criteria are not intended to be hard-and-fast rules. 
Circumstances differ across the country. One of the tasks of 
your Steering Committee will be to evaluate target community 
criteria to see if modifications are appropriate. In your 
area for example, only a few communities might meet the size 
criterion of 10,000 people. Or if you are in a coastal area, 
you may discover that a community has not recently been flooded, 
but is a prime target for a major hurricane disaster. It's 
your job, working with the Steering Committee, to modify these 
criteria to best fit your regional situation. 

Recognizing that it's extremely unlikely you'll be able to 
attract all of the 25-30 target comunities which represent 
your first choice, we suggest you compile a secondary list of 
15-25 communities which also meet your general criteria. You 
may choose to invite participants from this back-up list as 
some on your primary list drop out. 



-30- 



b. Identification of Participants 

Once you've identified your target Communities, you can 
begin the process of identifying and inviting participants 
from those communities. At this stage you should be able 
to rely heavily on your Steering Committee to provide you 
with names from a particular locale. 

Criteria which you and your Steering Committee should 
consider when selecting community representatives include: 

• individuals who have a constituency, formal 
or informal, back to which they can take 
information obtained at the institute; 

• individuals coming from a variety of diverse 
constituencies within a community; i.e., 
environmental, civic, governmental, business, etc.; 

• individuals who are actively involved in their 
communities and who have a demonstrated capability 
to disseminate information in a locality; and 

• individuals who indicate a commitment to pursuing 
follow-up activities after the Institute. 

If possible, you should try to get a minimum of two to 
three people (what we consider a critical mass) from each 
community who meet these criteria and also represent different 
interest groups — local government (elected or appointed 
officials), citizen groups, environmentalists, Red Cross , 
volunteers, and business (developers, insurance agents). 

In examining the criteria for target community selection, 
it may occur to you that several can be inherently contradictory. 
For example, a community which has experienced recent flood 
disaster may have an almost completely developed floodplain. 
It may be that the only opportunities for flood hazard mitigation 
are relocation or some sort of structural protection. Yet, 
those communities experiencing growth pressures, with some 
significant part of the floodplain still undeveloped (and, 
therefore, with the greatest opportunity for implementing 
non-structural flood control measures) may not have experienced 
a recent flood disaster with the accompanying heightened awareness 
of the need for new approaches. 

This training program is designed to address both 
corrective and preventive non-structural flood hazard 
mitigation strategies. Some of the greatest opportunities 
will arise, however, in communities that have either not yet 
developed, or are just starting to develop, their floodplain. 
For the reasons described above, your job in attracting 
participants from those communities may well be a selling job. 






-31- 



In order to get commitments from two to three individuals 
in each community, however, you will probably have to invite 
anywhere from five to ten people. Locating those five to ten 
individuals will require considerable energy and some creative 
thinking. To make your job easier, you should make a list of 
all those types of people who presently have an interest in 
community flood hazard management and those who might be 
interested if the issue were presented in relevant terms. 
Our initial attempt at a list looks like this: 



Interested 

Local officials 

Civil Defense officials 

Volunteer disaster response 

groups 
Planners 
Residents of flood hazard 

areas (if they perceive 

a real danger) 



Might be interested 

Environmentalists 

Bankers 

Insurance Agents 

Realtors 

Developers 

Residents of flood hazard 

areas (who haven't experienced 
a serious flood) 

Taxpayers 

Recreation is ts 

Educators 

As you can see, the list of potentially interested groups 
is larger than the list of groups which traditionally express 
an interest in community flood hazard decision making. You 
probably won't have too much difficulty convincing people on 
the first list that the Institute will be relevant for them. 
However, you may have to expend considerable time and energy 
persuading people from the second list that it will be worth 
their time (and in some cases money!) to attend. 

We suggest that you spend some time thinking about the 
groups on the "potentially interested" list and what reasons 
you might propose to convince them it's worth their time to 
attend. Compile a list of reasons for each group and perhaps 
test it out on your Steering Committee. 

For example, environmentalists are concerned with protect- 
ing natural resources such as wetlands, barrier islands, dunes, 
wildlife areas, etc. Many of these natural resources, if 
protected, also serve hazard mitigation functions. Your focus 
in communicating with environmentalists might be to highlight 
this link between natural resources and hazard mitigation and 
explain how the training institute will address this issue. 
For the bankers you may wish to stress the risks associated 
with mortgages on properties located in flood hazard areas 
which aren't adequately regulated. With taxpayer groups, you 
may stress the hidden costs of police, fire and emergency 
services, and damages to public infrastructure which taxpayers 
incur in the event of a flood. And with civic groups you may 
wish to stress the human costs of the post-disaster period. 



-3 2- 



c. Scholarships 

Many individuals may not be able to attend the Training 
Institute without some form of financial assistance or scholar- 
ship. This applies particularly to local citizen leaders who 
are already being asked to give up at least one work day for 
the Institute and have no alternative resources. Local officials, 
many of whom are volunteers or who operate on shoe-string 
budgets, may also require financial assistance. Because the 
participation of these individuals is essential to the success of 
the Institute, you should be prepared to offer full or partial 
scholarships to as many of them as possible. Businessmen — 
realtors, developers, bankers, etc. — generally can write off 
the Institute expenses as a business expense. Therefore, 
except under unusual circumstances, we suggest you reserve the 
scholarship funds for those in other categories. 

If you are planning an Institute of 100-125 people, 
we suggest you set aside sufficient funds to cover the room, 
board, and travel expenses of approximately 50 people. (For a 
smaller conference you should allocate a smaller number of 
scholarships). Based on a per diem rate of $50 and depending 
on the size (hence the travel cost) for your region, your 
scholarship budget could range from $7,000 to $14,000. You 
might stretch these funds to cover more people by offering 
partial scholarships, encouraging car pooling, etc. 

Participants to whom you wish to offer scholarship funds 
should be notified in the initial letter of invitation that 
scholarships are available. You might encourage participants 
to contribute as much as they can, but make it clear that their 
attendance is important and that you will make every effort to 
cover full costs if necessary. 

d . Invitations 

Having compiled a list of five to ten individuals in each 
of your 25-30 target communities who meet the general criteria, 
as well as a list of other state or regional people you'd like 
to invite, your next step is to issue letters of invitation. 
These letters should go out at least three months prior to the 
Institute. In some instances, those you're inviting will 
already have been contacted by a Steering Committee member to 
determine their interest. In other instances, they will know 
nothing about the Training Institute. In either situation the 
invitation letter should clearly outline; 1) the purpose of 
the Institute, 2) where and when it will be held; 3) why the 
individual has been selected; 4) why it's important that he/she 
attend; 5) what the registration and room and board costs will 
be; and 6) what you expect from them (i.e., when you want them 
to let you know if he/she's coming.) Be sure you enclose a 
registration form. 



-33- 



Included in Appendix A, attached, are sample invitation 
letters and Registration Forms which you might want to modify 
for your own purposes. 

Rather than sending a standard letter to every invitee 
(which we recognize is easier), we suggest you modify the letter 
for each of the major interest groups (local officials, busi- 
nessmen, environmentalists, etc.) including for each typed 
letter a paragraph which highlights how flood hazard management 
and the Training Institute are relevant to the specific interest 
group. You will also want to send a slightly different letter 
to those you expect to request scholarships, describing the 
procedures and including the application forms. Although 
these modifications mean extra work for you and your staff, we 
believe your efforts will be rewarded. We suggest that, in 
order to maintain some control over the number of people 
attending, you consider some of the following guidelines: 

• State a registration cut-off date to encourage early 
registration (e.g., "registrations will be honored 
in order of their receipt — on a first come, first 
served basis" or "no registration will be accepted 

after December 1"). Also to encourage early registration, 
announce a date on which pre-Ins titute (background) 
materials will be mailed and specify that registrations 
must be received before that date. 

• If you want to avoid handling money at the conference, 
specify that only advance, mailed registrations accom- 
panied by full payment will be accepted. 

• State that checks be made out to your organization. 

• If appropriate, say "no partial registrations will be 
accepted . " 

• Also be sure to specify rules for refunds (in case of 
registration cancellation) in the instructions (e.g.; 
"requests for refunds received before xx date will 

be honored in full. No refunds can be made in response 
to requests received after xx date.") 

• If the conference is by invitation only, and you 
don't want the invitation passed on to someone else, 
so specify. If you want the invitee to attend for 
the entire conference period, or else not at all, 
that also should be made clear in the invitation or 
instructions . 



-34- 



• Along with registration information, provide information 
on accommodations. If the conference is to be held at a 
special facility where room and board are included and 
participants are expected to stay on the grounds, say so 
specifically. When appropriate, also say that many of 

the rooms are doubles. Provide a space on the registration 
form for people to indicate preference for a single room 
or a specific roommate. 

• For more traditional conference facilities in standard 
hotels, explain clearly in the registration information 
how reservations will be handled. You should make 
arrangements for the group with the hotel, and then make 
each participant responsible for his/her own reservations 
through direct dealings with the hotel. This helps 
avoid headaches and unnecessary charges (for no-shows, 
etc.) to you. In the registration form, provide clear 
instructions on necessary procedures (cut-off dates for 
reserved block of rooms, etc.) and a hotel reservation 
form if possible. If the conference is being held at a 
particularly nice place, include a brochure describing it. 

You might also consider including in the invitation letter 
a basic fact sheet on flooding problems in your region. This 
fact sheet, which you should compile with assistance from FEMA 
Regional Office and/or state FIA Coordinator, ought to include 
data on the number and frequency of floods over the past 50 
years, number of lives losts, value of property damaged, public 
expenditures (Federal, state and local) for flood disaster 
response and recovery as well as other pertinent facts. This 
sheet could serve to dramatically highlight the real dangers 
of flooding in your area. 

e. Follow-up Correspondence 

Once the invitation leters have been sent, you should send 
a copy of the full invitation list to your Steering Committee 
members indicating which individuals are located within the 
particular geographic area (state, watershed, county) which the 
member represents. Ask your Steering Committee members to 
follow-up on these individuals with phone calls approximately 
two weeks after the letters were mailed. When calling, they 
should first check to be sure the letter arrived. Then they 
should find out if the invitee has any question and if they're 
planning to attend. Encourage your Steering Committee members 
to be as persuasive as possible. The job to be accomplished 
at this point may be a selling job, but if the invitee seriously 
isn't interested or has a legitimate reason why he/she won't 
be able to attend, ask them if they could suggest other possible 
invitees. Give Steering Committee members a week to make 
these follow-up calls. 



-35- 



If you don't hear from your Steering Committee members 
within a reasonable period, check to see what progress they've 
made. Don't assume just because they're nice people and appear 
interested that they in fact will complete their assignments. 
After all they're human too and subject to the same distractions 
that we all face despite their good intentions. If you discover 
that some of your Steering Committee members have not completed 
their assignments, find out why and if there is any way you can 
help them. It may be they've overextended themselves and simply 
can't find the time to make the calls. If these individuals 
are volunteers, you may decide it's easier just to make the calls 
yourself. However, if you've agreed to pay these members for 
their services, you have a right to expect more from them and 
should insist they follow through. 

The more helpful your Steering Committee is, the fewer 
phone calls you will be required to make. However, you should 
always assume that you and your staff will spend a substantial 
amount of time on the phone. 

A month after the first invitations have been extended, 
you should have a good sense of how successful you've been in 
attracting participants. Based on the early results you should 
decide at this junction whether or not to extend additional 
invitations to individuals from communities on your fall-back 
list. When in doubt we suggest you send out the second round 
of invitations making it clear to invitees that acceptances are 
made on a first come first served basis. This approach will 
better insure that you will attract the desired number of par- 
ticipants at the Institute and if in fact you discover that 
you're liable to be over registered, you'll have a legitimate 
excuse for turning the late registrants down. 

4. Resource People 

a. Selection 

The selection of appropriate resource people to play a 
role during the various Institute sessions is another task where 
Steering Committee members can be most helpful. If you glance 
at the model program, you'll note that the program calls for 
a large number of resource people. Although it may seem tempting 
to use many of the same people in several slots on the program, 
we would caution against "over-using" any particular resource 
person. First, it's not fair to the individuals—even though 
they initially consent to sit on three separate panels, they 
may find themselves exhausted and resentful once the Institute 
is underway. Second, it's not fair to the audience — most 
individuals will represent a fairly narrow perspective and it 
gets boring to hear it repeated for the third time. 



-36- 



Use your first Steering Committee meeting as an opportunity ( 
to get members' suggestions for possible resource people. Some 
of the key resource people such as speakers and workshop leaders 
you should be able to identify at least three to four months 
prior to the Institute. Prominent individuals have busy schedules 
which fill up quickly. Therefore you should try to tie these 
individuals down as early as possible. Don't overlook your 
Steering Committee members. Most of them could serve as resource 
people in a number of slots. 

You will probably also want to select some of your resource 
people, particularly panel members representing local perspec- 
tives, from the list of registered participants. So you may 
decide to wait a bit longer to fill some of these slots. However, 
you should try to have your list of resource people fairly well 
set at least three months prior to the Institute, recognizing 
there will inevitably be last minute changes. 

The criteria to use when selecting resource people will 
vary somewhat depending on the role you want them to play. A 
brief discussion of these is included here. (Refer to page 48 
for a more detailed discussion of the various types of 
sessions and resource people required.) 

Speakers . Look for individuals who are not only well 
respected in their field but more importantly known to be 4 

good public speakers - individuals capable of speaking "English" 
to a lay audience. A fancy title or impressive reputation is 
not enough to keep participants interested. You also want 
someone who's willing to limit themself to the specific time 
and topic scheduled for that period. 

Panel or Roundtable Members . These individuals will be 
expected to represent one of a range of perspectives on a 
particular topic. Therefore, they should be individuals familiar 
with the topic and capable of succinctly and spontaneously 
representing their perspective. 

Moderators . A good moderator is essential to the success 
of a panel discussion. These individuals should be very familiar 
with the topic of the panel and cognizant of the key questions 
which the panel should address. They should be individuals 
capable of maintaining a low profile (you don't want your moderator 
giving a speech) but also assertive enough to cut off a long 
winded panel member or to redirect discussion when it has gone 
off track. When the panel is structured as a roundtable 
discussion, it is particularly important that the moderator 
be substantively knowedgeable . The success of the roundtable 
format depends upon the ability of the moderator to pose the 
right questions at the right time. 

i 



-37- 



Workshop Leaders . The success of any small group session 
(workshop) depends almost entirely on the workshop leader. 
This individual is the one responsible for introducing and 
closing the session, keeping track of time, encouraging full 
participation of all group members, and ensuring that major 
goals of the discussion are accomplished. (These responsibilities 
are described in more detail on page 35.) Individuals serving 
as workshop leaders should have considerable experience working 
with small groups and preferably be knowledgeable about the 
topic of discussion. 

As you'll note in reviewing the model program, some 
of the workshops call for a mini-lecture or presentation by 
a knowledgeable resource person followed by a group discussion. 
If at all possible, we recommend that the designated workshop 
discussion leader for these sessions be someone other than the 
resource person. This will make it easier to keep the pre- 
sentation brief and the discussion on target. 

However, if you run short of qualified discussion leaders 
or otherwise decide to assign the resource person as discussion 
leader for these sessions, we urge you to brief them thoroughly 
on the purpose of the session and their role and responsibilities 
as discussion leader. 

b. Invitations 

As was mentioned earlier, the majority of resource people 
should be invited as early as possible to ensure that they reserve 
your dates on their calender. The initial invitation letter 
which should be as personalized as possible, should describe the 
general goals of the Institute, when and where it will be held, 
who will be invited, what the program will cover and what role 
specifically you want them to play. Let them know that a more 
detailed briefing package will be sent to them later should they 
accept the invitation. (A sample invitation letter is included 
in Appendix A. ) Along with the initial letter, you should send a 
brief summary of the program and a more detailed fact sheet on 
the Institute. Also include all the registration materials 
sent to participants. Early on you should request they send 
you a biographical sketch and an indication of what kinds of 
audio-visual equipment they may need. 

c. Briefing 

At least a month in advance of the Institute, you should 
send all resource people a Briefing Package which describes 
their role in more detail. In this memo you should include 
information on: (1) the format of their session, (2) the specific 
goals and objectives of their session, (3) how their session 
is intended to fit into the overall program, (4) what kind of 
audience (size, composition, level of sophistication) they 



-38- 



will be working with, (5) major questions to be addressed, (6) 
other resource people serving in the same capacity; and (7) any 
other information you think is relevant. Samples of briefing 
memos are included as guidance in Appendix A. 

A most important part of briefing speakers will take place 
in person just prior to the Training Institute. You should 
plan on scheduling a 1/2 day meeting with major resource people 
immediately preceeding the Institute. (You may wish to schedule 
breakfast or luncheon briefings during the Institute with 
persons playing relatively minor roles in the Institute.) The 
half day meeting should begin with a complete description of 
the goals and the objectives of the Institute and the manner 
in which different parts of the program fit together to accomplish 
these objectives. 

Depending upon your available staff resources you will then 
wish to break into several separate groupings, each of which will 
focus on a specific part of the program. For example: 

• The participants in the opening roundtable discussion 
should be given an opportunity to see the film, and 
develop a strategy to bring out major points for 
discussion (see Lesson Plan No. 2). 

• Facilitators of specific small group sessions should 
explore ways to help those sessions accomplish required 
goals. You should plan to discuss with these workshop 
leaders : 

1) The specific goals and objectives of their session; 

2) The materials you want them to use (maps, 
case studies, etc.); 

3) Specific procedures you want them to follow (use 
of exercises, slides, brainstorming); and 

4) Products you expect from the workshop. 

The detailed lesson plans, which follow this section of 
the manual, provide guidance on how to conduct each session, as 
well as points you should make in briefing resource people. 
You might even consider staging a trial run of some of the 
informal sessions in order to give workshop leaders a clear 
idea of how you want them to conduct the session and what you 
want them to accomplish. 

d . Funding 

You should be prepared to pay for the room, board and 
travel expenses of those resource people who indicate they'll 
need financial assistance. Given the large number of resource 







s 



i 



-39- 



people required by this program, your speakers' expenses could 
be very high. To stretch your travel budget as far as possible, 
try to select resource people from within the region. 
Keep in mind that most Federal and state officials have travel 
budgets that can cover at least some portion of their expenses. 
Encourage them to use their resources, pointing out the limited 
nature of your scholarship funds. However, if a key state 
official is truly unable to attend without financial assistance 
(e.g., no out of state travel funds), you may decide he's/she's 
important enough to fund. 

Only in extremely rare situations should you agree to 
pay resource people an honorarium. These additional costs 
could quickly strain your budget and in most instances you 
should be able to find another qualified individual who is 
willing to participate without receiving any fees. 

5 . Pre-Conf erence Mailing 

A pre-conf erence mailing should always go to registered 
participants 10-14 days before the scheduled meeting. This 
mailing first serves to confirm to the participant that their 
registration has been received and that they are expected at the 
conference. Included in this mailing should be: 

1. An updated — or final — conference program providing 
full information on speakers and exact time and 
location (designated room) for each program 
session. On the conference program, be sure names 
and titles of speakers, moderators, etc. are spelled 
correctly. When in doubt, make a call or check 
correspondence. Where several people are listed 
together (panelists, etc.), list them in the order 
of their presentations, if possible. If that isn't 
settled when the program is printed, list in alpha- 
betical, rather than arbitrary, order. 

2. An alphabetical list of participants registered 
(include speakers, moderators, etc.) as of a certain 
date. Unless circumstances dictate otherwise, it's 
safest to use no titles (Mr., Dr., or Ms.) on lists 
--just full names with correct, official titles on 
the next line. If you do use titles, be sure you 
call all Dr.'s "Dr.," and use either Miss and Mrs. 
or Ms., not Ms. and Mrs. 

3. Biographical summaries of conference speakers, 
moderators, etc. (or of all participants, if it's 
a small working group) in alphabetical order. 



-40- 



4. An information sheet, describing how telephone calls 
will be handled and providing the conference phone 
number and address; relevant information on trans- 
portation options to the conference site and parking 
availability and cost (include a map of routes to 
the site or to parking places, and/or a floor plan 

of the conference site, if that seems useful). Mention 
appropriate dress, particularly if the site isn't a 
standard hotel or office building. 

5. Substantive background materials — including The 
Community Action Guide Summary (Appendix I), accompany- 
ing study questions and any other relevant information. 

6 . Training Materials 

The Conservation Foundation has prepared a series of 
training materials to be used in conjunction with the Training 
Institute. These materials include: 

• Resource Manual entitled " Flood Hazard Management 
and Natural Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide" ; 

• Summary of the manual entitled " Flood Hazard Management 
and Natural Resource Protection: Community Action Guide 
Summary" (Appendix I); 

• Model Student Manual; (Appendix G, H) 

• Mapping Exercise for small group sessions entitled 
The Nature of Flooding and the Special Role of 
Ecological Resource in Flood Hazard Mitigation, 
Lesson Plan No. 5 (Appendix B); 

• Slide presentation entitled "Flood Hazard Management: 
Three Stories," (Script, Appendix C); and 

• Simulation/game entitled "Planning for Acts of God 
and Nature" (PAGAN) (Appendix E). 

We describe each of these elements in detail in this 
section to give you a good sense of how they might fit into the 
overall Training Program you ultimately design. 

a. Resource Manual . This approximately 300 page document 
addresses in detail the major issue relating to community 
flood hazard management and natural resource protection. 
Topics addressed include the nature of flooding and flood 
hazard management, Federal role in flood hazard management 
highlighting the NFIP and the floodplains Executive order, the 



-41- 



role of natural resources in mitigating flood damages, community 
strategies on managing flood hazards, legal and institutional 
considerations of flood hazard management and public participa- 
tion in community flood hazard management programs. 

The manual is intended as a comprehensive guide useful 
to community leaders (not the general public) interested in 
designing or refining their community's flood hazard management 
program. The resource manual is generally handed out at the 
Institute to be used by participants upon returning to their 
communities. The manual is carefully subtitled and indexed 
so that the reader can locate subjects of interest easily. 
We suggest that you, as the Institute coordinator, read this 
manual thoroughly. At various points during the training 
program you should be prepared to point out sections of the 
manual that provide additional information. The manual is 
available from your FEMA Regional Office. 

b. "Community Action Guide Summary" . This shorter piece 
(approximately 7 5 pages) is a summary of the information presented 
in the Resource Manual. It is intended to be used by partici- 
pants as background reading material in preparation for the 
Training Institute or by other individuals desiring a quick 
overview of the major issues. We hope that if the participants 
read this material carefully, we may better ensure that our 
diverse audience begins the program with a common level of 
knowledge. This booklet is generally mailed to participants 

two to three weeks prior to the Institute along with a staff 
list of study questions. Participants should be encouraged to 
read the materials and to know the answers to the study questions 
before arriving at the Institute. 

A copy of the "Community Action Guide Summary" is included 
in Appendix I. 

c. Model Student Manual . This manual is used as the 
Institute workbook and is essentially an annotated version of 
the Training Program intended to be the participant's primary 
working guide throughout the Institute. It includes background 
information on the Institute sponsors, a summary of the program, 
a detailed version of the program (color coded by day), review 
questions with space for notes following each session, exercises, 
case study materials, relevant charts, and a glossary. (See 

Appe nd i x G , H ) 

Because it is only a model, you will want to modify the 
workbook to reflect your particular program as well as include 
additional information you feel would be useful for participants. 
For example, you might want to include a bibliography of key 
resources, list of agency contacts, biographies of speakers, etc. 



-42- 



It is your responsibility to reproduce the workbook. You 
should wait as long as possible before doing so in order for the 
workbook to reflect last minute program changes. However, 
don't wait too long — the workbook is a vital element in the 
Training Program. 

d. Mapping Exercise Materials . Two sets of maps and 
related workshop materials (one for the Coastal Institute and 
one for the Riverine Institute) have been developed for the 
Institute sessions entitled "The Nature of Flooding in 
Coastal/Riverine Communities and the Special Role of 
Coastal/Riverine Ecological Resources in Flood Hazard Mitiga- 
tion." Each set of materials includes: (1) actual USGS quad 
sheets from a specific geographic area, (2) mylar overlays 
depicting soils, current land use, current zoning, flood hazard 
and wetlands information; and (3) workshop handouts which 
provide participants with detailed information about the maps 
and how to use them. Copies of these materials are included 

in Appendix B of this manual. Additional copies are available 
from FEMA, Division of Training and Education. 

e. Slide Presentation . "Flood Hazard Management: Three 
Stories" Is 17 minute slide tape presentation which focuses on 
three communities (Montgomery County, Texas; Baltimore County, 
Maryland; and Sanibel Island, Florida) exploring their individual 
solutions to community flooding problems. Although presenting 

a great deal of factual information, the presentation also 
functions as an inspirational piece illustrating what can be 
done when a community is truly committed to resolving problems. 

In the model program, the slide presentation is scheduled 
to be shown on Day Two at 8:30 in the morning. We suggest you 
review the slide presentation early in the Institute planning 
process. Copies are available from your FEMA Regional office. ' 
(Refer to Lesson Plan #6 for detailed discussion of slide show 
equipment needs, etc.; the script is included in Appendix C.) 

f . Simulation/Game . Planning for Acts of God and Nature, 
PAGAN, is a 3 hour simulation exercise designed to model a 
community flood hazard decision-making process. It comes in 
both a coastal version and a riverine version and can accommodate 
anywhere from 6 to 150 players. Participants are assigned to 
various roles and then asked to make decisions concerning the 
desired level of flood protection in their particular community. 
Community descriptions and role descriptions are provided as 
part of the game. (See Appendix E) 

The simulation exercise is suggested as an optional 
element which you might include if you decide to expand the 
program. Or you might want to use it during a. one day follow-up 
session to the Training Institute. It works best with partici- 
pants who have a solid background in community flood hazard 



-4 3- 



management, so we advise that you not use it in the 2-1/2 day 
version of the program unless you have a fairly sophisticated 
audience. 

7. Pre-Institute Checklist 

There are certain items which you should be sure are in 
order before the Institute gets underway. Be sure to check 
the Lesson Plans for each session carefully to determine 
exactly what kinds of audio-visual equipment and other materials 
you'll need. Following is a partial check list which you 
should review and possibly add to when making last minute 
preparations. 

• Movie--you may need to reserve in advance. Be clear 
on who's responsible for bringing it to the Institute. 

• Movie projector--can the conference facility provide 
one or should you rent one? If the facility is 
providing one, check to be sure it's available and in 
good working order as soon as you arrive. 

• Movie screen. 

• Slide projector with tape unit. Can the facility 
provide it or should you rent one? 

• Slide presentation and audio sound tape--be sure to 
order it from FEMA well in advance. 

• Additional slide projectors, overheads, easels, etc. 
for workshop leaders — check with each resource person 
at least a month in advance to determine what 
specific audio-visual equipment they'll need. 

• Extension cords — again does the facility provide 
them or shall you bring a few extras? 

• Newsprint (enough for all the workshops) . 

• Magic markers (dark colors), tape, push pins. 

• Name tags with participants' names and affiliations. 

• Extra name tags. 

• Typewriter. 

• Extra copies of Pre-Institute reading materials. 

• Evaluation questionnaires. 

• Maps or other materials to be used in workshops. 



-44- 

• Workbooks . 

• Resource Manuals. 

• Information materials on your organization. 

• Signs listing titles of workshop sessions to 
post at the entrance to the rooms. 

• Signs for speakers/panel members. 

8 . Registration 

You should arrive several hours in advance and make certain 
all materials and equipment sent to the facility have arrived. 
This final check of the facility is important. Conference 
facilities have been known to switch rooms at the last minute; 
or to schedule a rock concert in the room next to yours! (Believe 
us--it's happened!) Pre-check all of the rooms. Make certain 
they are set up several hours before you need them. And make 
certain you won't be dealing with unacceptable competition for 
participant attention. 

The Registration desk should be set up at least two hours 
before registration is scheduled to begin. Be sure the space 
is adequate to accommodate wastebaskets, typewriters, registration 
materials, training manuals, promotional literature, etc. 

• At the registration desk, keep a list or index file 
of all pre-registered participants, noting whether 
or not they've already paid and if they've received 
any scholarship award. Be prepared to collect some 
registration fees at the door and have appropriate 
receipt forms if necessary. 

• We suggest that you hand out meal tickets or devise 
some other "fool-proof" method of keeping accurate 
count of how many meals are eaten at the Institute. 
This is one place where costs could get out of hand 
--since spouses, extra Federal or state agency people, 
etc., may not think to register at the beginning. 

9 . Institute Evaluation 

An important element of conducting training programs which 
is too often overlooked is that of evaluation. Not only is it 
nice to get some direct positive feedback on what a great job 
you did, but it's also good to get some constructive criticism. 
After all, if you intend to stay in the business of conducting 
training programs, you'll want to know what techniques work 
best and which ones are less effective. 



-4 5- 



Included in Appendix F is a sample Evaluation Form 
which shouldn't take the participant more than 10 minutes to 
complete. Many of the questions are simple check offs which 
are quick and also easy for you to tabulate. The evaluation 
also includes a series of open-ended questions which allow 
the participant to be more thorough in his/her comments. 

We suggest that you set aside a definite time (1/2 hour) 
at the end of the Institute to allow participants to fill the 
forms out before they go home. This is the best way to ensure 
an adequate return. Some participants, however, may prefer to 
spend more time with their evaluation or have a night to "sleep 
on it" before writing their comments. Therefore, you should 
provide stamped self-addressed envelopes so these people can 
send their evaluations to you after the Institute. 

During the final sesion you should also provide participants 
with an opportunity to give verbal feedback on the Institute-- 
what he/she learned, what improvements could have been made, etc. 
This step increases participants' sense of "ownership" of the 
program and may also provide you with some immediate and well- 
deserved praise. 

10. Post-Institute Follow-Up 

Following the Institute there are a number of additional 
small tasks you'll want to complete before considering your 
job to be over. 

First, you should send thank you notes to all those 
various resource people and steering committee members who 
contributed to the Institute. These letters can be brief but 
should express your appreciation for the considerable time and 
energy they've invested in making the Institute a success. 

Next, you should tabulate the results of the evaluation. 
The results will not only be of interest to you but many of the 
participants as well. Finally, you may also want to send a post- 
Institute mailing to all registered participants providing them 
with brief wrap up of the Institute. This mailing might include: 

• Updated list of all registered participants; 

• One to two page summary of the evaluation results; and 

• Summary of the follow-up plans developed at the Institute. 



-46- 



C. TIPS ON CONDUCTING THE INSTITUTE 

In addition to the myriad of organizational and 
programmatic details associated with planning this type of 
training institute, we feel it's important to note some key 
aspects of actually conducting the Institute. These include: 
1) role of the Institute Director; 2) function and format 
of various Institute sessions (plenary sessions, small group 
discussions) including the special roles and concerns of moder- 
ators and workshop leaders during Institute sessions and optimal 
room arrangements for various types of sessions. 

1 . Role of the Institute Director 

As we mentioned earlier in our discussion of staff and 
staff functions, you or someone from your staff will have to 
take responsibility for actually running the Institute. This 
person, who will essentially play the role of master of cere- 
monies throughout the Institute, should be someone who: 
1) thoroughly understands the program; 2) is comfortable and 
effective working with large groups; 3) is willing and able to 
keep the program moving on a tight time schedule; and 4) is 
capable of making a creative last minute adjustment to the 
program if called for. 

Although the Institute Director may be someone other than 
the Institute Coordinator, he/she will frequently be the same 
person. The Institute Director may have additional responsi- 
bilities for briefing speakers and group leaders before the 
Institute. In briefing speakers the Institute Director will 
want to keep the following objectives in mind: 

• Each speaker, moderator, or small group leader 
must thoroughly understand the objectives of the 
Institute and the manner in which his or her part 
of the Institute helps meet that objective. 

• Each speaker, moderator, or small group leader 
must thoroughly understand the objective of his 

or her part of the program, including any products 
expected as a result of the discussion. 

• Each speaker, moderator, or small group leader 
must thoroughly understand the format, structure 
and time allowance for his/her part of the program. 

2 . Function of Various Institute Sessions 

In the next section, entitled "Lesson Plans", you will 
find a detailed discussion of each Institute session with its 
specific objectives, format, scope and requirements carefully 
outlined. However, before getting to that level of detail, 



-47- 



it's important that you first understand the overall organiza- 
tion of the Institute program as we've designed it and the 
function of various types of sessions in the overall design. 

The structure of the Institute program proceeds in a 
logical progression. If you analyze the program, you observe 
that the flow of issues addressed is as follows: 

Flooding 
Problem 



I 



Goals for Resolution 
Natural Resource Solutions 



i 



The Federal and State 
Framework for Problem Solving 



i 



Alternative Local Strategies for Problem Solving 
The Role of the Public 
Community Decision Making: Tradeoffs 



The individual components of the program have been 
designed with the fundamental assumption that people learn 
more when actively participating in their learning than 
when passively absorbing information. We have, therefore: 

• Incorporated as few speeches as possible into 
the program design; 

• Kept speeches short; 

• Provided opportunities — even in plenary sessions — 
for active discussion of issues; 

• Provided a number of small group opportunities for 
participants to reinforce their learning by putting it 
to use. 



-48- 



a. Plenary Sessions 

Speeches : As you'll note, we've included very few speeches in 
the model program. We feel that except in rare instances, 
speeches tend to be boring and are, therefore, a relatively 
ineffective teaching mechanism. In those sessions of the 
model program where speeches are called for, we recommend that 
they be limited to 20 minutes. Any longer than this and you'll 
risk losing most of your audience to day dreams. 

It has been our experience that most speech subjects 
that are manageable in scope can be boiled down to a succinct 
time period. Requiring speakers to stick to a 20 minute time 
period will require them to think through ahead of time what 
the most important points are. The most interesting and useful 
information usually comes out in the question and answer period 
following the speech. 

As was mentioned earlier, in selecting a speaker, you 
should look for someone who not only has the substantive know- 
ledge but can convey the key points you want him/her to make 
in an organized and interesting delivery. 

When a particular speaker is recommended to you, you will 
want to question several people who have heard that person 
address large audiences. You will want to know: 

• Does the recommended speaker leave technical jargon 
aside? 

• Does the recommended speaker know how to distill 
major points from a complex subject and present 
them succinctly? 

• Will this potential speaker stick to a 20 minute 
time limit? 

• Is the speaker entertaining and lively? 

Roundtable Discussion : A second format we've used in plenary 
sessions (sometimes in combination with a speech) is the round- 
table discussion. The roundtable, like most panel presenta- 
tions, is designed to explore a diverse range of perspectives 
on a particular topic. However, we believe the roundtable can 
be a far more effective means than traditional panel presenta- 
tions to achieve this end. 



-49- 



Panel presentations, most of which involve four to five 
individuals each delivering a 10-15 minute speech, can be 
terribly boring. Interesting or important differences in 
perspectives between members of the panel are often lost 
during the transition from one presentation to the next. 

In contrast, the roundtable sessions used in this insti- 
tute are designed to involve panel members in a discussion 
with each other and the audience of critical questions posed 
by a moderator. When done properly, the roundtable discussion 
can produce a lively exchange of views, far more interesting 
to watch than a series of short speeches. 

At least two weeks in advance, members of the roundtable 
should receive a list of the general questions to be addresed 
during their session. They should be discouraged from 
drafting any prepared responses to these questions, however, 
since the moderator will be modifying the questions in order 
to elicit more specific answers. 

One of the functions of the roundtable format we suggest 
for this Institute is to involve the audience in asking the 
questions most relevant to them on the topics addressed. 
We normally suggest a format for the roundtable that involves: 

• A brief speech or film that lays out the issues to 
be addressed by the roundtable; 

• The speaker takes no questions, but sits with the 
panel who, along with the speaker* respond to modera- 
tor and audience questions; 

• The moderator then proceeds to address several 
questions to different members of the panel (including 
the speaker, where appropriate); 

• The moderator then opens for questions from the 
audience; 

• The moderator then interrupts audience questions and 
answers, where appropriate, to follow up with questions 
that will develop better understanding of the subject. 

A key to the success of the roundtable is the moderator. 
It's essential that this person be substantively grounded on 
the issues being discussed to ensure that major points are 
addressed. In a way, the moderator can be viewed as an 
investigative reporter whose job it is to get to the bottom 
of a problem by addressing more and more specific questions 
to the interviewees (panel members). 



-50- 



The moderator should have a clear understanding of what's 
to be accomplished by the roundtable and must walk a fine line 
between letting the audience take over the direction of 
discussion and being certain the session accomplishes its 
objectives. The moderator must not be afraid to: 

• Take control of the session by cutting off lengthy 
discussions ; 

• Defer irrelevant issues; 

• Request that members of the audience ask questions, 
not make speeches. 

However, the moderator should also recognize that many 
of the more interesting issues are brought out during audience 
questions and answers, and that audience control of the 
program means audience involvement and learning. 

We strongly advise that all participants in the round- 
table discussions be briefed at least two weeks in advance on 
the purpose and format of the session. Before the Institute 
begins, the moderator should bring his/her group together to 
review his proposed strategy, to decide which questions to 
ask, who to call on first, etc. The combination of adequate 
advance preparation and a skilled moderator should be suffi- 
cient to ensure the success of the roundtable. 

Reactor Panels : Looking over the program, you'll note we've 
scheduled a "reactor panel" for one session involving a film. 
Essentially a modified version of a roundtable, the purpose of 
this panel is to solicit reactions from a range of interest 
group representatives to the major points made in the film. 
Immediately following the film, the moderator will begin dis- 
cussion by summarizing what he/she believes are the major 
issues raised in the film. Then he/she will pose key questions 
to members of the panel, soliciting their views. Questions 
from the audience will also be encouraged. 

Again, the moderator should be someone with considerable 
substantive knowledge about flood hazard management and capable 
of asking appropriate probing questions. Prior to the session, 
the moderator and panel members should view the film. The 
moderator should then discuss with members of the panel the 
key issues raised in the film and how these should be addressed. 



-51- 



Room Arrangements 

The set-up of the room in a plenary session is an impor- 
tant detail which you should not overlook. Factors such as 
how the chairs are arranged, where the speakers' podium and 
panel member chairs are located, and where the microphones are 
placed can all contribute to the success or failure of a plenary 
session. 

• Your objective in arranging seating should be to bring 
the audience as close to the presenters as possible, 
enhancing their physical involvement in the discussions. 

• If possible, chairs should be arranged in a wide 
semi-circle in front of the speakers platform allowing 
sufficient aisles for easy access (see diagram I). 

Diagram I 




Desirable Room Arrangement Less Desirable Room Arrangement 



For any lengthy plenary sessions, you should consider 
seating participants at tables to provide them with a 
place to write and to rest their elbows. Most con- 
ference facilities should have narrow tables which 
serve this purpose well. However, if your only choice 
is wide tables which would require significant space 
and spread participants too far back in the room, 
you might decide not to use tables at all. 



• We recommend that the chairs be unattached to the 
floor to allow greatest flexibility. 

• The speakers' platform and panel members' chairs 
should be set on the same level as that of the 
audience. This arrangement creates a sense of 
intimacy and/or equality between the presenters 

and the audience rather than the sense of separation 
or superiority accomplished by an elevated speakers 
platform. 

• If possible, chairs for members of panels and round- 
tables should be arranged so that the individuals 
can see each other, enhancing their communication. 



-52- 



• If the audience is large, microphones should be 
located at convenient locations in the room to 
enable participants to ask questions which everyone 
can hear. 

Note ; You should advise all respondents to repeat 
the audience questions before answering them. 

b. Small Group Discussions 

A large portion of the training program is devoted to 
small group discussions which we feel are the most effective 
learning environments. The major purpose of all these dis- 
cussion groups is the mastering of a particular subject. 
As we'll point out, however, the specific objectives of the 
various discussion groups differ significantly and it's 
important to understand these differences in order to brief 
resource people and discussion leaders. 

Training Workshops ; Training workshops are those designed to 
enable participants to develop or refine specific skills. 
They involve a very specific format (definite tasks to be 
accomplished), considerable period of time (2 hours), and 
require the use of specific tools prepared in advance. There 
are two such training workshops included in the model program: 
"The Nature of Flooding in Coastal Communities and the Special 
Role of Coastal/Riverine Ecological Resources in Flood Hazard 
Mitigation" (Lesson Plan No. 5), and "Designing a Flood Hazard 
Management Program in Coastal/Riverine Communities" (Lesson 
Plan No. 15) . 

A great deal of material needs to be covered in each of 
these workshops, so it's essential that the workshop leaders 
be well briefed on how to conduct their sessions. We suggest 
that workshop leaders and major resource people for these 
sessions be put through an actual training session using the 
workshop tools. 

Detailed discussion of the format and procedures of these 
sessions can be found in the Lesson Plans section of this 
manual. General guidance for all small group discussion leaders 
is included later in this section. 

Information Workshops : The purpose of these sessions is to 
provide participants with additional information on a particular 
subject. The format thus involves a brief presentation (15-20 
minutes) by an expert on the topic followed by questions from 
the audience. 



-53- 



Workshops falling into this category include: 

• Flood Hazard Management: Issues and Programs (Lesson 
Plan No. 10) 

• Local Strategies for Flood Hazard Mitigation: Case 
Examples (Lesson Plan No. 11) 

• Issues in Public Participation (Lesson Plan No. 14) 

Although the general topic will be determined in advance, 
the specific direction of the discussion will depend on the 
interest and concerns of both the presenter and the participants. 
We suggest that the discussion leader (who may or may not be 
the resource person) go around the room asking participants 
to state their background on the issue and state what they'd 
like to cover in the workshop. Based on these comments, the 
presenter can then decide how to tailor his remarks to best 
suit the needs of the audience. 

Working Groups : A third type of small group discussion involves 
participants from a common geographic area (state, watershed, 
community). These groups, which we refer to as "working groups", 
meet several times during the course of the Institute providing 
continuity and a clear focal point for the Institute. The 
purpose of these sessions is to enable participants sharing 
common geographic conditions to discuss issues of common concern 
and, more importantly, to develop specific follow-up activities 
to address these issues. These are action oriented sessions 
with a specific end-product expected. 

The role of the facilitator in these small group discus- 
sions will be to review the objectives of the session and to 
involve all the group members in the subsequent discussion. The 
facilitator will not be expected to make any formal presentation 
although he/she may offer the group the benefits of his/her 
expertise or experience when appropriate. 

The individual selected to head these small group dis- 
cussions should be someone very familiar both with the 
geographic area and the substantive issues of concern. If 
these groups are organized according to state, you might 
consider appointing two co-leaders - the state Flood Insurance 
coordinator and a statewide citizen leader. For a smaller 
geographic region, you might consider appointing a staff 
member of the appropriate basin or watershed commission or 
an informed local official. 

Again, it is important that these facilitators be briefed 
well in advance on their role and responsibilities as group 
discussion leader. 



-54- 



Basic Procedures for Discussion Groups. 

Regardless of the specific objectives of a discussion 
session, there are a number of general procedural steps which 
all discussion groups must follow to ensure that the discussion 
moves smoothly. These include: 

1. Define terms and concepts . Before beginning any 
discussion, it is essential to define new terms so 
that all participants understand their meaning. The 
discussion leader should keep a list of these terms on 
newsprint in the front of the room and add to it 
throughout the session as appropriate. 

2 . Establish discussion goals; Identify major themes. 
The purpose of this step is to give participants a 
sense of the overall discussion and the desired out- 
comes. The discussion leader should review the session 
goals, allow participants to modify these goals, and 
then get a general group consensus about the nature 

of the discussion to take place. 

3. Allocate time . Within the time allotted as to the 
session, the group should assign priorities for how 
the time is allocated. If a speech is scheduled, how 
long should it be? If questions are to be considered, 
which ones are most important to discuss first? Too 
often a discussion group will spend so much time on 
minor topics that major topics are not adequately 
addressed. The discussion leader should adhere to 
this time allocation as closely as possible or he/she 
might choose to appoint an independent "time keeper" 
to keep the group on schedule. 

4. Discuss major themes and subtopics . Within the 

time allocations agreed to by the group, members will 
participate in a discussion of key issues. Controversy 
should be encouraged to increase the involvement, 
excitement, and fun of group members. 

5. Integrate materials . An important step in any dis- 
cussion group is to provide a context for the material 
being discussed. For example, how does the material 
covered in one session relate to topics discussed 
earlier or to be discussed in subsequent sessions? 
The discussion leader has an important role here in 
summarizing major themes and pointing out how they 
substantiate, amplify, or possibly contradict pre- 
viously made points. 



* 



% 



-55- 



6. Apply the materials . Group members should be 
clear on how the materials covered on the workshops 
relate to their own personal situation. The dis- 
cussion leader should ask participants to discuss 

how they might apply the specific information presented 
to their own communities. 

7. Evaluate the quality of discussion . This is a 
particularly appropriate step for the "working 
group" sessions which will meet several times through- 
out the institute. Participants should be asked 
whether or not they feel the group has achieved its 
primary goals and how subsequent discussions might 

be improved. 

Guidelines for Small Group Discussion Leaders 

The purpose of discussion groups is for people to learn 
from their discussion and interaction with one another. It's 
most important for discussion leaders to remember that their 
role is to promote discussion without controlling or dominating 
it. 

Listed below are some additional responsibilities 
which discussion leaders must assume. 

1. Introducing the discussion session . Explain to 
participants the purpose of the session, recording 
on newsprint the major goals to be accomplished. 
Go around the room asking each participant to 
identify themselves and their particular interest 

in the session. Try to remember names . Also explain 
what your function is as discussion leader and what 
process rules you'd like the group to observe through- 
out the discussion. Dispense with any unnecessary 
formalities . 

2. Serve as a task-oriented time keeper . Keep the group 
moving so it doesn't get sidetracked or bogged down. 
Cut off any long winded or irrelevant comments. Try 
to be polite, but if you have a particularly obnoxious 
individual you may have to be firm — past politeness. 

3. Ensure that learning is focused . Restate and call 
attention to major ideas of the discussion. 

4 . Create a warm supportive climate for open discussion . 
It's important that all group members feel secure about 
expressing their views without fear of being ignored, 
ridiculed, criticized, or otherwise embarrassed. 



• 



-5 6- 



You can accomplish this by: 1) helping members to 

become better acquainted; 2) listening attentively 

to what each group member is saying without evaluating 

or judging their comments; 3) ruling out preaching 

or moralizing by you or group participants; 4) encouraging 

everyone to contribute but not forcing anyone to 

contribute until they are ready. Try not to call on 

the same people all the time; 5) being enthusiastic 

about the topic of discussion; 6) encouraging 

controversy within the group so long as it relates 

to issues and not personalities. Among other things, 

controversy offers a group the opportunity to make 

creative and high-quality decisions, to build the group's 

commitment to implement the decision, and to stimulate 

interest and curiosity. 

5. Provide a sense of closure . A few minutes before 
the group's discussion is scheduled to close 
or when the topic has been exhausted, you should 
summarize the significant points made in the 
discussion. This summary should be brief but should 
not be a last minute statement made as people begin 
to leave the room. At this time, you should thank 
group members for their participation and let them 
know where and when they meet next. 

Brainstorming 

In certain of the small group discussion sessions 
included in this model program, we call for the use of a 
discussion technique know as brainstorming. Essentially, 
brainstorming is a method for generating many different 
ideas over a short period of time, getting full participation 
from all group members. It represents a period of time when 
all evaluation is suspended and ideas are allowed to develop 
freely on a particular issue. 

The steps involved in conducting a brainstorming session 
are simple: 

1. Provide all group members with a list of the rules. 
These include: 

• Ideas are suggested to the group without 
evaluation or critical analysis . 

• Any idea is acceptable - the crazier the 
better. Practical considerations are not 
the most important ones. 



4 



+ 



-57- 



*t 



• Quantity of ideas counts - not quality. A great 
number of ideas increases the likelihood of 
discovering good ones. 

• Build on ideas of other group members where 
possible . 

• Focus on a single problem or issue. 

• All group members must contribute ideas; every- 
one is an expert; all ideas are equally well 
received. 

• State your idea quickly and concisely. 

2. Get the group to agree on one specific question 
or problem as the brainstorming topic. 

Make sure all terms are clear. 

3. Write the question or problem on the newsprint. 

4. Go to it. The group leader should record every idea 
suggested. Writing as quickly as possible, the 
leader should keep track of who's participating 

and encourage silent ones to contribute their 
^i ideas. The time required for brainstorming a 

question will vary with the complexity of the topic. 
Simple questions will require no more than three to 
five minutes. More difficult ones could take more 
than 15 minutes. 

Once all ideas have been recorded, then the group leader 
can begin a discussion of the ideas presented, asking 
participants to consider the entire range of possibilities 
in developing a viable solution. 



• 



-59- 




LESSON PLANS 



%> 



■ 



14 



-61- 




LESSON PLANS 
A. COASTAL TRAINING INSTITUTE 
LESSON PLAN NO. 1 



COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting. 



Introduction 



TIME: 0.5 Hour 



OBJECTIVES 



1. Welcome participants, officials and guests. 

2. Review goals of the Training Institute. 




SCOPE: Official opening of the workshop by welcoming 
participants, officials and guests; a general 
description of the workshop purpose, objectives, 
scope and subject areas; welcoming remarks of 
dignataries; introduction of group coordinators 
and/or staff instructors, assignment of participants 
to groups; orientation to sequence of workshop 
sessions, time schedules, and facilities (notation 
of agenda changes, if necessary) administrative 
announcements . 



FORMAT: 



Plenary session. Speech by Institute Director. 



REFERENCES: 1. 



2. 



Instructor: 

a. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 1 

b. Coastal Student Manual 

Participant 

a. Coastal Student Manual 



REQUIREMENTS: 



Large room set up for plenary session, podium 
up front for speaker. 



REMARKS 



• 



1. This is intended as a brief session providing 
the Director with an opportunity to formally 
open the training institute, welcome participants 
and introduce officials and invited guests. 



-62- 



The Introduction is also the best time to 
cover any administrative details such as 
room assignments, reimbursement procedures, 
locations of various sessions, etc. Until 
questions regarding these issues are resolved, 
participants will not be prepared to concen- 
trate on substantative matters. 

By the close of the Institute, participants 
are expected to have developed plans for 
the specific activities they will undertake 
when they return home to begin a community 
dialogue on a flood hazard mitigation and 
natural resource protection program. During 
the last session of the program, the small 
groups will report on their planned follow- 
up activities. During the welcoming remarks 
it is extremely important that the Director 
of the Institute lay out for participants: 

— the goals of the Institute; 

— what they are expected to have accomplished 
before leaving the Institute; 

— the nature of the small group reports to 
be presented on day three; and 

— the manner in which the Institute has 
been constructed to help participants 
achieve the stated goals. 

The Institute Director will want to examine 
Lesson Plans 2, 13, and 17 to be certain 
that he/she can communicate to participants 
what's expected of them and how they will 
get there. 

It may be very helpful to introduce the 
Steering Committee members during this 
introductory session. Invite participants 
to feed suggestions regarding improvements 
in the program to these individuals or 
directly to you, the Institute Director 
Be certain to note, while inviting such 
comment, that it may not be appropriate 
to accommodate all suggested changes at 
this late date, but that some adjustments 
and modifications are possible. 



-63- 




LESSON PLAN NO. 2 



COURSE TITLE: Flood Hazard Management and Natural 

Resource Protection: The Coastal Setting 



LESSON TITLE: Introduction of Participants 



TIME: 



.75 Hour 



OBJECTIVES: 



1. To introduce community participants and 
their communities to each other. 

2. To establish the function of the "working 
group" at the conference. 



SCOPE: 



Introduction of participants to others sharing 
similar geographical area (state, substate, 
watershed). Brief discussion of participant 
community flooding problems and review of purpose 
of small group discussions. 




FORMAT: 1. Small group discussion within Plenary room. 

The director should divide participants 
into pre-designated small groups (groups 
will be divided according to some common 
denominator such as a state, substate or 
watershed area.) 

2. Small group leaders selected by the director 
in advance will review for participants the 
purpose of the small group "working" session 
recording these objectives on the newsprint. 

3. Next the group leaders will ask participants 
to introduce themselves highlighting their 
community flood hazard management concerns 
and what they hope to gain from the Training 
Institute. Group leader will record these 
concerns on newsprint for future reference. 

4. This session is intended to be brief and 
informal. Participants should have a chance 
to get to know each other and to "tell their 
stories ." 



% 



-64- 



REFERENCES: 



1. Instructors: 

a. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 2 

b. Coastal Student Manual 

2. Participants: 

a. Coastal Student Manual 



REQUIREMENTS: 



2. 



Sufficient space must be provided in 
plenary room so that participants can 
divide into small groups for discussion. 
Chairs should be unattached to the floor 
so that participants can simply pick them 
up and move them to the corner of the room 
where his/her particular group will be 
meeting. 

Easels with newsprint and magic markers 
should be provided for each small discussion 
group. 



REMARKS: 1. These small groups will be the working focus 

of the Institute. The group should be designed 
to have no more than 20 people. 

2. The small group should be designed around a 
common geo-political area. If the conference 
is a multi-state regional conference, the 
working groups might be state oriented. 

In a state wide conference the working groups 
might be organized around watersheds. 

3. The assignment of participants to smaller 
groups should be accomplished before the 
Institute. Participants will receive their 
group assignment at registration. 

4. The leaders of these small groups will be 
selected from among participants before the 
conference. They will often be steering 
committee members, and will usually come 
from the non-governmental segment of the 
audience. The key criterion for selection 
of a working group leader is that the 
individual be a good discussion leader and 
facilitator. 



• 



-6 5- 




COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE: 



PLAN NO. 3 

Flood Hazard Managment and Natural 
Resource Protection: The Coastal 
Setting . 



Flooding and Flood Hazard 
Management in Coastal Areas: 
An Overview. 



TIME 



1.5 Hours 



OBJECTIVES 



1. Develop participant understanding of inherent 
complexities of coastal flood hazard management. 

2. Give an historical perspective to coastal 
flood hazard management. 

3. Address changing directions in coastal flood 
hazard management in response to the perceived 
weaknesses of the traditional approach. 



SCOPE: 



% 



The nature 
economic s 
protecting 
from flood 
and accura 
sensitive 
historical 
management 
vs. new di 
changing . 



of coastal flood hazards; the special 
ocial, and environmental problems of 

coastal populations and properties 

damage; the difficulties of timely 
te hurricane prediction; ecologically 
areas in the coastal floodplain; an 

perspective on coastal flood hazard 
, the traditional problem solving approach 
rections; why government policies are 



FORMAT : 



m 



1. Plenary session. Film, followed by roundtable 
discussion reacting to issues raised by film. 

2. Resource people: Moderator, plus three 
discussants from different perspectives, 
e.g. , 

a) local government; 

b) environmentalist; 

c) disaster relief specialist; 

d) hurricane weather specialist. 

3. Skilled moderator will lead the discussion 
by posing a series of questions to panel 
members . 



-66- 



REFERENCES: 1. 



Instructor: 

a. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 3 

b. Coastal Student Manual. 

c. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection; Community Action 
Guide" , FEMA, Chapter I. 

Participant: 

a. Coastal Institute Student Manual. 

b. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide", FEMA, Chapter I. 



• 



REQUIREMENTS: 



1. Large room should be set up for plenary 
session. 



3. 



4. 



The session will start with a dramatic 
film depicting coastal storms and the 
damage they can do. The film suggested 
in this model program is one on coastal 
hurricanes entitled "A Lady Called Camille". 
It was produced in the 1960 's by the Army 
Corps of Engineers and is available from 
your Regional FEMA Office. 

The film should be reserved well in advance 
of the Institute. The Institute Director 
should screen the selected film in advance 
to ensure its appropriateness. 

Movie projector, screen (slide projector) 
should be reserved from conference center 
in advance. 



s 



5. Roundtable discussion will require that a 
table with a sufficient number of chairs 
and microphones be set up in front of 
the room. The table should allow discussants 
to look at each other. 



REMARKS: 1. The session is des 

to the major probl 
flood hazard manag 
and local governme 
overview and not a 
Panel members shou 
will not be expect 
remarks but rather 
questions from the 
The questions shou 
at least two weeks 



igned to expose participants 
ems and issues of coastal 
ement as they bear on state 
nts. It is intended as an 

comprehensive treatment. 
Id be informed that they 
ed to deliver any formal 

to answer specific 
ir particular perspective. 
Id be sent to panel members 

prior to the Institute. 



# 



% 



-67- 



2. Prior to this session the director should 
bring panel members together to review once 
more the objectives of the session, to pre- 
view the film, and to develop a strategy for 
eliciting responses from panel members. 

3. The director should provide panel members 
with a copy of the Resource Manual ahead 
of time and ask them to read Chapters I 
and II in preparation for their session. 

4. The director should carefully brief the 
moderator on his/her role, stressing the 
importance of keeping responses brief and to 
the point, ensuring that all members of the 
panel have a fair opportunity to express 
their views, that the audience has ample 
opportunity to ask questions and that the 
session begins and ends on time. 

5. The film selected for the model coastal 
program is most suitable for South, Mid- 
Atlantic, and Gulf Coast communities. 
Institutes involving Pacific Coast and 
North Atlantic communities may wish to search 
for another film that might be a more appro- 
priate introduction to the coastal flooding 
problems facing your audience. If you feel 
that the hurricane film described above is 
not likely to be appropriate, you should 
begin analyzing alternatives early in the 
Institute planning process. Do not plan 

to use a film that you have not personally 
screened to make certain it meets the objec- 
tives of this section of the Institute. 



QUESTIONS TO BE ADDRESSED BY PANEL: 

1. What are the special problems of protecting 
the coastal floodplain? (Dynamic nature of 
coastal floodplain, fragility of coastal 
ecosystem. ) 

2. What is the relationship of watershed and 
drainage management to coastal flooding 
problems? 

3. What kinds of difficulties are incurred 
in predicting the landfall and wind force 
of hurricanes? 



<fc, 



-68- 



4. In what manner do the special attractions 
of the beach contribute to social and 
economic difficulties in the management 
of coastal flood hazards? 

5. What are the weaknesses of traditional 
approaches to coastal flood hazard 
management? 

6. What are the changing directions in our 
current approach to coastal flood hazard 
management? 



-69- 



%1 



LESSON PLAN NO. 4 



COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting 



Establishing the Goals of 
Community Flood Hazard 
Management 



TIME: .75 Hour 



OBJECTIVES 



1. To identify various goals for community 
flood hazard management. 

2. To explore how these goals differ according 
to various interest groups. 



SCOPE: 



FORMAT : 



% 



% 



Identification and discussion of major goals for 
community flood hazard management. Categorization 
of goals according to interest group. 



1. Plenary lead by Institute- Director. 

2. At the start of the session the director 
should ask participants to take 5 minutes 
to select the 4 most important goals for 
community flood hazard management from a 
longer list of goals provided in Exercise A 
of their workbook. Then he/she should go 
around the room randomly calling upon parti- 
cipants to identify themselves, their interest 
group, and their four top goals. The director 
will record these goals on newsprint according 
to interest group. 

3. Once the director feels he has a sufficient 
number of responses listed (10-15), he will 
then lead a discussion of these goals exploring 
the different perspectives identified by the 
various interest groups and how these might 

be reconciled in developing a comprehensive 
community strategy. 

4. Following this discussion (approximately 10 
minutes) the director will ask participants 
to once again rank the four major goals and 
then ask for a show of hands for each goal 
listed to establish the priority goals for 
the group as a whole. 



-70- 



5. The list of goals ranked by the group will 
be hung on the walls of the plenary session 
room and be referred to throughout the 
remainder of the Institute. 



REFERENCES: 



Instructor: 

a. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 4 

b. Coastal Student Manual 

c . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide " FEMA, Chapter III. 

Participants : 

a. Coastal Student Manual 

b . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide" FEMA, Chapter III. 



REQUIREMENTS: 



1. Large room set up for plenary session. 

2. The director will need a large pad of 
newsprint on which to record participants 
list of goals. He will also need magic 
markers and masking tape. 



REMARKS: 1. The major goals of community flood hazard 

management to be discussed. 

a. reduce property loss; 

b. protect safety of population; 

c. reduce flood damage to public property; 

d. reduce erosion and sedimentation; 

e. preserve natural areas; 

f. minimize fiscal impacts of floods; 

g. preserve open space and recreation areas; 
h. maintain good water quality; 

i. encourage economic development; and 
j. distribute management costs fairly. 



-71- 



Exercise A 
Goals for Community Flood Hazard Management 

Of the goals listed below, which do you feel 
are the four most important to accomplish in 
developing a community flood hazard management 
program? 

Rank/Goals 

1 Minimize fiscal impact of floods. 

2 Reduce erosion and sedimentations. 

3 Reduce property loss. 

4 Preserve natural areas. 

5 Protect safety of population. 

6 Reduce flood damage to public property. 

7 Distribute management costs fairly. 

8 Preserve open space and recreation. 

9 Maintain good water quality. 

10 Encourage economic development. 



Which of the following categories of 
interest groups do you most closely 
identify with? 

1 Local officials. 

2 State officials. 

3 Floodplain resident. 

4 Local businessman (economic interests). 

5 Environmentalists. 

6 Civic group member (Red Cross, church group). 



-73- 



W: 



COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE 



LESSON PLAN NO. 5 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: The Coastal Setting 

The Nature of Flooding in Coastal 

Communities and the Special Role 

of Coastal Ecological Resources 

in Flood Hazard Mitigation TIME: 2.0 Hours 



OBJECTIVES 



1. To assist participants in identifying and 
understanding the causes of flooding and the 
nature of flood hazards in their community. 

2. To help participants understand the functioning 
of important coastal ecosystems for hazard 
mitigation purposes. 

3. To familiarize participants with various 
uses of natural resource data and maps as 
community planning and decision-making tools. 



SCOPE: 



*> 



Description of special ecological characteristics 
and hazard mitigation functions of natural coastal 
systems: beaches, oceans, estuaries, bays, and 
tidal rivers. Presentation of land use suitability 
analysis concepts. Hands on experiences utilizing 
natural resource maps as decision-making tools. 



FORMAT : 



1. Small group discussion sessions of 15-20 
people each. 

2. The session, if possible, should be directed 
by a discussion leader who is someone other 
than the resource person presenting the 
information. 

3. An appropriate resource person will give a 
15-minute "mini lecture" using whatever 
audio-visuals they choose. Their presentation 
should address (a) the nature of flooding 
problems in communities located in one of 
these three areas, and (b) the role played by 
ecological resources of these communities in 
moderating the hazard. 



w 



-74- 



4. Following the "mini lecture", the discussion 
leader will direct questions to the audience 
regarding their own community situations and 
explore with them special ecological resources 
they might consider protecting in their 
communities . 

5. After approximately 50 minutes the workshop 
leader should call for a 10-minute break 
during which he/she will spread out the map- 
ping materials on the tables. Participants 
should be encouraged to stay in the room so 
as not to lose any time. 

6. Next, the resource person will give a brief 
presentation (5-10 minutes) highlighting the 
use of land suitability as a planning tool. 

In his/her presentation the speaker will briefly 
describe the land suitability analysis process 
involving (1) the identification of environ- 
mental considerations or elements, (2) inter- 
pretation of this data on a resource by resource 
basis through the application of management 
principals to determine resource limitations, 
(3) the mapping of each resource variable on 
a common scale, and (4) the overlaying of 
variables to form an environmental composite 
or suitability map. 

7. Finally, participants will have the opportunity 
for some "hands on" experience working with 
mapping materials especially prepared for this 
session. Materials will include (a) a U.S.G.S. 
quad sheet for a typical community type in that 
region (b) several mylar overlays depicting 
flood hazards, soils, wetlands, zoning and 
current land use, (c) a clear acetate sheet 
which participants can mark on with grease 
pencils, (d) handout describing materials 

and symbols displayed on maps. 

8. The manner in which these materials are used 
in the exercise will depend on the sophistica- 
tion of the group members. Therefore, at the 
beginning of this session the speaker should 
find out from workshop participants what 
experience they've had with maps. 

If the group is relatively unfamiliar with 
land use suitability analysis, the resource 
person should start off by directing par- 
ticipants to take the U.S.G.S. quad sheet 



-75- 



)) 



and then overlay the flood hazard mylar to 
identify the 100 year flood boundaries. 
Next they might overlay the soils mylar and 
identify those areas suitable for development 
with and without septic tanks and then compare 
this information to the current zoning overlay 
noting any inconsistencies. Finally, they 
could repeat this process with the other 
mylar overlays, again noting inconsistencies 
with current land use and/or zoning. 

If the group is more sophisticated, then the 
discussion might focus on management policies 
which the community might adopt (based on 
existing data) to correct perceived problems 
or what additional data needs exist and how 
they might be resolved. 



REFERENCES: 




2. 



Instructor: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter II 

b. Coastal Student Manual 

c. Trainers' Manual, Appendix B 

Participant: 

a. Coastal Student Manual 

b. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide, FEMA, Chapter II 



REQUIREMENTS: 



V 



1. Workshops will be offered on various types 
of coastal ecosystems including beach and 
ocean, estuary and bay and tidal river. The 
exact categories of workshops offered will 
depend on the geographic characteristics of 
the communities involved in the Institute. 
For example, if none of the communities 
involved has an estuary or bay then that 
category of workshop will not be appropriate 
for the Institute. Prior to registration 
participants will sign up for one of the 
workshop topics which most closely matches 
their community's geographic/ecologic 
conditions. The optimal size for these 
workshops is 15-20 participants. Based 
on the size of the audience and the number 
of participants signing up for each workshop 
topic, there might be anywhere from 3-8 
concurrent workshops addressing these 
topics . 



-76- 



2. The Institute director should identify 
as many qualified resource people as 
necessary (3-8) to present during these 
sessions. These individuals should be 
scientists, natural resource planners 
or other individuals with a good under- 
standing of these types of ecological 
systems. The resource people might also 
serve as discussion leader for these 
groups or the Institute Director may 
want to appoint someone else as official 
discussion leader. 

3. The Institute Director should, at regis- 
tration, assign individuals to workshops 
according to their stated preference. 

4. There should be sufficient breakout rooms 
to accommodate the number of workshops 
planned. Each breakout room should con- 
tain 2 tables and sufficient chairs to 
accommodate 15-20 people. Each should 

be equipped with an easel, newsprint and 
magic markers and 2-3 copies of the mapping 
materials (U.S.G.S. base maps, natural 
resource overlays, clear acetate, and 
grease pencils) to be used in this 
session. Workshop rooms should also 
contain any audio visual equipment (slide 
projectors, overhead projectors, screens, 
etc.) requested by the workshop leaders. 

REMARKS: 1. Once again the Institute director will 

need to evaluate the mapping tools pro- 
vided with his trainer's manual to deter- 
mine whether or not the maps are appro- 
priate teaching tools for this audience. 
Keep in mind that the purpose of the 
mapping exercise is to familiarize the 
participants with the type and use of 
maps. The maps used for the exercise 
need not match exactly with the type of 
flood hazard problems reflected by com- 
munities participating in the Institute. 
On the other hand, if the types of natural 
resources are dramatically different than 
those reflected in the maps provided, the 
exercise map be more useful if revised. 



-77- 



!. The experience of participants in using 
maps to discover the manner in which 
community development patterns and flood 
hazard mitigation strategies fit together 
is an important part of this exercise. 
When the mapping exercise is utilized the 
group should organize into two smaller 
groups, each standing around a table with 
the mapping materials on it (see blue 
lines of mapping materials, appendix B). 
The interaction of the participants as 
they work together to answer questions 
for the mapping exercise (see briefing 
memorandum, Lesson Plan No. 5, Appendix 
B, ) is an important part of the learning 
experience. 

3. If the Institute Director decides that 
he needs to develop a new set of mapping 
materials around a geographic area with 
resources, opportunities, and flood 
problems more common to participating 
communities, he will wish to: 

o Select an area which has had a variety 
of natural resource maps completed 
and for which a Flood Insurance Rate 
Map has been completed. The area 
should be partly, but not fully, 
developed so that the exercise can be 
used to discuss future opportunities 
as well as current problems. 

o Select and obtain a base map (usually 
a U.S. Geological Survey quad sheet) 
of an appropriately large scale -- 
not less than 1:24,000 — containing 
both natural features and development. 

o Select natural resource maps and land 
use maps useful for analysis of the 
interactions between development 
flood hazards and natural resources. 
The maps used in the exercise described 
in this manual include: 

— Soils map; 

— Wetlands map; 



-78- 

-- Zoning map; 

— Development map; and 

-- Floodway/f lood boundary map 

developed from a Flood Insurance 
Rate Map. 

o The natural resource and land use 
maps selected to overlay the base 
map should be redrawn onto mylar 
overlays and, of course, put on 
the same scale as the base map. 

o University geography or environmental 
studies departments may be the best 
source of assistance in identifying 
possible communities to serve as 
the model for this exercise. They 
may also be able to supply a graduate 
student who can inexpensively redraw 
and rescale the map overlays. 

4. Blue line copies of the natural resource 
overlays prepared for this coastal institute 
are included in Appendix B. Reproduction 
copies of these materials can be obtained 
from the FEMA Washington Office, Division 

of Training and Education. 

5. The workshop handout materials included 
in Appendix B are designed to be part of 
the Student Manual. 



QUESTIONS TO BE CONSIDERED: 

1. What are the key coastal ecological resource types? 

2. Where do they commonly occur? (In what associations?) 

3. How sensitive are these resources to the activities 
of man? 

4. What role do each of these resources play in flood 
hazard mitigation? 

5. How can these resources be protected? What management 
policies should be applied? 

6. What is a suitable community base map? (scale and 
availability) 



# 



-79- 



7. What environmental factors or values are of particular 
importance to the community? (i.e., septic tank siting, 
hazard mitigation, etc.) What is the purpose or goal 
for the mapping project? 

8. What technique, medium or materials are most appropriate 
to use in representing this information? How much 

will it cost? 




V 



. 



-81- 




COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE 



LESSON PLAN NO. 6 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting 



Flood Hazard Management: 
Three Stories 



TIME: .25 Hour 



OBJECTIVES 



1. To create a mood of excitement regarding 
the opportunities to develop flood hazard 
management strategies to meet a variety of 
goals . 

2. To introduce some of the ways in which the 
National Flood Insurance Program provides 
assistance to local communities. 



SCOPE: 



Brief review of rationale for community flood 
hazard management. Presentation of three community 
approaches to particular flooding problems. 




FORMAT : 



Plenary session. Slide show presentation. 



REFERENCES: 1. 



b. 



c. 



Instructor: 

a. Slide Presentation, "Community Flood 

Hazard Management: Three Stories." FEMA 
Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 6, 
Appendix C. 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter III. 

Participant: 

a. Slide Presentation "Community Flood 
Hazard Management: Three Stories." FEMA 

b. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter III. 

c. Coastal Student Manual 



REQUIREMENTS: 



1. Large room should be set up for plenary 
sessions . 



I) 



-82- 



The slide show must be ordered from the 
FEMA Regional Office. It is available 
in two versions--a two-tray dissolve show 
with audio cassette and a single-tray 
version also with an audio cassette. The 
two tray dissolve show is more sophisticated 
and polished than the single tray version, 
but is also more complicated to operate. 
It requires the use of two automatic focus 
slide projectors (Kodak AF-1 or AF-2), 
a dissolve unit (Clearlite diamond or 
micro diamond) and an industrial slide 
tape player (Wollensak) . It's essential 
to have the proper equipment. The dissolve 
unit and tape player may have to be rented 
from an audio-visual equipment dealer and 
not all dealers carry the necessary equip- 
ment. Be sure the assemble the necessary 
equipment well in advance of the Institute 
and run through the slide show to ensure 
that all is in working order. The equip- 
ment dealer should be able to give instruc- 
tions on how to set up the equipment. 

The single tray version, while less 
sophisticated than the dissolve version, 
is also simpler to present. It requires 
only a standard slide projector and 
industrial slide tape player (Wollensak 
or others designed to handle lOOOhz 
inaudible pulse signals). Again, be 
sure to test the equipment prior to the 
Institute to be sure it's working properly. 



REMARKS: 1. The presentation is an inspirational piece 

designed to explore creative approaches to 
local flood hazard management. It will be 
followed immediately by small discussion sessions 
in which participants will focus on some 
of the major points made in the slide presenta- 
tion. 



-83- 




COURSE TITLE: 



LESSON TITLE: 



LESSON PLAN NO. 7 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting. 

Designing a Flood Hazard Management 

Program: Identifying Goals, 

Opportunities and Strategies TIME: 1 Hour 



OBJECTIVES 



1. To reinforce the varying opportunities for 
flood hazard management presented by the 
slideshow. 

2. To relate these opportunities to the pre- 
and post-flood stages of flood hazard 
management . 

3. To highlight the importance of local 
initiative in taking advantage of various 
state and federal assistance. 



# 



SCOPE: 



4. To relate various opportunities and strategies 
described in slide show to goals described 
in preceding days session and still taped 
to wall of plenary session room. 



Review of flood hazard management goals used 
by communities depicted in the slide show. 
Discussion of various opportunities and strategies 
available to the communities in the slide show 
during both the pre- and post-stages of flood 
hazard management. Emphasis on importance of 
local initiative. Relating goals and actions of 
communities in the slide show to goals listed 
by participants early in the Institute. 



FORMAT 



Concurrent 
plenary se 
should ask 
small disc 
The easies 
the large 
in each se 
particular 
group will 
Allow 5-10 
establish 



small group discussions within 
ssion. The Institute Director 

participants to break down into 
ussion groups of 10-20 individuals, 
t way to do this is simply to divide 
room into sections and ask individuals 
ction to take their chairs to a 

spot in the large room. Each 

be assigned a discussion leader. 

minutes for the small groups to 
themselves . 



*> 



Discussion leader should begin the session 

by asking participants to introduce themselves. 



-84- 

3. Next, the discussion leader will ask partici- 
pants to discuss a series of questions using 
prepared work sheets to record their responses. 
The questions include: (see Exercise B) 

a) What were the goals of the flood hazard 
management programs adopted by the three 
communities in the slide presentation? 
How do these goals relate to those 
identified in the earlier session? 

b) What opportunities did each of the 
communities explore in developing their 
flood hazard management programs and to 
what stage (pre-flood or post-flood) 

of flood hazard management were the programs 
directed? 

c) What specific strategies did the three 
communities adopt to implement their 
flood hazard management plan? To what 
extent were federal and state agencies 
involved? What additional assistance 
might have been employed in each situation? 



REFERENCES: 1. 



Instructor: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 



b. 



Resource Protection: Community Action 

Guide , FEMA, Chapter III 

Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 6 and 7 



2. Participant: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter III. 

b. Coastal Student Manual 



REQUIREMENTS: 



Large room should be set up for plenary 
session. Chairs should be capable of 
being easily rearranged into smaller 
discussion groups. 



REMARKS: 1. Discussion leaders should be individuals familiar 

with the subject of community flood hazard 
management. They might be planners, professors, 
or local officials with experience in developing 
a community plan, etc. 

2. Discussion leaders should view the slide show 
in advance of this session and should also be 
provided with a copy of the script and 
worksheets (with answers). 



- 



Q» 



-85- 



QUESTIONS TO BE CONSIDERED: 

1. What are the variety of goals that the communities 
in the. slide show tried to achieve? 

2. What were the obstacles that those communities 
had to overcome? How did they overcome these 
obstacles? 

3. What factors should be considered in developing a 
community flood hazard management program? 

4. What approaches best address problems of existing 
development within the flood hazard area? 

5. What approaches are best to control new development? 

6. What kinds of federal/state/local assistance are 
available to assist communities? 

7. What are the differing opportunities available 
to communities regarding their developed land 
versus their undeveloped land? What are the 
differing opportunities available before or 
between floods, or after a major flood? 



# 



*> 



-87- 




EXERCISE B 

1. What were the goals of the flood hazard management programs 
adopted by the three communities in the slide show? 



Goals 



Montgomery County 


Baltimore County 


Sanibel Island 


Reduce property 


Reduce property 


Protect lives by 


loss ; 
Minimize fiscal 


loss; 
Minimize fiscal 


preserving con- 
servation 


impacts ; 
Protect safety 
of population. 


impacts ; 
Protect safety 

of population; 
Preserve open 


capability; 
Reduce property 

loss ; 
Preserve natural 




space and 
recreation . 


areas ; 
Reduce erosion 
sedimentation . 



How do these goals relate to the general list of goals 
developed in the previous session? 




2. What opportunities did each of the communities explore in 
developing their flood hazard management programs and to 
what stage (pre-flood or post-flood) of flood hazard 
Management. Were the programs directed? 





Montgomery County 


Baltimore County 


Sanibel Island 


Oppor- 
tuni- 


Flood damaged 
homes ; 


Flood damaged 
homes ; 


Valuable natural 


ties 


Owners willing to 


Owners willing to 


resources ; 




relocate ; 
Federal agency 
assistance made 


relocate ; 
County in need of 
recreation open 


Active citizens' 
groups commit- 
ted to protect- 




available to 
relocate resi- 
dents . 


space ; 

County committed 
to solving its 
own problems in 
a comprehensive 
way; 

Active citizen 
involvement in 
planning process. 


ing qualities 
of the Island; 
Significant 
land still 
undeveloped . 


Flood 

Hazard 

Manage- 


Post-disaster 


Pre- and Post- 


Pre-disaster 


ment 
stage 
address- 
ed 




disaster 
( comprehens ive 
plan) 


(comprehensive 
plan) 




DIRECTIONS: 



The boxed in areas contain answers to the questions 
to be posed to the group. This exercise is reproduced 
in the student manuals with the answers omitted. 

to auidP t-hfi£ r £ Sei:ite 2 to . the group in that format 
to guide their brainstorming effort. 



-88- 

EXERCISE B (continued) 

3. What specific strategies did each community adopt to 
implement their flood hazard management plan? 

To what extent were federal and state agencies involved? 

What additional assistance might have been employed 
in each of the community situations? 





Montgomery County 


Baltimore County 


Sanibel Island 


Strate- 


Enforcement of 


Development of 


Comprehens ive 


gies 


existing 
ordinances by 
denying building 
permits for 
flood damage 
properties 
located in 


comprehens ive 
plan including 
cost/benefit 
analysis of 
alternative 
strategies for 
flood hazard 


plan; 
Strict regula- 
tions to 
control devel- 
opment and 
protect natural 
resources ; 




f loodway . 


management ; 
Strict regulation 


Warning and 
evacuation 






over new develop- 
ment in flood- 
plain ; 
Relocation of 


plans . 






damaged proper- 
ties using 








county funds. 




Federal 


NFIP Con- 


Little or no 


Primarily local 


and 


structive 


federal 


effort ; 


State 
In- 
volve- 


Total Loss 

declaration 

relocation 


involvement 
in relocation 
efforts . 


FIA assistance 
in providing 
basic flooding 


ment 


assistance . 




information. 


Addi- 
tional 








Assist- 








ance 









-89- 




COURSE TITLE- 



LESSON TITLE: 



LESSON PLAN NO. 8 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting. 



The Federal and State Framework 
for Community Flood Hazard 
Decision Making 



TIME: 1.25 Hour 



OBJECTIVES 



1. To outline the structure and functions of 
various Federal and State programs that 
affect community flood hazard management: 

2. To relate these various activities to the 
goals of community flood hazard management 
previously identified by participants. 



SCOPE: 



Various federal and state programs that affect 
coastal flood hazard management including: 
NFIP, Floodplains and Wetlands Executive 
Orders, Coastal Zone Management and State 
Natural Resource Management Programs. 




FORMAT: 



1. Speech followed by roundtable discussion 
of key questions posed by moderator. 

2. Audience questions and answers. 

3. Roundtable participants should be selected 
from among the following interests: 

• FEMA regional office; 

• State coastal zone management program; 

• State FIA coordinator; 

• Local government; and 

• Citizen activist. 



REFERENCES: 1. 



Instructor: 

a . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters IV, V, and VIII. 

b. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 9. 



-90- 



Participant : 



a . 



b. 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection; Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters IV, V, and VIII. 
Coastal Student Manual 



REQUIREMENTS: 



1. Large room should be set up for plenary 
session. 

2. Speaker will require podium and possibly 
audio visual equipment if requested. 

3. Panel discussion following speech will 
require table with sufficient chairs 
for panel members speaker and moderator. 



REMARKS : 



Speaker gives 1/2 hour presentation (using 
audio visuals if possible) outlining the 
various federal and state programs likely to 
impact coastal flood hazard management. 
Speaker will begin by highlighting major 
objectives and requirements of the Executive 
Order(s) identifying how these can impact 
local governments. Speaker will then briefly 
review function of the National Flood Insurance 
Program in relationship to other federal 
programs and the role of FEMA and the state 
FIA coordinator. Finally, the speaker will 
discuss the Coastal Zone Management Program 
as a coordinating mechanism for the range 
of federal coastal programs, how it's being 
implemented at the state level and how other 
state natural resource management programs 
might be utilized to enhance community flood 
hazard management. 

Following the speech, the speaker will par- 
ticipate as a panel member in a roundtable 
discussion of key questions posed by the 
moderator and members of the audience. Panel 
members will represent the range of federal 
and state interests involved in Coastal Flood 
Hazard Management. The moderator will pose a 
series of questions to various panel members 
designed to elaborate or reemphasize points 
made in the speech. Panel members will be 
given these questions in advance and should 
be prepared to give direct, concise answers. 



-91- 



The moderator's job will be to ensure that 
responses are brief, and to the point, that 
all panel members participate and that members 
of the audience have time to ask their own 
questions . 



QUESTIONS TO BE ADDRESSED: 

1. What are the respective responsibilities of the Federal 
and State governments in flood hazard management. 

2. How well are various programs coordinated at the 
Federal level? How might coordination be improved? 

3. What new initiatives are being implemented to improve 
federal coordination? 

4. What are some of the approaches that creative state 
governments have used to meet their challenge in 
mitigating flood hazards and protecting natural 
resources . 

5. How do most state governments relate their role 
in flood hazard management to that of the local 
community. 

6. How is the role of the State likely to be affected 
as the result of new federal initiatives? 



-93- 




COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE 



LESSON PLAN NO. 9 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting. 



The National Flood Insurance 
Program: What it Does and 
Doesn't Do 



TIME: 1 Hour 



OBJECTIVES: 



1. To bring participants to a common level of 
understanding concerning the specific 
minimum requirements of the NFIP. 

2. To familiarize participants with the tools 
of the NFIP. 

3. To examine the extent to which the NFIP 
will help to meet the range of community 
flood hazard management goals. 




SCOPE: Minimum requirements of the NFIP, basic tools 
(maps, FIS study, flood profiles) provided by 
NFIP, issues which NFIP addresses, issues not 
addressed by NFIP. 



FORMAT: 



1. Plenary session. Speech followed by roundtable 
discussion of key questions posed by moderator. 

2. Questions and answers. 

3. Roundtable participants should be selected 
from the following interests: 

• FEMA Regional Office 

• State FIA Coordinator 

• Local Official 

• Civil Defense Agent 

• Environmentalists 



REFERENCES 




1. Instructor: 

a . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter IV. 

b. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 9 

c. NFIP Slide Presentation, FEMA. (optional) 



-94- 



Participant : 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter IV. 

b. Coastal Student Manual. 



REQUIREMENTS: 



1. Large room set up for plenary session. 

2. Visual displays of Flood Hazard Boundary 
Maps, Floodway, Flood Boundary Maps, FIRM 
Maps, Flood Profiles. The speaker should 
provide his/her own visual aides but may 
require slide projector and/or overhead 
projector. 

3. Podium for speaker. Table and chairs 
set up front for Panel Members. 



REMARKS: 1. Speaker gives 15 minute presentation illustrated 

with slides, outlining the two phase process of 
the NFIP, the major requirements of the NFIP 
and the major tools (Flood Hazard Boundary Map, 
Floodway/Flood Boundary Map, FIRM map, Flood 
Profiles and FIS). 

2. Following this presentation, a panel consisting 
of representatives of other federal, state and 
local interests will react to the presentation 
based on questions posed by a moderator. The 
purpose of these questions (which panel members 
will have in advance) will be to highlight both 
the strengths and shortcomings of the NFIP, 
identifying areas where communities might want 
to improve upon the minimum requirements of 
the NFIP. 

3. Once the panel has reacted to the short list 
of prepared questions, the moderator will 
open up discussion to questions from the 
audience. 



QUESTIONS TO BE CONSIDERED: 



1. What are the two phases of the NFIP? 
community enter the NFIP? 



How does a 



2. What are the basic regulatory concepts and tools 
of community participation in the NFIP? 




-95- 



3. What are the minimum requirements of participation 
in the Regular program of the NIFP? What function 
do they serve? 

(a) What is meant by the Base Flood? 100-Year Flood? 

(b) What is a Flood Hazard Boundary Map, Flood 
Insurance Study, FIRM Map, Floodway/Flood 
Boundary Map? 

(c) How are Flood Profiles interpreted? 

4. What new initiatives are being considered for the 
NFIP Program (1362, constructive total loss, Flood 
Plains Executive Order)? How will these initiatives 
likely affect development of community flood hazard 
management programs? 

5. What provisions does the NFIP Program incorporate 
to protect certain coastal ecological resources 
(sand dunes, mangrove swamps, barrier islands)? 





-97- 



'# 



COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE: 



LESSON PLAN NO. 10 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting. 



Flood Hazard Management: 
Issues and Programs 



TIME: 1 Hour 



OBJECTIVE: To allow participants to explore in more detail 
the various issues and programs described in the 
earlier sessions. 



SCOPE: 



Detailed look at various issues and programs 
relating to the NFIP including: building standards, 
NFIP regulations, Section 1362 of National Flood 
Insurance Act of 1968, flood hazard mapping, 
Coastal Zone Management. 



FORMAT 




Concurrent workshops (4-5) focusing on 
a variety of flood hazard management issues. 
Participants select workshop topic of most 
relevance to them. 

Resource people who are experts on the 
particular topic will give a 10-20 minute 
presentation using audio-visuals of their 
own selection where appropriate. Workshop 
leaders (who may or may not be the same as 
the resource person) will begin the session 
by going around the room asking participants 
to identify themselves and why they selected 
this workshop. Then the resource person will 
give his presentation tailoring his remarks 
to meet the needs of the audience. 

During the remaining portion of these work- 
shops the group leader will conduct a dis- 
cussion of key issues or questions relating 
to the workshop topic. 



REFERENCES 



Ofi>> 



Instructor: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters IV, V, and VII. 

b. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 10. 



-98- 



2. Participant: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection; Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters IV, V, and VII. 

b. Coastal Student Manual 



REQUIREMENTS: 



1. Separate break out rooms will be required 
for each of the workshops offered during 
this session. Rooms should be equipped 
with audio visual equipment and easels as 
requested by workshop leaders. 



REMARKS: 1. Participants elect to attend one of several 

workshops offered concurrently. 

2. The workshop topics suggested here are 

offered as examples of the kinds of issues 
best addressed during this session. The 
Institute director with assistance from 
the Steering Committee should determine 
which of these topics (as well as possible 
others) are most appropriate for the 
particular geographic region and audience 
involved. 



QUESTIONS TO BE ADDRESSED DURING WORKSHOPS: 
A. Building Standards 

1. What requirements of the NFIP relate to buildings? 
Do these requirements only deal with the impact of 
floods or do they also address other special needs 
of building in hurricane prone areas. 

2. What specific provisions should be included in a 
local building codes to insure that elevated 

new structures are built to withstand hurricane force 
winds? storm driven waves? 

3. What lessons can be learned from experiences in 
communities recently hit by hurricanes (Gulf Shores, 
and Dauphin Island, Alabama)? 

4. What problems might building inspectors anticipate 
in enforcing standards? 

5. How do building requirements of the NFIP relate 
to the actuarially based insurance rates used by 
FEMA in coastal high hazard areas? 



-99- 



B. NFIP Regulations 

1. What are the minimum requirements of the NFIP 
(Regular Phase) in terms of elevations, 
construction, and land use? 

2. What specific requirements does the NFIP pose for 
new construction in the high velocity zone? 

3. On what basis have elevation requirements been 
established in the past? How will wave heights 
be factored into the formula for establishing 
actuarial rates for new construction? 

4. To what extent are barrier islands, dunes, and 
other fragile coastal ecosystems protected under 
the NFIP regulations? 

C. Section 1362 (Post Disaster Acquisition/Relocation under NFIP) 

1. What is Section 1362? What are its major provisions? 

2. How is Section 1362 being implemented currently? 
How much money has been appropriated? 

3. How is eligibility for 1362 funds determined? 
What procedures must communities follow to 
acquire 1362 funds? 

4. What restrictions are placed on the use of 1362 funds? 

D. Flood Hazard Mapping 

1. What role do maps play in the NFIP? 

2. What is the status of FIA's community mapping process? 

3. What is the data base of the community map? What 
are the sources of possible error in flood hazard 
boundary mapping? What kinds of changing conditions 
might affect the communities of flood hazard boundary? 

4. What is the process of amending maps to reflect 
changing conditions? 

5. How are existing maps going to be amended to reflect 
wave height data? How long will the process take? 
What should communities do in the interim before 
their maps are amended to regulate new development 
in high velocity zones? 

6. What is the status of the new FIA map locator service? 



-10 0- 



E. Coastal Zone Management 

1. What's being done at the Federal level to coordinate 
coastal zone management and flood hazard mitigation? 

2. How might an approved state coastal zone management 
plan be useful to a community in achieving flood 
hazard mitigation goals? 

3. What types of assistance are available to communities 
from the state CZM office? 



-101- 



-> 



COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE 



LESSON PLAN NO. 11 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting 



OBJECTIVES 



SCOPE: 



Local Strategies for Flood Hazard 
Mitigation: Case Examples TIME: 



1 Hour 



1. To allow participants to examine in detail 
the way a particular community utilizes a 
strategy (or set of strategies) to accomplish 
flood hazard mitigation goals. 

2. To focus attention on the stages of flood 
hazard management (pre and post) to which 
the strategy was applied. 

3. To highlight the role of various federal, 
and state programs (NFIP, CZM, WQM) in 
accomplishing the strategy. 

4. To relate the strategies to the goals of 
flood hazard mitigation identified previously 



Review of specific strategies that different 
communities have employed to manage coastal 
flood hazards, highlighting community goals, the 
design and implementation of the strategy, and 
the role of federal, state, local and public 
actors. The focus will be on key factors in 
making the strategy work. Specific strategies 
addressed might include: relocation, recreation/ 
acquisition, storm water management, zoning, 
critical areas protection, development standards. 



FORMAT 



1. Concurrent Workshops (3-4) focusing on specific 
community case example. 

2. Participants select case example which best 
reflects their community situation. 

3. Workshop leader who is a resident of the case 
community gives brief presentation then leads 
group discussion. 



OH' 



REFERENCES: 



-10 2- 



1. Instructor: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide ; FEMA, Chapters II, III and VI. 

b. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 11, 
FEMA. 

c. Trainers' Manual, Small Group Discussions 

2. Participant: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters II, III and VI. 

b. Coastal Student Manual 



REQUIREMENTS: 



Break out rooms will be required for the 
3-4 separate workshops, each equipped 
with any audio-visual equipment requested 
by the workshop leader. 



Workshop 1 
at least 2 
a one page 
situation 
presentati 
a descript 
conditions 
problems , 
implemente 



eaders should be asked to submit, 
weeks in advance of the Institute, 
description of the community 
they will be describing in their 
on. This summary should include 
ion of the size and geographic 
of the community, major flooding 
strategies proposed and/or 
d to resolve the flooding problems. 



If possible the summary should be printed 
in the workbook but otherwise should be 
handed out at registration to allow par- 
ticipants time to read them and select the 
one they're most interested in hearing 
more about. 



REMARKS: 1. Participants elect to attend one of 3-4 

concurrent workshops focusing on specific 
communities' approaches to flood hazard 
management. Workshops will be led by 
community leaders with experience in 
implementing a particular strategy or set 
of strategies at the community level. 

2. Workshop leader will begin the session with 
a 15-20 minute presentation accompanied 
by slides and other appropriate visuals. 



> 



* 



-103- 



The presentation will first describe the 
community's flooding problems, political, 
social, and economic situation, existing 
natural resources and any existing flood 
hazard management program. Then the pre- 
sentation will describe the most recent 
efforts to adopt or strengthen the community's 
flood hazard management program, citing the 
actors involved and the strategies adopted. 

3. Following the presentation, the workshop 

leader will answer questions from the audience. 



QUESTIONS TO BE CONSIDERED: 

1. What are the major flooding problems in the community? 

2. What are the estimated costs to the community of 
recurrent floods? 

3. What opportunities did the community identify to 
begin to address their flooding problems? In the 
pre flood situation? In the post flood situation? 

4. What specific flood hazard management strategies were 
proposed? Which ones were rejected and why? Which 
ones were adopted? 

5. Who were the actors involved in the decision-making 
process? How were they involved? 

6. What community, state and federal resources were 
required to implement the particular strategy? 
How were these resources obtained? 

7. What lessons have been learned by community leaders 
in the process? What things might they approach 
differently if they were to start over again? 



-105- 



> 



COURSE TITLE: 



LESSON TITLE 



LESSON PLAN NO. 12 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting 

The Role of Public Participation in 

Community Flood Hazard Decision 

Making TIME: 1.5 Hours 



y 



OBJECTIVES 1. To establish the importance of involving 

various publics in developing a community 
flood hazard management program. 

— Building a constituency for a comprehensive 
program. 

— Ensuring equity. 

— Building a constituency for implementation. 

2. To establish some performance standards for 
effective public participation. 

3. To expose participants to the range of techniques 
that are available for public involvement. 



SCOPE: 



Importance of public involvement, various 
publics affected by flood hazard management 
programs, performance standards for effective 
public involvement, tools and techniques for 
public involvement. 



FORMAT 



0^ 



1. Plenary Session. Speech followed by round- 
table discussion with key questions posed by 
moderator. Audience Questions and Answers. 

2. Speaker familiar with public involvement 
issues gives presentation addressing 

the importance of public involvement, who 
should be involved and why and how to achieve 
effective involvement. 

3. Following the speech, the workshop director 
(or moderator) will ask participants to 
complete Exercise C found in their workbooks 
and then, for each question in the exercise, 
randomly select several participants from 
the audience to state their names, interest 



-106- 



group and their particular response. The 
workshop director will record these responses 
on newsprint. This process should require 
no more than 10 minutes. 

Next the workshop director will introduce 
several panel members, all of whom have 
particular experience with public partici- 
pation, and ask each one to elaborate on 
the points made in the speech as well as 
comment on the results of the exercise, 
drawing upon their own experience whenever 
posible. 

Following these brief (5 minute) responses 
from panel members, the workshop director 
(or moderator) will open discussion to 
questions from the audience. 



REFERENCES: 



1. Instructor: 

a . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter VI. 

b. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 13, 
FEMA. 

c . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide Summary . FEMA. 

2. Participant: 

a . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter VI. 

b. Coastal Student Manual 

c . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide Summary. FEMA. 



REQUIREMENTS: 



1. Large room should be set up for plenary 
session. 



2. Easel with newsprint should be provided 
for speaker to record participant responses 

3. Table and chairs should be provided for 
Panel Members. 



) 



) 




-107- 



REMARKS: 1. It's important that the initial responses of 

panel members be kept brief to allow time for 
questions from the audience. Therefore, panel 
members should be well briefed on their role 
prior to their session and the moderator should 
use an iron hand to keep responses brief. 

2. It would be extremely useful if the speaker 
could provide copies of his speech to panel 
members in advance of the Institute. If not, 
the speaker should at least meet with panel 
members and the moderator prior to the session 
to discuss what points the speaker will cover 
and what follow-up points each panel member 
would like to make. 



QUESTIONS TO BE ADDRESSED DURING SESSIONS: 

1. Who are the key actors both within and outside of the 
community who should be involved in the development 
of a community flood hazard management program? 

What range of perspectives are they likely to 
represent and why is it important to include them? 

2. What are some of the key decision points in the 
development of a flood hazard management program 
where the public should be involved. What specific 
kinds of information/input can the various publics 
provide at each of these decision points? 

3. What role can or should the public play during 
implementation of the flood hazard management 
program? 

4. To what extent in the past has the public been 
involved in developing a community flood hazard 
management program? What methods were used? 
What has been the result of this level of 
involvement? 

5. Does the NFIP have any specific requirements or 
guidance for public involvement? 

6. What are some of the essential elements of an 
effective community public involvement effort? 
What are some of the techniques which may be most 
useful in achieving quality public participation? 

7. What are some potential sources of assistance to 
communities in developing a meaningful public 
participation effort? 



^ 



-109- 



EXERCISE C 



INTRODUCTION OF PARTICIPANTS 



Participants for the Flood Hazard Institute were chosen to 
represent a diversity of opinions and backgrounds. The purpose 
of this segment of the program is to give everyone a better 
understanding of the attitudes and perspectives shared by 
fellow attendees, resource people, and Institute staff. 

DIRECTIONS FOR EXERCISE: Indicate your opinion on each 
question by marking the horizontal line with an "x" above 
the appropriate number. Then indicate how strongly you care 
about this issue by circling a letter from A (very important 
issue) to E (unimportant issue) on the vertical line. You 
will have ten minutes to mark your responses, and then we 
will sample opinion in the group. 

1) How much weight should be given to public opinion 
in the development of a community flood hazard 
management program? 



A ( 






The decisions 
involve complex 
technical issues 
and should be 
made by experts 



Equal weight should 
be given to public 
opinion and expert 
conclusions . 



The important 
decisions in 
developing a 
flood hazard 
management 
program are not 
that technical, 
and the public, 
who has to live 
with the results, 
should have the 
primary say. 



very 
impor- 
tant 
issue ) 



B 



C ( 



D ( 



moder- 
ately 
impor- 
tant) 

unim- 
portant 
issue ) 



-110- 



EXERCISE C (continued) 



2) Granted that most people would like to see both 

environmental improvement and low taxes and economic 
development, how would you vote in a clear-cut choice 
between the economy and the environment in your town? 



The economic stability 
of a community is the 
most important consi- 
deration. After all 
if people don't have 
jobs and money to 
spend they won't 
care about their 
environment. 



Equal weight 
given to both 



Maintaining the 
community' s 
environmental 
quality is most 
important. Poor 
environmental 
quality produces 
all sorts of 
hidden community 
costs which too 
often aren't 
considered . 



A (very 
impor- 
tant 
issue) 

B 



(moder- 
ately 
impor- 
tant) 



(unim- 
portant 
issue) 



3) Should residents who knowingly choose to live in flood 
hazard areas be assessed some sort of tax to cover the 
community costs (emergency police, fire, rescue services, 
public utility repairs, warning and evacuation procedures) 
incurred as the result of a flood disaster? 



No, these are 
costs rightly 
borne by the 
community as a 
whole. Besides, 
it would be 
impossible to 
establish an 
equitable tax. 



Possibly in situations 
where the flood hazard 
is well defined and 
the resident who has a 
choice between a non- 
hazard location chooses 
the hazardous location 
because of the personal 
benefits (aesthetics, 
convenience) derived 
from the hazardous 
location. 



Yes, these residents 
reap the benefits 
of such a location, 
so they should also 
bear the costs. 



> 



COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE 



-111- 
LESSON PLAN NO. 13 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting 



Recommendations for 
Group Action 



TIME: 1 Hour 



OBJECTIVE: 



To continue discussion of the issues the working 
group identified the first evening and give that 
group opportunities to develop ideas for follow-up 
activities after the conference. 



SCOPE: 



Continuation of earlier group discussion of 
community problems, state problems, action 
required to resolve problems (i.e., better 
data and data analysis, public education and 
involvement, intergovernmental cooperation, 
social and economic considerations). 



FORMAT 




(1) Small group discussions 

(2) Continuation of previous discussion described 
in Lesson Plan No. 2 with groups divided 
according to pre-determined geographic area. 

(3) The group leader or facilitator of this session 
should be the same leader used during Lesson 
Plan No. 2. 

(4) Using brainstorming/discussion techniques (page 56) 
leader then asks each member of group to 
address the following questions: 

• What is the nature of the flooding problem 
in my community? 

• What kinds of strategies might be employed 
to address these problems? 

• How will the requirements of the NFIP 
and the state affect the manner in which 
flooding problems are address? 

• Who are the community interests likely to 
be affected by flooding problems and their 
solutions? 




-112- 



o What kind of public involvement mechanisms 
have traditionally been successful in my 
community in involving these interests? 

(5) Responses to each set of questions will be 
recorded in newsprint. 



REFERENCES 



1. Instructor: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters III and VI. 

b. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 2 & 
FEMA. 



12, 



2. Participant: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters III and VI. 

b. Coastal Student Manual 



REQUIREMENTS: 



1. Break out rooms will be required for 

each of the small group sessions. Rooms 
should be equipped with easels, newsprint 
and magic markers. 



REMARKS : 



The ultima 
sessions i 
management 
rather to 
variety of 
ment of a 
for public 
understand 



te purpose of these small group 
s not to develop a flood hazard 

program for the community, but 
develop a plan for involving a 

community actors in the develop- 
flood hazard program. The plan 

involvement must be keyed to an 
ing of the following factors: 



o What has already been accomplished in 
management of flood hazards in the 
community? 

o What opportunities for flood hazard 
management remain to be addressed? 



o How are the variety of publics in the 
community likely to respond to various 
flood hazard management strategies. 



-113- 



On the other hand, if the Institute involves 
a multi-state region and the small groups are 
organized by state, the working group facilitator 
will initially face certain problems in getting 
the group as a whole to develop action plans. 
For example, each state group will be composed 
of community leaders from a number of potentially 
very different communities. These individuals 
initially may find it difficult or distracting 
to attempt to discuss a wide range of community 
problems and issues. 

2. One important benefit of these sessions, par- 
ticularly in a multi-state region, is the oppor- 
tunity provided for "cross-fertilization." Par- 
ticipants may gain new insights from hearing 
each other's analysis of the problems and 
opportunities they face. Participants from 
outside a particular community may be able to 
ask creative questions that will allow others 

to develop new ideas. 

As a means to deal with the diversity within 
the group, the group leader or facilitator may 
wish to address each of the questions listed 
under format to the entire group, then ask 
that the group subdivide itself into community 
or watershed groupings, and develop answers 
to the various questions allowing about 10 
minutes for discussion. The subgroup answers 
would then be reported to the whole group, 
recorded on separate sheets of newsprint, 
compared and discussed. 

3. It is unlikely that these small groups will 
fully accomplish all they have set out to 
accomplish during this session. If they 
manage to get through a discussion of all 
the questions listed under format, they will 
be in a position to finalize action plans 
during Lesson Plan No. 16. 

4. Although group leaders will want to push 
members of their group to develop specific 
action plans before they leave the Institute, 
not all groups will be able to proceed at 
the same pace. If any group (or certain 
community in a group) is unable to develop 
the initial steps of a community involvement 
program while at the Institute, try to have 
them set a date when they will meet again 

to finalize plans. 



I 



-115- 



LESSON PLAN NO. 14 



COURSE TITLE: Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 

Protection: The Coastal Setting 

LESSON TITLE: Issues on Public Participation TIME: 1 Hour 



OBJECTIVE: 



To allow participants to focus on the issue 
and tools that influence the development of 
a successful public involvement program. 



SCOPE: 



Specific issues and tools relating to effective 
public participation: goal setting, coalition 
building, bargaining and negotiation, communication 
skills, motivating the public. 



FORMAT: 



1. Concurrent workshops (4-5) on a range of 
public participation issues and/or tools. 
Participants select workshop topic of 
greatest interest to them. 

2. Workshop leaders familiar with the particular 
tool or issue being addressed conduct group 
discussion. 

3. Alternative workshop topics suggested here 
are: 

• Goal Setting; 

• Coalition Building; 

• Bargaining and Negotiation; 

• Communication Skills; 

• Motivating the Public. 



REFERENCES 



1. Instructor: 

a . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter VI. 

b. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 13 & 14, 
FEMA. 



-116- 



2. Participant: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter VI. 

b. Coastal Student Manual 



REQUIREMENTS: 



Sufficient break out rooms will be 
required for each of the workshops 
offered. There should be some flexi- 
bility permitted in the number, size 
and set up of these break out rooms to 
accommodate last minute changes. 

The rooms should be set up for no more 
than 20 people. 



REMARKS 



3. 



4. 



The list of 
is by no me 
offered as 
that might 
The Institu 
the Steerin 
actual list 
during a pa 
assessment 
audience be 



workshop topics suggested here 
ans all inclusive but rather is 
a sample of the kinds of issues 
be explored further in workshops. 
te Director in conjunction with 
g Committee should determine the 

of workshop topics to be addressed 
rticular Institute based on their 
of the needs of the particular 
ing targeted. 



Participants should be asked to sign up 
for these workshops at Registration. The 
easiest way to do this is to have a separate 
sign-up sheet for each workshop indicating 
that 20 participants is the maximum for any 
workshop. The results will provide the 
Institute director with a good sense of which 
topics are of most interest to participants. 
Its conceivable that some topics may not 
generate sufficient interest to warrant 
a separate workshop but could easily be 
be incorporated into the discussion of 
another topic. 

Workshop leaders who are individuals ex- 
perienced in public participation will give 
a brief (5 minute) presentation on the par- 
ticular issue or tool being discussed in the 
workshop, citing his or her own experiences. 

Next the group leader will go around the room 
asking individuals to indicate what experience 
they've had with the particular issue or tool 
noting both positive and negative results. 



-117- 



i 



5. Finally, the group leader will open up 

discussion, focusing on factors which effect 
either successful resolution of the issue or 
effective utilization of the tool. Relevant 
factors will be recorded on newsprint and 
discussed in detail. 



QUESTIONS TO BE CONSIDERED: 

A. Goal Setting 

1. Who in the community should be involved in the 
setting of goals for a flood hazard management 
program? How can or should broader community 
goals be reflected? 

2. How do you identify community goals? What 
techniques (questionaires , local workshops, 
referendum) are most useful? How can you 
ensure that the goals you identify in fact 
reflect those of the entire community? 

3. What do you do in situations when some goals 
seem to be in direct conflict? What' are some 
effective methods for achieving compromise? 

B. Coalition Building 

1. How can building a coalition help the passage 
and implementation of a community flood hazard 
management program? 

2. What interests should comprise your coalition. 
How may these interests be identified? 

3. How does one identify the common interests which 
may bind a coalition? 

4. What kinds of organizational decision-making will 
help keep a coalition together? 

5. What resouces, skills and outreach ability do the 
various interest groups which might comprise a 
coalition have which might be utilized in developing 
a comprehensive flood hazard management program? 







-118- 



C. Bargaining and Negotiation 

1. When is formal bargaining or negotiation useful? 

2. How do you establish those points which are not 
negotiable? Those that are negotiable? 

3. How do you identify tradeoffs that various groups 
may be willing to make to come to agreement? 

4. How do you approach an opposing group on the subject 
of bargaining? 

5. When is it useful to have a third party assist in 
the bargaining process? 

6. What type of technical expertise might be required 
during a negotiation process? 

7. If a third party negotiator is used, what skills 
should he/she have? 

D. Communication Skills 

1. What are some of the most effective means to reach 
the general public? (news media, public television) 
What basic message should be relayed to different 
publics? 

2. How should materials be presented to the general 
lay audience? How can you translate complicated 
technical analysis into simple English? 

3. How can you be sure your message is being received 
and clearly understood? What kinds of feedback 
mechanisms are appropriate? 

E. Motivating the Public 

1. How do you overcome initial public apathy or 
unawareness? What techniques could you use to 
"sell" your program to the public? 

2. What are some of the causes of public apathy? 
How do you overcome them? 

3. What are some examples of techniques which have 
worked in other communities? 

4. How do you keep the public involved and interested? 



-119- 



(^L 



COURSE TITLE: 



LESSON TITLE 



LESSON PLAN NO. 15 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting 



Designing a Flood Hazard 
Management Program in 
Coastal Communities 



TIME: 2.0 Hours 



OBJECTIVES: 



o 



1. To examine in a realistic setting the factors 
that affect the opportunities for flood hazard 
management in coastal communities. 

2. To examine the basic regulatory framework 
likely to result from community participation 
in the NFIP, and other Federal and State 
programs . 

3. To examine the range of strategies and tools 
that might be linked together to develop a 
comprehensive flood hazard management program 
according to the appropriate flood hazard 
management stage. 

4. To identify the economic and social interests 
that may be affected by alternative strategies. 

5. To establish the tradeoffs that must be made 
by a community in designing a flood hazard 
management program. 



SCOPE 



Case study information on physical characteristics, 
population, flood problems, economic/social con- 
siderations, political context; present community 
maps and flood hazard areas; pre-flood and post- 
flood opportunities, goals development, legal 
institutional framework, specific strategies. 



FORMAT: 



) 



1. Concurrent workshops. Participants divided 
into groups of 15-20 people. 

2. Selected and trained facilitator leads group 
in discussion of case study materials. 

3. In small groups, the facilitator asks partici- 
pants to take 5 to 10 minutes to read the case 
study. Then facilitator will outline the 
objectives of the session and ask participants 
to introduce themselves. 



-120- 



4. Facilitator will pose the following questions 
to the group in the order shown: 

a. Who are the interests with a stake 
in flood hazard management? 

b. What is the nature of their stake? 

c. What needs of various interests will have 
to be met in order to obtain their support 
in meeting flood hazard management goals? 

Local government 
Low income 
Business 

Banker 

Real estate developer 

Salesman 

Industry/Land 

Water dependent/Water based industry 
Civic Leader 
Environmentalist 

d. What kinds of tradeoffs (economic/social/ 
environmental/political) might various 
interests be willing to make? 

e. What kinds of strategies can be adopted 
to reflect these tradeoffs and to respond 
to the flooding problems of this community? 
In the pre-flood period? In the post-flood 
period? 

f. What are the likely impacts of various 
strategies on various interest groups? 
On community as a whole? 

5. The preferred techniques to be used in 
addressing these questions is called small 
group brainstorming (see page 56 ). Using 
this technique, the facilitator goes around 
the room asking participants for their answers 
to the various questions and recording these 
answers on newsprint. Once all answers have 
been recorded, then the facilitator leads the 
group in a discussion of several of the 
questions beginning with question d and 
incorporating answers to questions a, b and c 
where appropriate. 

6. After each question has been discussed, 
participants should be asked to spend a few 
minutes considering how the answer might 
differ in their community. 



-121- 



o 



7. The attached Exercises D and E have been 
developed to help particpants address 
the questions regarding opportunities and 
strategies in the pre and post flood periods. 
The facilitator might ask participants to 
take 5-10 minutes to individually fill out 
charts listing some of the pre and post flood 
opportunities and specific strategies. The 
facilitator might then call on individuals 
to list the opportunities, strategies and 
stages to which they are applicable before 
moving on to a group discussion. 



REFERENCES: 1. 



o 



Instructor: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters III, VII and VIII 

b. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 15, 
FEMA. 

c. Coastal Student Manual, FEMA. 



2. Participant: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters III, VII and VIII. 

b. Coastal Student Manual, FEMA. 



REQUIREMENTS: 



. > 



Sufficient break out rooms for several 
groups of 15-20 people. 

Case study materials and worksheets on 
Oakton/Hampton County (found in Student 
Manual and in Appendix D of this manual). 
The Institute Director should carefully 
read this case study material prior to 
the Institute to determine whether or not 
it may need modification to best suit 
his/her particular region. (For example, 
for some parts of Texas and Louisiana, 
it might be appropriate to modify the 
case study to include reference to 
subsidence and delta problems whereas 
for parts of California the materials 
might be modified to reflect Pacific 
coastal problems such as landslides, 
tsuanamis, beach erosion, etc.) 

Small group discussion leaders should be 
provided case study materials in advance 
and have read it thoroughly before this 
session. 



-12 2- 



4. Institute Director should conduct a 

special briefing for discussion leaders 
prior to the session. The briefing should 
include a review of the case materials, how 
to use them, how to conduct the session, 
what major point to focus on, etc. If the 
group leaders are not experienced as 
facilitators, the briefing session might 
include conducting a brief trial run of 
the session using facilitators as the 
audience and one of the director's staff 
as the facilitator. Following the trial 
run, the Director would conduct a critique 
of the session pointing out strengths and 
weaknesses. However, if the group leaders 
have had extensive experience conducting 
such sessions, this type of formal training 
may not be necessary. 



REMARKS: 1. This session is one of the most important 

training sessions of the conference. There 
is a lot of material to cover, and group 
leaders will need to be quite organized in 
their approach to the session. 

2. There are six questions (letter a-f) that 
must be addressed during the two hour session, 
When one includes 15 minutes for reading the 
case study and general introductions, this 
leaves approximately 17 minutes to solicit 
group answers and then discuss each 
question. Note, however, that several of the 
questions can be answered very quickly and 
others discussed simultaneously. We suggest 
that the facilitator spend no more than 5 
minutes soliciting answers (brainstorming) to 
each question. 

3. The most important concept that must be 
developed during this session is that of 
the tradeoffs that must be made to develop 
a program that satisfies many (not all) of 
the critical interests who must support it. 
Therefore, we suggest that the group dis- 
cussion begin with question d while incor- 
porating answers generated in questions a, 
b and c. 



o 



-12 3- 



Don't get bogged down in the discussion of 
specific tools (e.g., PUD's vs. Transfer 
of Development Rights). Instead focus on 
overall strategies and the economic, social, 
political, and environmental impacts associated 
with each. 



a 



<* 



-125- 



Exercise D 



Use this chart to record the flood hazard management opportunities 
identified in the workshop discussion of the case example. 



Potential Opportunities for Flood Hazard Management 





Pre-Flood Situation 


Post-Flood Situation 


Within 100-Year 
Floodplain 






Structures 
( Existing 
and 
Future ) 

Undeveloped 
Land 


Outside Floodplain 
but within 
community 






Outside Community 
but within 
watershed 







> 



-127- 



Exercise E 



Use this chart to record the results of the workshop discussion 
relating to possible strategies identified in the case example. 
Refer to chart in selecting the most appropriate strategies. 



Flood stage where most 
applicable 



Affected 
Interests 



Trade-offs 



Pre- 
Flood 



Strategy (tool) 



During 
Flood 



> 



Post- 
Flood 



& 



-129- 




LESSON PLAN NO. 16 



COURSE TITLE: Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 

Protection: The Coastal Setting 



LESSON TITLE: Final Small Group Discussions 



TIME: 1 Hour 



OBJECTIVE: 



To complete discussion and development of follow- 
up plans. 



SCOPE: 



Continued discussion of specific opportunities 
and strategies which should be implemented at 
the local and/or regional (state) level to improve 
flood hazard management identification of specific 
steps which participants intend to take following 
the Institute to achieve their goals. 



FORMAT: 



Small group discussions. Groups divided according 
to geographic area. Completion of group discussion 



a 



REFERENCES 



Instructor: 

a . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters III and VI. 

b. Trainer's Manual, Lesson Plan No. 16, 
12, FEMA. 

Participant: 

a . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters III and VI. 

b. Coastal Student Manual 



3 & 



REQUIREMENTS: 



Sufficient break out rooms for small group 
sessions equipped with easels, newsprint 
and magic markers. 

Group leaders should be instructed to 
summarize results of the group discussion 
on newsprint so that the sheets can be 
hung on the walls of the plenary session 
room prior to the start of the final 
session . 



> 



-130- 



REMARKS: 1. Using same techniques applied in earlier 

small group sessions, group leader assists 
participants in completing specific follow-up 
plans which will begin to address the most 
important flood hazard management needs of 
the region as identified by participants, 
(see Lesson Plan No. 12) 

2. Group leader will record planned follow-up 

activities or newsprint to be presented during 
closing session. 



« 



-131- 



COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE 



LESSON PLAN NO. 17 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting 



Community Flood Hazard 
Management: A Challenge 
to Work Together 



TIME: 1 Hour 



OBJECTIVES: 1. 



To give participants an opportunity to 
exchange information on planned follow-up 
activities . 



2. To help participants achieve a sense of what 
was accomplished by the program. 

3. To relate planned follow-up activities back 
to goals identified early in the conference. 



SCOPE: 



Presentation and discussion of group follow-up 
plans, concluding remarks by workshop director. 



o 



FORMAT 



1. Plenary session. Reports from small group 
discussion leaders. Concluding speech. 

2. Small group discussion leders each give 5 
minute presentation describing group follow- 
up plans, which will be taped on walls of 
large room. 

3. Following these presentations, workshop 
director will open up discussion to audience 
questions and comments, first on the specific 
group plans and then on the workshop in general 

4. Finally, workshop director or special observer 
will give brief closing remarks, summarizing 
accomplishments of workshop and expectations 
for continued participant involvement in 
their own communities. 



-13 2- 



REQUIREMENTS: 



1. Large room set up for plenary session. 

2. Follow-up plans developed by small groups 
taped to the walls of the room. 



REMARKS: 1. You will want to keep small group reporters 

on a short timetable, as this part of the 
program can be dull if not done quickly. 

2. The concluding speaker should be a good 
synthesizer who can listen to the small 
group reports and leave participants with 
a notion of what has been positively 
accomplished . 

3. This would be an appropriate time to ask 
participants to fill out the Institute 
Evaluation forms provided in their student 
manuals or handed out at the session. 
(See Appendix F for sample Evaluation.) 



* 



-13 3- 




COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE 



LESSON PLAN NO. 18 (OPTIONAL) 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Coastal Setting 



Designing a Community Flood 
Hazard Mitigation Program: 
A Question of Trade-Offs 



TIME: 3.5 Hours 



OBJECTIVE: 



1. To help participants develop a comprehensive 
community flood hazard management program in 
a realistic context of legal, institutional, 
social and economic constraints. 



SCOPE: 



Negotiation among interest groups for acceptable 
level of flood protection; local government action 
to implement specific strategies, assessment of 
flood related damages associated with particular 
level of flood protection. 



FORMAT 




Simulation role playing exercise: Within the 
Plenary session room, participants divide into 
3 smaller groups, each representing a single 
community. Participants adopt various roles 
and become involved in discussion of various 
strategies to resolve their hypothetical 
community flooding problems. 



REFERENCES: 1. 



Instructor: 

a. Planning for Acts of God and Nature 
(PAGAN: Coastal or PAGAN: Riverine) 



2. Participant: 

a. Community Descriptions, Role Descriptions, 
Game Rules, Levels of Flood Protection, 
Damage Tables (Taken from PAGAN) 



REQUIREMENTS: 



o 



1. Anyone planning to conduct the game 

should read through PAGAN very carefully 
to develop a good understanding of the 
rules and requirements and to determine 
how the game might be used for his/her 
particular group. A copy of both versions 
of PAGAN (Coastal and Riverine) is 
included in Appendix E of this manual. 



•134- 



2. The game theoretically can be run with 
as few as six or as many as 165 persons. 
However, the optimum run calls for about 
55 players. 

3. Game should be conducted in a large room 
with sufficient space to separate the 
communities and various wards within each 
community. Actual space requirements will 
obviously vary according to the size of the 
group. 

4. The game requires approximately 3 hours 
to play and another 1/2 hour to debrief. 

5. Participants should be allowed at least 
15 minutes to read their materials. The 
game director should spend another 15 
minutes explaining the rules and objectives 
of the game . 

REMARKS 1. The game requires a substantial amount of 

time but can provide a very valuable learning 
experience. It is most appropriate for a 
group which has a good basic understanding 
of community flood hazard management. However, 
for an unsophisticated group it could also 
serve as a provocative introduction to some 
of the major issues to be considered. 

2. The game can easily be conducted as an 
independent unit, totally separate from the 
rest of the training institute. In fact, it 
might appropriately serve as a follow-up 
activity which Institute participants could 
consider conducting in their own communities 
following their attendance at a training 
institute. 

3. The game is extremely flexible and can 
accommodate a group ranging in size from 
6-16 5 people. For a small group (6-40 
people) the game should be conducted using 
only one of the three hypothetical communities. 
For groups larger than 40 the game can be 
expanded to include the additional two 
communities . 

4. Simulation exercises such as PAGAN are 
designed to provide participants with a 
realistic learning experience. 



-13 5- 



As such they differ significantly from 
the standard lecture format of teaching. 
Consequently it is not uncommon for many 
people when first exposed to simulations 
to express serious reservations about 
"playing games." In our experience, if 
the game is run well, most people once 
involved in the simulation discover it 
to be an exciting, extremely insightful 
and in fact enjoyable experience. The 
most difficult job is convincing the 
reluctant ones to "give it a try." 

However, we feel it's only fair to point 
out that simulation exercises, if conducted 
improperly, can result in an unplesant un- 
productive learning experience. Potential 
users of this simulation exercise should 
carefully consider a number of factors: 
(1) audience (How receptive or resistant 
are they likely to be to "games"?) (2) 
objectives (What do I want participants 
to learn from this session? Is the simu- 
lation the best way to accomplish this?); 
(3) Instructor (Is there someone qualified 
to administer the game, someone who under- 
stands the rules? Is he/she enthusiastic 
and can he/she quickly improvise if necessary 
to resolve any problems which may surface 
during the game?) 

If the user determines that the audience 
is likely to be receptive to this type 
of exercise, that the hands on learning 
experience is a desirable objective, and 
that an experienced and/or confident game 
operator is available, then he/she can feel 
confident about using PAGAN. 



> 



-137- 



B. Riverine Training Institute 

The riverine training program does not differ significantly 
from the coastal training program with the exception of a 
few of the sessions: namely, Lesson Plan Nos . 3, 5 and 15. 
Therefore, we have not reproduced in this section complete 
version of the Riverine Program but instead included here 
only revised versions of Lesson Plans 3, 5 and 15. 

Those of you wishing to conduct a training program in 
riverine communities need simply use the model Coastal 
Program outlined in this manual substituting Lesson Plans 
3, 5 and 15 described here and making other necessary minor 
modifications to the remaining Lesson Plans. We suggest 
you read carefully through the coastal program identifying 
any changes that should be made to reflect riverine flooding 
situations. For example, in Lesson Plan No. 8 "The Federal 
and State Framework for Flood Hazard Management Decision 
Making", you will want to eliminate the discussion of the 
coastal zone management program. And in Lesson Plan No. 
10 "Flood Hazard Management: Issues and Programs", you again 
should eliminate coastal zone management as a workshop 
topic and should also revise some of the workshop questions 
eliminating any references to predominantly coastal issues 
(e.g., building standards designed to prevent hurricane 
wind damage and elevation standards designed to include 
wave height considerations) 



.) 



-139- 



) 



COURSE TITLE: 



LESSON TITLE 



LESSON PLAN NO. 3 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Riverine Setting 



Flooding and Flood Hazard 
Management in Riverine Areas: 
An Overview 



TIME: 1.5 Hours 



OBJECTIVES 



1. Create participant understanding of inherent 
complexities of riverine flood hazard management. 

2. To give historical perspective on riverine 
flood hazard management. 

3. To address changing directions in riverine 
flood hazard management in response to the 
perceived weaknesses of the traditional 
approach. 



SCOPE: 



An historical perspective on riverine flood hazard 
management, the traditional problem solving approach 
vs. new directions; why government policies are 
changing, how policies have changed and in what 
federal and state programs the new policies appear; 
watershed drainage concepts, ecologically sensitive 
areas, technical, social and economic difficulties 
of state and local governments. 



FORMAT 



Plenary Session. Film, followed by round 
table discussion reacting to issues raised 
by film. 

Resource people: Moderator, plus three 
discussants from different perspectives; 
i.e., 

a) local government; 

b) environmentalist; 

c) disaster relief specialist; 

Skilled moderator will lead the discussion by 
posing a series of questions to panel members 



> 



-140- 



REFERENCES: 



Instructor: 

a . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection; Community Action 
Guide, FEMA, Chapters I and II. 

b. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 2 

c. Riverine Student Manual 



Participant: 

a . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters I and II. 

b. Riverine Student Manual 



REQUIREMENTS: 



1. Large room set up for plenary session. 



2. The session will start with a dramatic 
film depicting riverine flooding and the 
tremendous damages resulting. The film 
used in the pilot training institute was 
a 1930's classic entitled "The River." 

It was produced by the Federal government 
and should be available from a number of 
sources including your local public library 

3. The film should be reserved well in advance 
of the Institute. The Institute Director 
should screen the selected film in advance 
to ensure its appropriateness. 

4. Movie projector, screen (slide projector) 
should be reserved from conference center 
in advance. 

5. Roundtable discussion will require that a 
table with a sufficient number of chairs 
and microphones be set up in front of the 
room. The table should allow discussants 
to look at each other. 



REMARKS 



The session is designed to expose partici- 
pants to the major problems and issues of 
riverine flood hazard management as they 
bear on state and local governments. It 
is intended as an overview and not a com- 
prehensive treatment. Panel members should 
be informed that they will not be expected 
to deliver any formal remarks but rather to 
answer specific questions from their particular 
perspective. The questions should be sent to 
panel members at least two weeks prior to the 
Institute. 



} 



-141- 



2. Prior to this session, the director should 
bring panel members together to review once 
more the objectives of the session to pre- 
view the film and to develop a strategy for 
eliciting responses from panel members. 

3. The director should provide panel members 
with a copy of the Resource Manual ahead 
of time and ask them to read Chapters I 
and II in preparation for their session. 

4. The director should carefully brief the 
moderator on his/her role, stressing the 
importance of keeping responses brief and 
to the point, ensuring that all members 
of the panel have a fair opportunity to 
express their views, that the audience has 
ample opportunity to ask qustions and that 
the session begins an ends on time. 

5. This film selected for the Riverine Model 
Program offers an historical perspective on 
the causes and results of flooding along the 
Mississippi River and is particularly appro- 
priate for areas in the mid-West. However, 
those conducting Institutes in other regions 
of the country may want to use another film. 
If you feel that the film described above 

is not likely to be appropriate, you should 
begin analyzing alternatives early in the 
Institute planning process. The steering 
committee may be very helpful in identifying 
appropriate films. Do not plan to use a film 
that you have not personally screened to make 
certain it meets the objectives of this section 
of the Institute. 



QUESTIONS TO BE CONSIDERED: 

1. What are the special problems of protecting the 
riverine floodplain? (Dynamic nature of riverine 
floodplain, fragility of riverine ecosystem. ) 

2. What is the relationship of watershed and drainage 
management to riverine flooding problems? 

3. What are some of the economic and social factors 
which contribute to the development of floodplains? 

4. What are the weaknesses of traditional approaches 
to riverine flood hazard management? 



-14 2- 



5. What are the changing directions in our current 
approach to riverine flood hazard management? 



* 



-14 3- 



> 



COURSE TITLE 



LESSON TITLE 



LESSON PLAN NO. 5 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Riverine Setting 

The Nature of Flooding in Riverine 

Communities and the Special Role 

of Riverine Ecological Resources 

in Flood Hazard Mitigation TIME: 2 Hours 



OBJECTIVES: 1. 



2. 



To assist participants in identifying and 
understanding the causes of flooding and the 
nature of flood hazards in their community. 

To help participants understand the functioning 
of important riverine ecosystems for hazard 
mitigation purposes. 



3. To familiarize participants with various uses 
of natural resource data and maps as community 
planning and decision-making tools. 




SCOPE: 



Description of special ecological characteristics 
and hazard mitigation functions of natural riverine 
systems (wetlands, transition zones, river corridors) 
Presentation of land use suitability concepts. 
Hands on experience utilizng natural resources 
maps as decision-making tools. 



FORMAT: 



1. Small group discussion sessions of 15-25 
people . 

2. The session, if possible, should be directed 
by a discussion leader who is someone other 
than the resource person presenting the mini- 
lecture . 



) 



An appropriate resource person will give 
a 15-minute "mini-lecture" using whatever 
audio-visuals they choose. Their presen- 
tation should address (a) the nature of 
flooding problems in communities located 
in one of these three areas, and (b) the 
role played by ecological resources of 
these communities in moderating the hazard. 

Following the "mini-lecture", the discussion 
leader will answer questions from the audience 
regarding their own community situations and 



-144- 



explore with them special ecological resources 
they might consider protecting in their com- 
munities . 

5. After approximately 50 minutes the workshop 
leader should call for a 10-minute break 
during which he/she will spread out the map- 
ping materials on the tables. Participants 
should be encouraged to stay in the room so 
as not to lose any time. 

6. Next the leader will give a brief presentation 
(5-10 minutes) highlighting the use of land 
suitability as a planning tool. In his/her 
presentation the leader will briefly describe 
the land suitability analysis process involving 
(1) the identification of environmental con- 
siderations or elements, (2) interpretation 

of this data on resource by resource basis 
through the application of management principals 
to determine resource limitations, (3) the 
mapping of each resource variable on a common 
scale, and (4) the overlaying of variables to 
form an environmental composite or suitability 
map. 

7. Finally, participants will have the opportunity 
for some actual experience working with mapping 
materials especially prepared for this session. 
Materials will include (a) U.S.G.S. quad 
sheet for a typical community type in that 
region (b) several mylar overlays depicting 
flood hazards, soils, wetlands, zoning and 
current land use, (c) a clear acetate sheet 
which participants can mark on with grease 
pencils, (d) handout describing materials 

and symbols displayed on maps. 

8. How these materials are used in the exercise 
will depend on the sophistication of the 
group members. Therefore beginning this final 
session the leader should find out from workshop 
participants what experience they've had with 
maps. 

9. If the group is relatively unfamiliar with 
land use suitability analysis the workshop 
leader should start off by directing partici- 
pants to take the U.S.G.S. quad sheet and then 
overlay the flood hazard mylar to identify the 
100-year flood boundaries. Next they might 
overlay the soils mylar and identify those 
areas suitable for development with and without 



-14 5- 



) 



10. 



septic tanks and then compare this information 
to the current zoning overlay noting any incon- 
sistencies. Finally, they could repeat this 
process with the other mylar overlays again 
noting inconsistencies with current land use 
and/or zoning. 

If the group is more sophisticated, then 
the discussion might focus on management 
policies which the community might adopt 
(based on existing data) to correct per- 
ceived problems or what additional data 
needs existed and how they might be resolved. 



REFERENCE: 



O 



1. Instructor: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapter II. 

b. Riverine Student Manual. 

c. Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 5, 
Appendix B. 

2. Participant: 

a. Riverine Student Manual. 

b . Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide, FEMA, Chapter II. 



REQUIREMENTS: 



X 



} 



1. Concurrent workshops should be designed 
to address the range of distinct riverine 
ecosystems and subsequent flooding prob- 
lems existing in a particular geographic 
area. Examples of distinct riverine eco- 
systems includes: U-shaped river valleys 
with moderate flood plains, V-shaped 
river valleys with narrow flood plains, 
dry wash areas, areas susceptible to mud- 
slide, etc. The Institute Director with 
assistance from his/her steering committee 
should identify those riverine ecosystems 
common to their particular geographic 
region. Most regions will encompass only 
one, possibly two of these ecosystems. 
However, in some parts of the country, 
(e.g., California), it may be necessary to 
address several of these ecosystems with 
separate workshops. 



-146- 



2. If more than one riverine ecosystem 
will be addressed in these workshops, 
then participants should be asked to 
sign up prior to the Institute for 
the workshop topic which most closely 
matches their geographic, ecologic con- 
ditions. This will provide the Institute 
Director with a good sense of how many 
workshops of each type to organize. If 
the Institute Director is familiar with 
the geographic/ ecologic conditions of 
each of the communities invited to the 
Institute he/she can assign individuals 
to the most appropriate workshops. 

3. If only one riverine ecosystem will be 
addressed in these workshops, then the 
Institute Director at registration should 
assign participants to these sessions to 
ensure an approximately equal balance of 
participants in each. 

4. The optimal workshop size for these 
sessions is 15-20 participants. The 
Institute Director should ensure that 
sufficient qualified resource people 
are available to enable the Director to 
keep keep these workshops to the optimal 
size. Qualified resource people might 
include scientists, natural resource 
planners or other individuals with a 
good understanding of various types 

of riverine ecologic systems. These 
resource people may also serve as work- 
shop discussion leaders or the Institute 
Director may choose to appoint someone 
else as official discussion leader. 

5. There should be sufficient breakout 
rooms to accommodate the number of work- 
shops planned. Each breakout room should 
contain 2 tables and sufficient chairs to 
accommodate 15-20 people. Each should be 
equipped with an easel, newsprint and 
magic markers and 2-3 copies of the map- 
ping materials (community base maps and 
natural resource overlays) to be used in 
this session. Workshop rooms should also 
contain any audio-visual equipment (slide 
projectors, overhead projectors, screens, 
etc.) requested by the workshop leaders. 



-147- 



REMARKS: 1. Once again the Institute director will need 

to evaluate the mapping tools provided with 
his trainers' manual to determine whether 
or not the maps are appropriate teaching 
tools for this audience. Keep in mind that 
the purpose of the mapping exercise is to 
familiarize the participants with the type 
and use of maps. The maps used for the 
exercise need not match exactly with the 
type of flood hazard problems reflected by 
communities participating in the Institute. 
On the other hand, if the types of natural 
resources are dramatically different than 
those reflected in the maps provided, the 
exercise map may be more useful if revised. 

2. The actual experience of participants 
using maps to discover the manner in which 
community development patterns and flood 
hazard mitigation strategies fit together 
is an important part of this exercise. 
When the mapping exercise is utiized the 
group should organize into two smaller 
groups, each standing around a table with 
the mapping materials on it (see blue lines 
of mapping materials, appendix B) . The 
interaction of the participants as they 
work together to answer questions for the 
mapping exercise (see briefing memorandum, 
Lesson Plan No. 5, Appendix B,) is an 
important part of the learning experience. 

3. If the Institute Director decides that 
he needs to develop a new set of mapping 
materials around a geographic area with 
resources, opportunities, and flood pro- 
blems more common to participating com- 
munities, he will wish to: 

• Select an area which has had a variety of 
natural resource maps completed and for 
which a Flood Insurance Rate Map has been 
completed. The area should be partly, 
but not fully, developed so that the 
exercise can be used to discuss future 
opportunities as well as current problems 



-148- 



• Select and obtain a base map (usually 
a U.S. Geological Survey quad sheet) 
of an appropriately large scale — not 
less than 1:24,000 — containing both 
natural features and development patterns 

• Select natural resource maps and land 
use maps useful for analysis of the 
interactions between development, flood 
hazards and natural resources. The maps 
used in the exercise described in this 
manual include: 

— Soils map; 

-- Wetlands map; 
-- Zoning map; 

— Development map; and 

— Floodway/f lood boundary map 
developed from a Flood Insurance 
Rate Map. 

• The natural resource and land use 
maps selected to overlay the base 
map should be redrawn onto mylar 
overlays and, of course, put on 
the same scale as the base map. 

• University geography or environmental 
studies departments may be the best 
source of assistance in identifying 
possible communities to serve as the 
model for this exercise. They may 
also be able to supply a graduate 
student who can inexpensively redraw 
and rescale the map overlays. 

4. Blue line copies of the maps prepared for 
this riverine institute are included in 
Appendix B. Reproduction copies of these 
materials can be obtained from the FEMA 
office in Washington, D.C. Training and 
Education Division. 

5. The workshop handout materials included in 
Appendix B are designed to be part of the 
Student Manual. 



-149- 



QUESTIONS TO BE CONSIDERED: 

1. What are the special ecological areas comonly found 
within river corridors? 

2. Where, within the river corridor, do they commonly 
occur? In what associations? 

3. What role do each of these resources play in flood 
hazard mitigation? 

4. How sensitive are these resources to the activities 
of man? 

5. How can these resources be protected? What management 
policies should be applied? 

6. What is meant by a land suitability analysis? 

7. How does such an analysis help identify flood hazard 
mitigation/resource protection opportunities? 

8. What role does resource mapping play in this analysis? 

9. What type of resource and maps exist or may be 
available for my community? From what sources? 

10. What environmental factors or values are most important 
in my community? 

11. What is a suitable map base on which to represent these 
factors? 



-151- 



o 



LESSON PLAN NO. 15 



COURSE TITLE: 



LESSON TITLE: 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: The Riverine Setting 



Designing a Flood Hazard 
Management Program in 
Riverine Communities 



TIME: 2.0 Hours 



OBJECTIVES: 1. 



2. 



3. 



4. 



5. 



6. 



To examine in a realistic setting the factors 
that affect the opportunities for flood hazard 
management in riverine communities. 

To examine the basic regulatory framework 
likely to result from community participation 
in the NFIP, and other Federal and State 
programs . 

To examine the range of strategies and tools 
that might be linked together to develop a 
comprehensive flood hazard management program 
according to the appropriate flood hazard 
management stage. 

To identify the economic and social interests 
that may be affected by alternative strategies. 

To explore the range of public participation 
techniques which would be useful when selecting 
and implementing a comprehensive community 
flood hazard management program. 

To establish the tradeoffs that must be made 
by a community in designing a flood hazard 
management program. 



SCOPE: 



Case study information on physical characteristics, 
population, flood problems, economic/social con- 
siderations, political context; present community 
maps and flood hazard areas; pre-flood and post- 
flood opportunities, goals development, legal 
institutional framework, specific strategies. 



FORMAT 



1. Concurrent workshops. Participants divide 
into groups of 15-20 people. 

2. Selected and trained facilitator leads group 
in discussion of case study materials. 



-152- 



$ 



3. In small groups, the facilitator asks partici- 
pants to take 5 to 10 minutes to read the 
case study. Then facilitator will outline 
the objectives of the session and ask partici- 
pants to introduce themselves. 

4. Facilitator will pose the following questions 
in the order shown: 

a. Who are the interests with a stake in 
flood hazard management? 

b. What is the nature of their stake? 

c. What needs of various interests will have 
to be met in order to obtain their support 
in meeting flood hazard management goals? 

Local government 
Low income 
Business 

Banker 

Real estate developer 

Salesman 

Industry/Land 

Water dependent/Water based industry M 

Civic Leader 
En v i r onme nt al i s t 

d. What kinds of tradeoffs (economic/social/ 
environmental/political) might various 
interests be willing to make? 

e. What kinds of strategies can be adopted 
to reflect these tradeoffs and to respond 
to the flooding problems of this community? 

f. What are the likely impacts of various 
strategies on various interest groups? 
On community as a whole? 

5. The preferred techniques to be used in 
addressing these questions is called small 
group brainstorming (see page 56 ). Using 
this technique, the facilitator goes around 
the room asking participants questions and 
recording these answers on newsprint. 

Once all answers have been recorded, 

then the facilitator leads the group in 

a discussion of several of the questions 

beginning with question d but incorporating gm 

answers to questions a, b and c where 

appropriate . 



-153- 



6. 



7. 



After each question has been discussed, 
participants should be asked to spend a 
few minutes considering how the answer 
might differ in their community. 



The attached Exercises D and E 
developed to help participants 
the questions regarding opport 
strategies in the pre- and pos 
periods. The facilitator migh 
ticipants to take 5-10 minutes 
vidually fill out charts listi 
the pre- and post-flood opport 
specific strategies. The faci 
then call on individuals to li 
tunities, strategies and stage 
they are applicable before mov 
group discussion. 



have been 

address 
unities and 
t-flood 
t ask par- 

to indi- 
ng some of 
unities and 
litator might 
st the oppor- 
s to which 
ing on to a 



REFERENCES 



) 



Instructor: 

a. Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection; Community Action 
GuTde", FEMA, Chapters III, VII and VIII 



b. 



c . 



Trainers' Manual, Lesson Plan No. 15, 

FEMA. 

Riverine Student Manual, FEMA. 



Participant: 

a. F lood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection: Community Action 
Guide , FEMA, Chapters III, VII and VIII 

b. Riverine Student Manual, FEMA. 



REQUIREMENTS: 



\ 



) 



1. Sufficient break out rooms for several 
groups of 15-20 people. 

2. Case study materials and worksheets on 
Rowlett Creek (found in Student Manual 
and in Appendix D of this manual). 
Prior to the Institute, the Institute 
Director should carefully read this 
case study material prior to the Insti- 
tute to determine whether or not it may 
need modification to best suit his/her 
particular region. (For example, in 
parts of California and Arizona, the 
materials might be modified to include 
dry wash flooding conditions.) 



-154- 



3. Small group discussion leaders should be 
provided case study materials in advance 
and have read it thoroughly before this 
session. 

4. Institute Director should conduct a special 
briefing for discussion leaders prior to 
the session. The briefing should include 

a review of the case materials how to use 
them, how to conduct the session, what 
major points to focus on, etc. If the 
group leaders are not experienced 
facilitators, the briefing session might 
include conducting a brief trial run of 
the session using facilitators as the 
audience and one of the director's staff 
as the facilitator. Following the trial 
run, the Director would conduct a critique 
of the session pointing out strengths and 
weaknesses. However, if the group leaders 
have had extensive experience conducting 
such session, this type of formal training 
may not be necessary. 



REMARKS: 1. This session is one of the most important 

training sessions of the conference. There 
is a lot of material to cover and group 
leaders will need to be quite organized in 
their approach to the session. 

2. There are six questions (letter a-f) that 
must be addressed during the two hour session. 
When one includes 15 minutes for reading the 
case study and general introductions, this 
leaves approximately 17 minutes per question. 

Note however that several of the questions 
can be answered very quickly and others 
simultaneously. We suggest that the facili- 
tator spend no more than 15 minutes soliciting 
answers (brainstorming) to each question. 

3. The most important concept that must be 
developed during this session is that of 
the tradeoffs that must be made to develop 
a program that satisfies many (not all) of 
the critical interests who must support it. 
Therefore we suggest that group discussion 
begin with question d while incorporating 
answers generated in questions a, b and c. 



'J 



-15 5- 



Don't get bogged down in the discussion of 
specific tools (i.e., PUD's vs. Transfer 
of Development Rights) . Instead focus on 
overall strategies (i.e., the portion of 
density tradeoffs) and the economic, social, 
political, and environmental impacts associated 
with each. 



i» 



oj 



>J 



-157- 



EXERCISE D 



Use this chart to record the flood hazard management opportunities 
identified in the workshop discussion of the case example. 



Potential Opportunities for Flood Hazard Management 





Pre-Flood Situation 


Post-Flood Situation 


Within 100-year 
Floodplain 






Structures 
( Existing 
and 
Future ) 

Undeveloped 
Land 


Outside Floodplain 
but within 
community 






Outside Community 
but within 
watershed 







-159- 



J 



EXERCISE E 



Use this chart to record the results of the workshop discussion 
relating to possible strategies identified in the case example. 
Refer to chart in selecting the most appropriate strategies. 



J 



^ 



Strategy (tool) 



Flood stage where most 
applicable 



Pre- 
Flood 



During 
Flood 



Post- 
Flood 



Affected 
Interests 



Trade-offs 






I 



23 



J 



APPENDIX A 

SAMPLE INVITATION LETTERS, BRIEFING MEMOS 



Appendix A 
SAMPLE INVITATION LETTERS 



TO SCHOLARSHIP PEOPLE: 
Dear 

I am pleased to invite you to participate in a three-day 
Flood Hazard Management Training Institute to be held from 
12:00 noon Sunday, May 18 to 4:30 p.m. on Tuesday, May 20. 
This Institute, for participants from Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, 
Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota is one of two pilot conferences 
in the country. Over 120 citizen leaders from this region are 
being asked to attend. 

The purpose of the Institute is to develop local leadership 
for public participation in designing and implementing a 
community flood hazard management program. Citizen leaders 
will learn about flood boundary mapping, design of community 
flood hazard mitigation programs, the National Flood Insurance 
Program, the role of ecological resources in flood hazard 
mitigation, and public participation techniques in flood 
hazard management. 

Every participant has been carefully selected on the basis 
of several criteria, including an interest in creative 
floodplain management, an economic interest in floodplain 
management, a role as a civic leader, elected official or 
engineer and the potential for influencing and further 
educating others in the community. Active future involvement 
in the planning for flood hazrd mitigation is a critical factor 
in consideration of participants. 

You have been recommended as an individual who meets these 
criteria for Institute participation. As an active [environ- 
mentalist, civic leader, local official] you will, I believe 
gain a great deal from this Institute. One major focus of the 
sessions will be the key role which natural resources can play 
in flood hazard mitigation. This is an important mesage to 
convey to local community leaders and environmental activists 
like you are perhaps best suited to make this point. I do 
hope you will be able to accept this invitation to attend. As 
I'm sure you will understand, we consider it important that 
Institute participants commit themselves to be present through- 
out the scheduled activities from Sunday noon through Tuesday 
afternoon. 

Limited scholarship funds are available to cover the expenses 
of those individuals who might otherwise be unable to attend 
the Institute. If you will require financial assistance please 
so indicate on the attached Registration Form. Any contribution 
which you or your organization can make towards your expenses 
will enable us to stretch scholarship funds to include other 
worthy participants. 



(continued ) 
TO SCHOLARSHIP PEOPLE -2- 



i 

brochure) and Chicago's O'Hare airport at 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 
p.m. on Sunday and at 5:30 p.m. on Tuesday. 



Necessary transportation will be provided, free of charge, 
between the newly renovated Illinois Beach Resort (see enclosed 



I am enclosing a preliminary program, fact sheet and a 
registration/information form. Please return the form and 
a check for an appropriate amount to me before April 21. 

If you have any questions, please call or write me or one of 
the members of the Regional Advisory Committee listed on this 
stationary. I hope you will be able to be with us at the 
Institute. 

Sincerely, 



-3- 
REGISTRATION FORM (SENT ONLY TO THOSE ELIGIBLE FOR SCHOLARSHIPS) 

Mail to: Richard L. Robbins, Regional Coordinator, 

Lake Michigan Federation, 53 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 1710 
Chicago, IL 60604 

Name 

Organization 



Preferred Mailing Address 



City State Zip 



Phone Daytime Evening 

There is no registration fee associated with the Institute. 
A charge of $85.40 covers luncheons and dinners from Sunday 
noon through Tuesday afternoon, accommodations for two nights, 
double occupancy, information materials, and the Institute 
Training Manual. Limited single occupancy is available at 
$20.90 additional for the two nights. 

REQUEST FOR FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 

I would like to attend the Institute, but can only do so 

with the amount of financial assistance requested below: 

Conference fee (Room and board) $85.40 



Round trip transportation costs 
(from to O'Hare) 



Total costs of Institute attendance 

Less my (or my organization's) contribution 

TOTAL ASSISTANCE REQUESTED 

I would like to share a room with 



I would like to have a roommate assigned. 

I do/ do not smoke . 

I am/ not willing to share my room with a smoker. 



I will need transportation from the Chicago airport. My 

flight arrives at O'Hare on at 

(Date) (Time) 

I plan to drive to the Institute and would be willing to 
take a passenger. 



-4- 



TO GENERAL ATTENDEES: 
Dear 

I am pleased to invite you to participate in a three-day 
Flood Hazard Managment Training Institute to be held from 
12:00 noon Sunday, May 18 to 4:30 p.m. on Tuesday, May 20. 
This Institute, for participants from Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, 
Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota is one of two pilot confer- 
ences in the country. Over 120 citizen leaders from this 
region are being asked to attend. 

The purpose of the Institute is to develop local leadership 
for public participation in designing and implementing a 
community flood hazard management program. Citizen leaders 
will learn about flood boundary mapping, design of community 
flood hazrd mitigation programs, the National Flood Insurance 
Program, the role of ecological resources in flood hazard 
mitigation, and public participation techniques in flood 
hazard management. 

Every participant has been carefully selected on the basis of 
several criteria, including an interest in creative floodplain 
management, an economic interest in floodplain management, 
a role as a civic leader, elected official or engineer and the 
potential for influencing and further educating others in the 
community. Active future involvement in the planning for 
flood hazard mitigation is a critical factor in consideration 
of participants. 

Participants in the Institute will include planners, local 
government officials, bankers, insurance experts, developers 
and real estate agents, appraisers, Red Cross and Civil 
Defense officials, consulting engineers, environmentalists 
and other concerned citizens. 

You have been recommended as an individual who meets these 
criteria for Institute participation. As a concerned citizen 
and local taxpayer, you stand to benefit considerably from 
an improvement in your communities flood hazard management 
program. For flooding carries with it tremendous costs not 
only to the flood victims but also to all community taxpayers 
who must pay the costs to repair public roads and utilities 
and to cover emergency police and rescue services. 

The training institute will provide you with an opportunity 
to explore alternative strategies to improve community flood 
hazard management progrms . I do hope you will be able to 
accept this invitation to attend. As you will I'm sure 
understand, we consider it important that Institute participants 
commit themselves to be present throughout the scheduled 
activities from Sunday noon through Tuesday afternoon. 



-5- (continued) 

TO GENERAL ATTENDEES 



Necessary transportation will be provided, free of charge, 
between the newly renovated Illinois Beach Resort (see enclosed 
brochure) and Chicago's O'Hare airport at 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 
p.m. on Sunday and at 5:00 p.m. on Tuesday. 

I am enclosing apreliminry program, fact sheet and a registration/ 
information form. Please return the form and a check for an 
appropriate amount to me before April 21. 

If you have any questions, please call or write me or one of 
the members of the Regional Advisory Committee listed on this 
stationary. I hope you will be able to be with us at the Institute 

Sincerely, 



-6- 

REGISTRATION FORM 

Mail to: Richard L. Robbins, Regional Coordinator, 

Lake Michigan Federation, 53 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 1710 ^ 
Chicago, IL 60604 

Name 

Organization 



Preferred Mailing Address 



City State Zip 



Phone Daytime Evening 

There is no registration fee associated with the Institute. 
A charge of $85.40 covers luncheons and dinners from Sunday 
noon through Tuesday afternoon, accommodations for two nights, 
double occupancy, information materials, and the Institute 
Training Manual. Limited single occupancy is available at 
$20.90 additional for the two nights. 

I plan or do not plan to attend the Institute. 

I enclose a check for $85.40 ($106.30 single) made payable 
to the Lake Michigan Federation. 



NOTE: All payments should be received before April 21. 
I would like to share a room with 



I would like to have a roommate assigned. 



I do/ do not smoke. 

I am/ am not willing to share my room with a smoker. 



I will need transportation from the Chicago airport. 
My flight arrives at O'Hare on at 



(Date) (Time) 

I plan to drive to the Institute and would be willing to 
take a passenger. 



-7- 



TO SPEAKERS 

Dear 

I am delighted you will be able to speak at the three-day 
Flood Hazard Management Training Institute to be held from 
12:00 noon Sunday, May 18 through 4:30 p.m. Tuesday, May 20. 

The time and topic of your presentation are described below. 
A copy of the program, fact sheet and other materials are 
enclosed. 

The Flood Hazard Management Training Institute is one of two 
pilot conferences in the country which is designed to develop 
local leadership for public participation in planning and 
implementing a community flood hazard management program. 

Our Midwest Institute for the states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, 
Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota will be held at the newly 
renovated Illinois Beach Resort along Lake Michigan in Zion, 
Illinois. 

The Institute will focus on flood boundary mapping, design of 
community flood hazard mitigation programs, the National Flood 
Insurance Program, the role of ecological resources in flood 
hazrd mitigation, and public participation techniques in flood 
hazard management. 

Expected participants include over 120 people (20 from each 
state). These will consist of planners, local government 
officials, bankers, insurance experts, developers and real 
estate agents, appraisers, Red Cross and Civil Defense officials, 
consulting engineers, environmentalists and other concerned 
citizens . 

Two groups are co-sponsoring the Institute. The Conservation 
Foundation is a national non-profit research and communication 
organization dedicated to the wise use of resources. The Lake 
Michigan Federation is a four state citizens supported, environ- 
mental agency, concerned with water quality. 

Please fill in the enclosed registration form telling us when 
you will arrive and depart, audio-visual, and other equipment 
needs. Please attach a personal vitae and return to the Lake 
Michigan Federation before April 21. 



(continued ) 
TO SPEAKERS -8- 



We will be holding a briefing session for all workshop leaders, 
speakers, and moderators at 1:00 p.m. on Sunday to review the 
goals and objectives of each particular session. Each resource 
person should plan on attending this session or allotting time 
before their particular session to discuss details of the 
program and their specific roles. The Sunday afternoon briefing 
is particularly important for those resource persons involved 
in the Monday afternoon workshops. 

Necessary transportation will be provided, free of charge, 
between the newly renovated Illinois Beach Resort (see enclosed 
brochure) and Chicago's O'Hare airport at 11:00 a.m. on Sunday 
and at 5:30 p.m. on Tuesday. 

Thanks again for your interest. 

We will send you training materials provided to all participants 
at the Institute as they are available. Please review them in 
your area of presentation. 

Your presentations include: 

Sincerely, 



i 



-9- 



> 



O 



SPEAKERS REGISTRATION FORM 



Name 
Title 



Organization 
Address 



City State Zip 



Phone Daytime Evening 

I will be arriving at the Institute at __^ on 

(Time) (Date) 

and will be leaving at on . 



(Time) (Date) 

Please provide me with the following meals (circle those applicable. 

D Sunday 
L D Monday 
L Tuesday 

and a double room for the following nights (circle those applicable) 

Sunday Monday 

A single room will cost you or your agency $10.45 per night extra. 

I will need the following audio-visual equipment: 

Please attach a personal vitae or a short six-line description 
of your background which is suitable for incorporation into the 
program for the Institute. 

Please return the registration form, personal vitae, and appropriate 
payment to the Lake Michigan Federation before April 21. The fee 
for double occupancy is $42.70 ($53.15 single per day) and include 
one luncheon and one dinner. The cost for any portion of the 
above package will be computed at your request. 

Please mail to: Richard L. Robbins, Regional Coordinator, 

Lake Michigan Federation, 
53 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 1710, 
Chicago, IL 60604 



-10- 
SAMPLE BRIEFING MEMO 



TO PANEL MEMBERS "FLOODING AND FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT IN 
COASTAL AREAS: AN OVERVIEW" 



Thank you for agreeing to serve as a panel member in the 
session on Sunday evening May 11 during the Region IV Coastal 
Flood Hazard Management Training Institute. 

The purpose of this introductory session is to provide 
participants with an understanding of the serious threat caused 
by coastal flooding as well as the inherent complexities of 
coastal flood hazard management. In this session, we hope to 
explore the perceived weaknesses of traditional approaches to 
flood hazard management and possible alternative, more effective 
solutions . 

The session will begin with a one-half hour film entitled 
"A Lady Named Camille" which vividly illustrates the devastating 
impacts of a major hurricane and raises some important questions 
concerning human occupation of coastal high hazard areas. The 
film is intended to set the stage for the panel discussion which 
will follow immediately. 

We are not asking panel members (who will include individuals 
from both the private and public sectors with considerable 
experience/expertise relating to coastal flood hazards) to 
deliver any prepared remarks. Rather we will ask that you 
participate in a roundtable discussion of key questions raised 
by either the moderator or members of the audience, drawing 
upon your own personal experiences. 

A list of questions which might be addressed during this 
session is attached. Please review these in preparation for 
your roundtable discussion. Also attached is a list of panel 
members including their addresses and phone numbers in the 
event you'd like to contact any of them prior to the institute. 

You should refer to the detailed program which you received 
earlier to get a good sense of how this session fits into the 
overall program. Also, you may find the background reading 
materials ("Community Action Guide Summary") which you'll be 
receiving shortly in the mail helpful in preparing for this 
session. 



J> 



-11- (continued) 



TO PANEL MEMBERS "FLOODING AND FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT IN 
COASTAL AREAS: AN OVERVIEW" 



We would like to meet with all of you immediately prior to 
this session to once more review the objective of the session 
and to answer any questions. The best opportunity to do this 
will probably be during dinner Sunday evening. We will confirm 
the exact time and place of this meeting at registration. 

We look forward to meeting all of you and once again, thanks 
for agreeing to contribute to this most important training 
institute. 




( ) 



-12- 



TO PANEL MEMBERS "THE ROLE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY 
FLOOD HAZARD DECISION MAKING 



Thank you for agreeing to serve as a panel member in the Monday 
morning session (9:45-10:45 a.m.) during the Region IV Coastal 
Flood Hazard Management Training Institute. 

The purpose of this session is to establish the importance of 
involving the public in developing a community flood hazard 
management program. The format will involve a one-half hour 
speech followed by a roundtable (panel) discussion of specific 
questions raised by the moderator and members of the audience. 

Dan O'Connell of the FAU/FIU Joint Center in Florida will 
deliver the opening speech. He will discuss some of the positive 
benefits resulting from effective public involvement and identify 
some of the key decision-points where public input could be most 
valuable. He will also talk about means to achieve effective 
public participation as well as some possible criteria for 
evaluating the success of a public participation effort. 

Following his speech, Mr. O'Connell will sit down with other 
panel members (representing a diverse range of interests) to 
answer questions posed by the moderator. The audience will 
also be encouraged to ask questions. 

The purpose of the roundtable discussion will be to elaborate 
on points made during the speech, and to elicit from other 
panel members new information or differing views about public 
participation. Panel members will not be asked to deliver any 
prepared remarks. Instead you will be asked to respond to 
specific questions based on your own experiences. 

You should refer to the detailed program which you received 
earlier to give you a good sense of how your session fits into 
the overall program. We've attached a list of the type of 
questions we hope will be addressed during this session, either 
in the opening speech or follow-up discussion period. You 
should find these useful in preparing for your session. Also 
attached is a list of panel members including addresses and 
phone numbers, should you wish to contact anyone prior to the 
institute. The background reading materials ("Community Action 
Guide" ) which you will be receiving shortly in the mail should 
also be helpful to you in preparing for this session. 



a 



•■3 



-13- 



TO PANEL MEMBERS "THE ROLE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY 
FLOOD HAZARD DECISION-MAKING 



We would like to meet with all of you participating in this 
session sometime during the institute to once more review 
the objectives of the session and to answer any questions. 
Probably sometime on Tuesday evening will be most convenient. 
We will try to confirm an exact time and place for this meeting 
at registration on Sunday. 

Once again, thank you for agreeing to participate in this very 
important training institute. We look forward to meeting you 
on May 11. 







J 



" 







1 




APPENDIX B 

MAPPING EXERCISE MATERIALS 
(COASTAL) 



Appendix B 
Coastal 



SAMPLE BRIEFING MEMORANDUM 



To: Workshop Leaders "Identifying Natural Resources and 
Flood Hazard Data Sources For Decision-making" — 
"Mapping Exercise" 



Thank you for agreeing to serve as a workshop leader for the 
Sunday, May 18, evening session (7:45-9:15 a.m.) during the 
Region IV Coastal Flood Hazard Management Training Institute. 

The workshops you will be leading represent an important 
element of the training program. The purpose of this session 
is two fold: (1) to describe the special ecological charac- 
teristics and hazard mitigation functions of coastal eco- 
systems, (2) to familiarize participants with several types 
of maps commonly available to communities and to increase 
participant appreciation for the use of maps as essential 
flood hazard mitigation planning tools. 

The session will be divided into two parts. During the first 
hour, group discussion will focus on coastal ecosystems 
and the special role natural resources can play in hazard 
mitigation. You should begin the session by giving a brief 
20-25 minute presentation using slides or any other visuals 
you may find useful in your talk. You should highlight the 
causes of flooding and flood damage in a particular geographic 
area and describe the special qualities of typical coastal 
ecosystems such as beaches and oceans, tidal rivers, and/or 
estuaries. You will also want to point out what role these 
natural resources can play in reducing flood hazards. Follow- 
ing your presentation, you should answer questions from the 
audience. 

At approximately 10 minutes before the first hour is up you 
should close discussion and give participants a brief break 
but encourage them to stay in the room. During this break you 
should distribute the mapping materials on the tables in pre- 
paration for the next portion of the session. 

During the second part of this session you will be leading 
the group in mapping exercise on land use suitability. You 
should begin this portion of the session with a very brief 
(5-10 minute) presentation on the principles of land use suita- 
bility analysis. A land suitability analysis is a process 
of data gathering, interpretation, and representation which 
results in a land clasif ication scheme reflecting the natural 



suitability or carry capacity of the land. The analysis is a 
stepped process involving: the identification of environmental 
considerations or elements (this identification could be based 
on the material discussed in a preceeding session on the nature 
of flooding and the role of ecological resources in flood hazard 
mitigation); the interpretation of this data (on a resource by 
resource basis) through the application of management principals 
to determine its limitations (a typical soils interpretation 
tables is an example of this); the mapping of each resource 
variable (on a common scale); and finally the overlaying of 
variables to form an environmental composite or suitability 
map. 

Several important questions and considerations about community 
mapping should be raised as part of your initial group presentation 
These questions include: 

1. What is a suitable community base map? (scale and 
avai lability) 

2. What environmental factors or values are of 
particular importance to the community (i.e., 
septic tank siting, hazard mitigation, etc.) 
What is the purpose or goal for the mapping 
project? 

3. What technique, medium, or materials are most 
appropriate to use in representing this infor- 
mation? How much will it cost? 

For the remaining 50 minutes of the session participants will 
break into small groups (10-15 people) to "work" with a set of 
maps and map overlays. Your role should be to guide the 
discussion and to see that important features on the maps are 
discussed. 

Remember that your group will consist of local officials, 
citizen activists and business leaders. Since the group's 
familiarity with maps will vary greatly, it would be most 
appropriate to keep the discussion basic. 

Each group will be provided with two sets of maps. Each set 
will consist of: a U.S.G.S. quad sheet; 3 clear mylar overlays 
(flood hazards, soils, and land use); and a set of aerial photos, 
from two different years, showing development in the region. 
Acetate and markers will be provided to allow participants to 
color or highlight features or soil types on the maps. (For 



example, you might want to consider having participants group 
and color soil types based on their suitability for development.) 
During the session we would like you to move the group towards 
a suitability analysis, using these maps. 

Enclosed you will find blue line copies of these mylar overlays; 
key to the maps, and interpretation of soil types. Also atached 
you will find a list of "features of interest" and questions that 
you may wish to address during the session. At the Institute, 
participants will receive a handout which introduces: different 
types of maps; map scale; topographic lines; and a key of U.S.G.S. 
map symbols; and general detailed description of the soil survey; 
a more detailed interpretation of soil types appearing on the overlay, 

We would like to meet with you and the other workshop leaders 
at about 7:15 p.m. on Sunday to once more review the objectives 
of the session and to answer quetions. Attached is a list of the 
other workshop leaders including their addresses and phone numbers. 
You might want to contact other workshop leaders prior to the 
institute to exchange ideas. We will let you know the exact time 
and location of that meeting at registration. 

Once again, thank you for agreeing to serve as a workshop leader 
in this most important training institute. We look forward to 
meeting you on May 18. 



GEORGETOWN SOUTH, S.C. 

The Georgetown South quadranqle is the base map on which 
overlays depicting wetlands zoning, flood hazards and soil 
types will be placed. This quad sheet should be viewed as 
part of an entire coastal system. The quads to the south and 
east will be available at the institute and an effort to link 
the estuary system represented on the Georgetown South quad 
with the ocean, beach, barrier island, and dune systems on the 
other quads should be made. 

Features of Interest: 

- symbols of the USGS map; 

wetlands and marshes (fresh, brackish and salt); 
spoil islands; 

- port and shipping channels; 

- lack of contour, and the use of benchmarks to show 
elevations ; 

heavy and light industry and associated infra- 
structure; 

- jetties and their affects (land aggrading to the 
east ) ; and 

- estuary fed by a tidal river. 

Questions to consider: 

What type of development is occurring in the area 
(depicted in purple)? 

What are some of the possible effects of this 
development (much of the development has occurred 
within floodprone areas)? 

What role do the wetlands and marshes play in this 
region? What could be some of the potential effects 
if these resources are degraded? 

- How do the vegetated dunes and barrier islands (eastern 
quad sheet) influence the flood potential in the estuary? 

What are the major soil types? What are the natural 
limitations of thes.e soils? 

How does the soil survey help in identifying flood- 
prone areas? 



-5- 



BASE MAPS 



MAP SCALE 



3 



There are three categories of base maps: 
planimetric, topographic, and ortho- 
photo. 

A planimetric map show's roads, structures, 
political boundaries, and waterways, etc. 
in two dimensions. It illustrates hori- 
zontal positioning, not the height of 
hills or valleys. 

A photogrammetric planimetric map is a 
planimetric map which has been prepared 
from aerial photographs and has been 
corrected so that horizontal measure- 
ments taken from the map accurately 
reflect the distance on the ground 
within a certain tolerance. 

A topographic map shows the type of 
information illustrated on a planimetric 
map plus it has contour lines to show 
hills and valleys of the land, drainage 
patterns and the steepness of slopes. 

A photogrammetric topographic map is a 
topographic map which has been prepared 
from aerial photographs and has been 
corrected so that both horizontal and 
vertical measurements taken from the 
map accurately reflect the distances 
and elevations on the ground within a 
certain tolerance. 

An orthophoto map is a map composed of 
a corrected aerial photograph on which 
features such as road names, place 
names, property boundaries, and political 
boundaries have been added. All the 
features which appear on an aerial 
photograph also appear on an ortho- 
photo map. 



Map scale defines the relation- 
ship between the measurements of 
the features as shown on the map 
and as they exist on the Earth's 
surface. Scale is generally 
stated as a ratio or fraction — 




Gorn^m 1:24,000 scale, 

"3 1 inch = 2,000 

.V'«\. ) * feet. 

~\ *«, i ° Area shown, 

1^ 1 square mile 



?: 1:62,500 scale, 
1 inch = about 
H# 1 mile. 
i#i Area shown, 
" -\ 6% square miles 



1:250,000 scale, 
1 inch = about 

4 miles. 
Area shown, 
107 square mile c 



1. Barbara Maire et. a^, Wetlands and 
Floodplains on Paper (Lincoln, Mass 
Massachusetts Audubon Society, 
undated) 



2. U.S.G.S., Topographic Maps 
(Washington, D.C.: Government 
Printing Office, 1972) 



-6~ 






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FLOODPLAIN DELINEATION ON AN ORTHOPHOTO MAP 



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TOPOGRAPHIC MAP SYMBOLS 



VARIATIONS WILL BE FOUND ON OLDER MAPS 



Primary highway, hard surface 

Secondary highway, hard surface 

Light-duty road, hard or improved surface 

Unimproved road 

Road under construction, alinement known 

Proposed road 

Dual highway, dividing strip 25 feet or less 

Dual highway, dividing strip exceeding 25 feet 

Trail 



Railroad: single track and multiple track 

Ra.lroads in juxtaposition. 

Narrow gage: single track and multiple track 

Railroad m street and carl me 

Bridge road and railroad 

Drawbridge: roadand railroad 

Footbridge 

Tunnel: road and railroad 

Overpass and underpass 

Small masonry or concrete dam 

Dam with lock 

Dam with road 

Canal with lock 



Buildings (dwelling, place of employment, etc.) 

School, church, and cemetery 

Buildings (barn, warehouse, etc.) 

Power transmission line with located metal tower 

Telephone line, pipeline, etc. (labeled as to type) 

Wells other than water (labeled as to type) 

Tanks: oil. water, etc. (labeled only if water) 

Located or landmark object; windmill 

Open pit, mine, or quarry; prospect 

Shaft and tunnel entrance 



.1 



■■■Hi 



Horizontal and vertical control station. 

Tablet, spirit level elevation 3MA5653 

Other recoverable mark, spirit level elevation A 5455 

Horizontal control station, tablet, vertical angle elevation vabmA95/9 

Any recoverable mark, vertical angle or checked elevation A3~"-5 

Vertical control station; tablet, spirit level elevation < 957 

Other recoverable mark, spirit level elevation X954 

Spot elevation x ?369 

Water elevation 670 



Boundaries. National 

State 

County, parish, municipio 

Civil township, precinct, town, barrio 

Incorporated city, village, town, hamlet 

Reservation, National or State 

Small park, cemetery, airport, etc. 

Land grant 
Township or range line. United States land survey. 
Township or range line, approximate location 
Section line, United States land survey 
Section line, approximate location 
Township line, not United States land survey . . 
Section line, not United States land survey 
Found corner: section and closing 
Boundary monument: land grant and other 
Fence or field line 






— + - -x — 




. Intermediate contour 
Depression contours . 
= Cut 

Levee with road 
Wash 

Tailings pond 



Shifting sand or dune: I ntricate surface 

Sand area 



Gravel beach 



Perennial streams . 
Elevated aqueduct 
Water well and spring 
Small rapids 
Large rapids . 
Intermittent lake 
Foreshore flat 
Sounding, depth curve 
Exposed wreck 



Intermittent streams 
Aqueduct tunne 
Glacier 
Small falls 
Large falls 
Dry lake bed 
Rock or coral reef . 
Piling or dolphin 
Sunken wreck 



Rock, bare or awash, dangerous to navigation 



Marsh (swamp) 
Wooded marsh 
Woods or brushwood 

Vineyard 

Land subject to 
controlled inundation 



Submerged marsh 
J Mangrc 



igrove 



I Orchard 
_ ! Scrub 
Urban area 



«- 



, 





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I I I I I I I I I 



-9- 



) 



MILE SCALE 1:62 500 



UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



TOPOGRAPHIC 

MAP INFORMATION AND SYMBOLS 

MARCH 1978 



) 



QUADRANGLE MAPS AND SERIES 

Quadrangle maps cover four-sided areas bounded by parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Quadrangle size is given in 

minutes or degrees. 
Map series are groups of maps that conform to established specifications for size, scale, content, and other elements. 
Map scale is the relationship between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground 
Map scale is expressed as a numerical ratio and shown graphically by bar scales marked in feet, miles, and kilometers. 

NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS 



Series 




Scale 


1 inch represents 


1 centimeter 
represents 


Standard 

quadrangle size 

(latitude-longitude) 


Quadrangle 

area 

(square miles) 




1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


24,000 

25.000 

20.000 

62.500 

63,360 

100.000 

250.000 

1 .000.000 

250.000 

500.000 


2,000 feet 
about 2,083 feet 
about 1 ,667 feet 
nearly 1 mile 
1 mile 

nearly 1 .6 miles 
nearly 4 miles 
nearly 16 miles 
nearly 4 miles 
nearly 8 miles 


240 meters 
250 meters 
200 meters 
625 meters 
nearly 634 meters 

1 kilometer 

2 5 kilometers 
10 kilometers 
2.5 kilometers 
5 kilometers 


716X7VS min. 
7V4X15 min. 
TfiX-VA mm 
I5X 15 mm 
15X20 to 36 min 
30X60 min 
\°y-T or 3° 
4°X6° 

l°X3° t o 15° 
2°x 7'/;° 


49 to 70 


7'/2 x |5- minute 

Puerto Rico 7V2-mmute 

1 5- minute 

Alaska 1:63.360 


98 to 140 

71 

197 to 282 

207 to 28 1 




1568 to 2240 


U. S. 1.250,000 


4 580 to 8 669 


U. S 1:1.000.000 


73,734 to 102 759 


Antarctica 1:250.000 


4 089 to 8 336 


Antarctica 1 :500.000 


28.174 to 30,462 



CONTOUR LINES SHOW LAND SHAPES AND ELEVATION 
The shape of the land, portrayed by contours, is the distinctive characteristic of topographic maps. 
Contours are imaginary lines following the ground surface at a constant elevation above or below sea level. 
Contour interval is the elevation difference represented by adjacent contour lines on maps. 
Contour intervals depend on ground slope and map scale Small contour intervals are used for flat areas; larger intervals are used 

for mountainous terrain. 
Supplementary dotted contours, at less than the regular interval, are used in selected flat areas. 
Index contours are heavier than others and most have elevation figures. 

Relief shading, an overprint giving a three-dimensional impression, is used on selected maps. 
Orthophotomaps, which depict terrain and other map features by color-enhanced photographic images, are available for 

selected areas. 

COLORS DISTINGUISH KINDS OF MAP FEATURES 
Black is used for manmade or cultural features, such as roads, buildings, names, and boundaries. 
Blue is used for water or hydrographic features, such as lakes, rivers, canals, glaciers, and swamps. 
Brown is used for relief or hypsographic features — land shapes portrayed by contour lines. 
Green is used for woodland cover, with patterns to show scrub, vineyards, or orchards. 

Red emphasizes important roads and is used to show public land subdivision lines, land grants, and fence and field lines. 
Red tint indicates urban areas, in which only landmark buildings are shown. 
Purple is used to show office revision from aerial photographs The changes are not field checked. 

INDEXES SHOW PUBLISHED TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS 
Indexes for each State, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, and Antarctica 

show available published maps. Index maps show quadrangle location, name, and survey date. Listed also are special maps 
and sheets, with prices, map dealers, Federal distribution centers, and map reference libraries, and instructions for ordering 
maps. Indexes and a booklet describing topographic maps are available free on request. 

HOW MAPS CAN BE OBTAINED 

Mail orders for maps of areas east of the Mississippi River, including Minnesota. Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United 
States, and Antarctica should be addressed to the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, 1200 South Eads Street, 
Arlington, Virginia 22202. Maps of areas west of the Mississippi River, including Alaska, Hawaii, Louisiana, American 
Samoa, and Guam should be ordered from the Branch of Distribution. U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, 
Denver, Colorado 80225. A single order combining both eastern and western maps may be placed with either office. 
Residents of Alaska may order Alaska maps or an index for Alaska from the Distribution Section, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Federal Building-Box 12, 101 Twelfth Avenue. Fairbanks, Alaska 99701 . Order by map name. State, and series. On an 
order amounting to $300 or more at the list price, a 30-percent discount is allowed. No other discount is applicable. 
Prepayment is required and must accompany each order. Payment may be made by money order or check payable to the 
U.S. Geological Survey. Your ZIP code is required. 

Sales counters are maintained in the following U. S. Geological Survey offices, where maps of the area may be purchased in 
person: 1200 South Eads Street, Arlington, Va.; Room 1028, General Services Administration Building, 19th & F Streets 
NW, Washington, D. C; 1400 Independence Road, Rolla, Mo.; 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, Calif.; Room 7638. 
Federal Building, 300 North Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles. Calif.; Room 504. Custom House, 555 Battery Street. San 
Francisco, Calif.; Building 41, Federal Center, Denver, Colo.; Room 1012. Federal Building, 1961 Stout Street, Denver 
Colo.; Room IC45, Federal Building, 1 100 Commerce Street, Dallas, Texas; Room 8105. Federal Building. 125 South 
State Street, Salt Lake City, Utah; Room 1C402, National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, Va.; Room 678. 
U. S. Court House, West 920 Riverside Avenue. Spokane, Wash.; Room 108, Skyline Building. 508 Second Avenue. 
Anchorage, Alaska; and Federal Building, 101 Twelfth Avenue, Fairbanks. Alaska. 

Commercial dealers sell U. S. Geological Survey maps at their own prices. Names and addresses of dealers are listed in each 
State index. . _. 



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-10- 



CONTOUR LINES 

A contour line is an imaginery line drawn on the ground which 
connects points of the same altitude or elevation. 

The contour interval is the vertical distance (difference in 
elevation! separating contour lines. While contour intervals between 
maps may vary, on any single map the interval is constant. The 
horizontal spacing of the contour lines, therefore, varies with 
land slope. In general, the closer the contour lines the steeper 
the slope. Wide spacing between lines indicates more gentle slopes. 
When contour lines cross streams the contour is bent into a V, 
the V points in the upstream direction. 



COMPARISON OF CONTOUR INTERVALS 





10" CONTOUR INTERVAL. 




opes 




2' CONTOUR INTERVAL. 



1. Barbara Maire et. al, Wetlands and Floodplains on Paper 
(Lincoln, Mass.: Massachusetts Audubon Society, undated) 



J 



-11- 



THE SOIL SURVEY 



Man is dependent on soils. Soils provide the habitat 
for plants and crops; the foundations for buildings and roads; 
and receptacles for domestic, municipal, industrial and 
animal wastes. Soil management should be a fundamental 
planning concern and the soil survey is an essential planning 
tool. The soil survey, conducted by the Soil Conservation 
Service, provides the basic information needed for planning 
including: a map depicting different soil types and a 
description of the properties and limitations of these soils. 

Of particular interest for land use planning are the 
soil's "engineering properties" and "engineering interpreta- 
tions." These interpretations indicate the suitability of 
areas for different uses. For example, the suitability of 
areas for homebuilding sites involves an evaluation of the 
flood hazards, height of the water table, slope of the land, 
shrink-swell potential of the soil and depth of the soil to 
hard rock.l 

The suitability of a site for septic tanks is rated 
according to the permeability of the soil (the ease with 
which water penetrates the soil) , the land slope, filtering 
capacity, level of the water table, and potential for flooding. 2 
Additional suitability interpretations include use for highways, 
ponds or reservoirs, and recreation. 

Soils maps, themselves, are very useful for floodplain 
delineation. Soils which are deposited by running water (called 
alluvial soils) or soils which are frequently covered by water 
differ in texture, color, or structure from those which 
develop under drier conditions. Such soils will, therefore, 
have classifications different from non-flood-prone soils. 

Attached is a chart depicting the soil suitability 
interpretations and a brief description of the major soil 
types found on the map sheet to be used in this exercise. 
Those soils which have developed under wet conditions 
or were deposited by runninq water can be identified 
from these descriptions. By drawing boundaries around these 
soil tvpes it is possible to make a rough delineation of 
the flood hazard area. 



1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 
Soil Survey For Wake County, North Carolina . (Washi ng ton , 
D.C.: GPO, 1970) 

2. Ibid. 



-12- 



KEY 



Z ONING : 

"45 Residential 

46 Commercial 

47 Heavy Industrial 

48 Light Industry 

49 Forest Agriculture 

50 Conservation/Preservation 

51 Historic Building District 

52 Mobile Home 

53 Destination Park 

54 Planned Development 
71 Port/GAPC 

99 Unclassified and/or Water 



DEVELOPMENT. 
1 TO' Residential 
120 Retail/Wholesale 
130 Industrial 
140 Extractive 
150 Transportation 
160 Institutional 
190 Open and Other 

Urban 
200 Agriculture 



SOILS: 

10 Leon 

12 Eunola 

13 Bladen 

18 Cape Fear 

20 Centenary 

27 Rutlege 

28 Echaw 

34 Johnston 

50 Lynn-Haven 

54 Chipley 

55 Witherbee 

57 Grifton (Ogeechee) 

59 Wahee 

61 Yemassee 

251 Wakulla 

602 Lakeland (Wando) 

500 Open Water 

99 Unclassified 



WETLANDS: 

Forest 
Logged Area/ 

Brush 
Open Water 
Impoundments 
Forested Wetlands 
Unforested Wetlands 
Sale Marsh 

Brackish Water Marsh 
Fresh Water Marsh 
Abandoned Rice 

631 Low Salt Marsh 

632 High Sale Marsh 

633 Brackish Marsh 

634 Freshwater Marsh 
720 Beach 



400 


440 


500 


510 


610 


620 


621 


623 


624 


630 



-13- 

SOILS: GEORGETOWN SOUTH, S.C. 

Leon (10) 

Poorly drained sandy soils with slopes less than 5%. 

Eulonia (12) 

Deep moderately well drained soils on the lower coastal plain. 
Slopes less than 2%. 

Bladen (13) 

Poorly drained soils occurring on broad nearly level flats 
of the coastal plains. 

Cape Fear (18) 

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils on stream terraces and 
low uplands of the coastal plain. Flooding of brief duration is 
frequent from January to May. 

Centenary (20) 

Sandy, moderately well drained, rapidly permeable soils of the 
coastal plain. Slopes are less than 2%. 

Rutlege (27) 

Deep, very poorly drained soils of upland flats and in depressions 
Slopes are less than 2%. Flooding of brief duration is frequent. 

Echaw (28) 

Moderately well drained, permeable soils on level eroded ridges 
and flats of the lower coastal plain. 

Johnston (34) 

Very poorly drained soils on nearly level flood plains of the 
coastal plain. Flooding, sometimes of long duration, is common. 

Lynn Haven (50) 

Poorly drained sandy soils with slopes of less than 2%. 

Witherbee (55) 

Sandy, somewhat poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils on 
nearly level broad ridges and flats of the lower coastal plain. 
Slopes of less than 2%. 

Grifton (57) 

Poorly drained soils on the middle and lower coastal plain 
uplands and stream terraces. Slopes are generallv less than 2%. 

Wahee (59) 

Poorly drained, slowly permeable, soils of the coastal plains. 
Slope range to 4%. Flooding, of brief duration, is common on 
some of these soils. 



-14- 



Yemassee (61) 

Poorly drained, nearly level soils on the lower coastal plain. 
Some rare flooding. 

Wakulla (251) 

Nearly level to sloping, well drained soils on upland and 
stream terraces of the coastal plain. Slopes range from 0-10%. 

Lakeland (602) 

Very well drained nearly level to steep soils on coastal plain 
uplands. Slopes range from to 30%. 



•15- 



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APPENDIX B 

MAPPING EXERCISE MATERIALS 
(RIVERINE) 



Appendix B 
Riverine 



SAMPLE BRIEFING MEMORANDUM 



To: Workshop Leaders "Identifying Natural Resources and 
Flood Hazard Data Sources For Decision-making" — 
"Mapping Exercise" 



Thank you for agreeing to serve as a workshop leader for the 
Sunday, May 18, evening session (7:45-9:15 a.m.) during the 
Region V Riverine Flood Hazard Management Training Institute. 

The workshops you will be leading represent an important 
element of the training program. The purpose of this session 
is two fold: (1) to describe the special ecological charac- 
teristics and hazard mitigation functions of riverine eco- 
systems, (2) to familiarize participants with several types 
of maps commonly available to communities and to increase 
participant appreciation for the use of maps as essential 
flood hazard mitigation planning tools. 

The session will be divided into two parts. During the first 
hour, group discussion will focus on riverine ecosystems 
and the special role natural resources can play in hazard 
mitigation. You should begin the session by giving a brief 
20-25 minute presentation usng slides or any other visuals 
you may find useful in your talk. You should highlight the 
causes of flooding in a particular geographic area and describe 
the special qualities of typical riverine ecosystems such as 
river corridors, wetlands and transition zones. You will also 
want to point out what role these natural resources can play 
in reducing flood hazards. Following your presentation, you 
should answer questions from the audience. 

At approximately 10 minutes before the first hour is up you 
should close discussion and give participants a brief break 
but encourage them to stay in the room. During this break you 
should distribute the mapping materials on the tables in prepara- 
tion for the next portion of the session. 

During the second part of this session you will be leading 
the group in mapping exercise on land use suitability. You 
should begin this portion of the session with a very brief 
(5-10 minute) presentation on the principles of land use sui- 
tability analysis. A land suitability analysis is a process 
of data gathering, interpretation, and representation which 
results in a land clasif ication scheme reflecting the natural 



suitability or carry capacity of the land. The analysis is a 
stepped process involving: the identification of environmental 
considerations or elements (this identification could be based 
on the material discussed in a preceeding session on the nature 
of flooding and the role of ecological resources in flood hazard 
mitigation); the interpretation of this data (on a resource by 
resource basis) through the application of management principals 
to determine its limitations (a typical soils interpretation 
tables is an example of this); the mapping of each resource 
variable (on a common scale); and finally the overlaying of 
variables to form an environmental composite or suitability 
map . 

Several important questions and considerations about community 
mapping should be raised as part of your initial group presentation 
These questions include: 

1. What is a suitable community base map? (scale and 
availability) 

2. What environmental factors or values are of 
particular importance to the community (i.e., 
septic tank siting, hazard mitigation, etc.) 
What is the purpose or goal for the mapping 
project? 

3. What technique, medium, or materials are most 
appropriate to use in representing this infor- 
mation? How much will it cost? 

For the remaining 50 minutes of the session participants will 
break into small groups (10-15 people) to "work" with a set of 
maps and map overlays. Your role should be to guide the 
discussion and to see that important features on the maps are 
discussed. 

Remember that your group will consist of local officials, 
citizen activists and business leaders. Since the group's 
familiarity with maps will vary greatly, it would be most 
appropriate to keep the discussion basic. 

Each group will be provided with two sets of maps. Each set 
will consist of: a U.S.G.S. quad sheet; 3 clear mylar overlays 
(flood hazards, soils, and land use); and a set of aerial photos, 
from two different years, showing development in the region. 
Acetate and markers will be provided to allow participants to 
color or highlight features or soil types on the maps. (For 



example, you might want to consider having participants group 
and color soi^ types based on their suitability for development.) 
During the session we would like you to move the group towards 
a suitability analysis, using these maps. 

Enclosed you will find blue line copies of these mylar overlays; 
key to the maps, and interpretation of soil types. Also atached 
you will find a list of "features of interest" and questions that 
you may wish to address during the session. At the Institute, 
participants will receive a handout which introduces: different 
types of maps; map scale; topographic lines; and a key of U.S.G.S. 
map symbols; and general detailed description of the soil survey; 
a more detailed interpretation of soil types appearing on the overlay, 

We would like to meet with you and the other workshop leaders 
at about 7:15 p.m. on Sunday to once more review the objectives 
of the session and to answer quetions. Attached is a list of the 
other workshop leaders including their addresses and phone numbers. 
You might want to contact other workshop leaders prior to the 
institute to exchange ideas. We will let you know the exact time 
and location of that meeting at registration. 

Once again, thank you for agreeing to serve as a workshop leader 
in this most important training institute. We look forward to 
meeting you on May 18. 



WAKE FOREST, N.C. 

The land within the Wake Forest Quandrangle is drained by a 
network of small streams and the larger Neuse River. Most 
of the smaller streams are characterized by V-shaped valleys 
with narrow floodplains. The Neuse River has a more U-shaped 
valley and a wider floodplain than the smaller streams. All 
the streams in the area have relatively steep gradients and 
steep valley walls. Even the Neuse River has some rapids at 
the town of Falls where the river drops 10 feet over a 1000 
foot distance. Due to the significant relief, including slopes 
up to 45% , the natural surface water drainage is rapid and the 
runoff potential is high. Natural water retention areas, such 
as wetlands, are uncommon although numerous manmade (farm) ponds 
now serve as runoff retention areas. 

Much of the land is currently forested by second growth species 
such as loblolly and shortleaf pine, althogh some areas remain 
in farming. Urban development is beginning to occur within the 
Quad, particularly around the City of Raleigh. For the large 
part, to date, the floodplain of the Neuse River has been left 
undeveloped, although some encroachment is currently occurring. 
Some clearing of the floodplain forest has occurred around Falls 
and a new pumping station has been built in the floodplain where 
U.S. Highway 64 crosses the river. All along the river consid- 
erable fill has been used to elevate roadbeds to allow for 
bridge construction. Constriction of flood flows is a possible 
result of this type of filling. 



WAKE FOREST, N.C. 

Features of Interest: 

- Steep slopes 

- Oxbow with wetland 

- falls 
reservoirs 

- intermittent streams 

- location and design of subdivisions with respect 
to topography. 

Questions of Interest: 

- What type of river valley is this (U-, V-, r broad 
valley? What does this imply about the vegetation on 
and width of the floodplain? 

- What are the major soil types? What are the natural 
limitations of these soils? 

- How does the soil survey help in identifying flood- 
prone areas? 

What limitations are imposed by steep slopes? 
(Discuss in association with soils) 

- What is an intermittent stream? How is it depicted 
on a topo map? 

- Using contour lines, how can you determine the direction 
of stream flow? The steepness of the gradient? 

- Where are "stream" valleys (on the map) which are not 
distinguished because of their small size? 



-6- 



BASE MAPS 



MAP SCALE 



There are three categories of base maps: 
planimetric, topographic, and ortho- 
photo. 

A planimetric map shoves roads, structures, 
political boundaries, and waterways, etc. 
in two dimensions. It illustrates hori- 
zontal positioning, not the height of 
hills or valleys. 

A photogrammetric planimetric map is a 
planimetric map which has been prepared 
from aerial photographs and has been 
corrected so that horizontal measure- 
ments taken from the map accurately 
reflect the distance on the ground 
within a certain tolerance. 

A topographic map shows the type of 
information illustrated on a planimetric 
map plus it has contour lines to show 
hills and valleys of the land, drainage 
patterns and the steepness of slopes. 

A photogrammetric topographic map is a 
topographic map which has been prepared 
from aerial photographs and has been 
corrected so that both horizontal and 
vertical measurements taken from the 
map accurately reflect the distances 
and elevations on the ground within a 
certain tolerance. 

An orthophoto map is a map composed of 
a corrected aerial photograph on which 
features such as road names, place 
names, property boundaries, and political 
boundaries have been added. All the 
features which appear on an aerial 
photograph also appear on an ortho- 
photo map. 



Map scale defines the relation- 
ship between the measurements of 
the features as shown on the map 
and as they exist on the Earth's 
surface. Scale is generally 
stated as a ratio or fraction — 




1:24,000 scale, 
1 inch = 2,000 

feet. 
Area shown, 
1 square mile 



1:62,500 scale, 
V 1 inch = about 
&*k 1 mile. 
<& Area shown, 
" 6% square miles 



1:250,000 scale, 
1 inch = about 

4 miles. 
Area shown, 
107 square mile; 



Barbara Maire et. al, Wetlands and 
Floodplains on Paper (Lincoln, Mass 
Massachusetts Audubon Society, 
undated) 



2. U.S.G.S., Topographic Maps 
(Washington, D.C.: Government 
Printing Office, 1972) 



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FLOODPLAIN DELINEATION ON AN ORTHOPHOTO MAP 




t> 



-9- 
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP SYMBOLS 

VARIATIONS WILL BE FOUND ON OLDER MAPS 



Primary highway, hard surface 

Secondary highway, hard surface 

Light-duty road, hard or improved surface 

Unimproved road 

Road under construction, almement known . , 

Proposed road 

Dual highway dividing strip 25 feet or less 

Dual highway, dividing strip exceeding 25 feet 

Trail 



I) 



Railroad, single track and multiple track 

Railroads m juxtaposition 

Narrow gage: single track and multiple track 

Railroad in street and carline 

Bridge: road and railroad 

Drawbridge: road and railroad 

Footbridge, 

Tunnel: road and railroad 

Overpass and underpass . 

Small masonry or concrete dam 

Dam with lock , . 

Dam with road 

Canal with lock 



Buildings (dwelling, place of employment, el 
School, church, and cemetery 
Buildings (barn, warehouse, etc.) • . 

Power transmission line with located metal tower 
Telephone line, pipeline, etc. (labeled as to type) 
Wells other than water (labeled as to type) 
Tanks: oil, water, etc. (labeled only if water) 
Located or landmark obiect: windmill 
Open pit, mine, or quarry: prospect 
Shaft and tunnel entrance 



-t— ! ~^ 



-0- 



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) 



Horizontal and vertical control station: 

Tablet, spirit level elevation BMA5653 

Other recoverable mark, spirit level elevation & 

Horizontal control station: tablet, vertical angle elevation VABMA9S/9 

Any recoverable mark, vertical angle or checked elevation &37T5 

Vertical control station: tablet, spirit level elevation x 957 

Other recoverable mark, spirit level elevation , x 954 

Spot elevation x 7369 

Water elevation .......... 670 



Boundaries. National 

State 

County, parish, munictpio ...... 

Civil township, precinct, town, barrio 

Incorporated city, village, town, hamlet 

Reservation, National or State 

Small park, cemetery, airport, etc. 

Land grant 
Township or range line, United States land survey 
Township or range line, approximate location 
Section line, United States land survey 
Section line, approximate location 
Township line, not United States land survey 
Section line, not United States land survey 
Found corner: section and closing 
Boundary monument: land grant and other 
Fence or field line ......... 




I ndex contour 
Supplementary contour 
Fill . 
Levee 

Mine dump 

Tailings .1 



Shifting sand ordunesL 
Sand area 



Perennial streams 
Elevated aqueduct 
Water well and spring. 
Small rapids 
Large rapids 
Intermittent lake . 
Foreshore flat 
Sounding, depth curve 
Exposed wreck 



. Intermediate contour 
Depression contours 

-.-Cut 

Levee with road 
Wash . 

J Tailings pond 
Intricate surface 
Gravel beach . . 

Intermittent streams 
Aqueduct tunnel . 
Glacier 
Small falls 
Large falls 
Dry lake bed 
Rock or coral reef 
Piling or dolphin 
Sunken wreck 



Rock, bare or awash; dangerous to navigation 



Marsh (swamp) 
Wooded marsh 
Woods or brushwood 

Vineyard 

Land subiect to 
controlled inundation 



Submerged marsh 

Mangrove 

Orchard 

Scrub 

Urban area 



I I I I I I I I I 



-10- 



MILE SCALE 1:62 500 



UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



TOPOGRAPHIC 

MAP INFORMATION AND SYMBOLS 

MARCH 1978 



QUADRANGLE MAPS AND SERIES 

Quadrangle maps cover four-sided areas bounded by parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Quadrangle size is given in 

minutes or degrees. 
Map series are groups of maps that conform to established specifications for size, scale, content, and other elements. 
Map scale is the relationship between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground 
Map scale is expressed as a numerical ratio and shown graphically by bar scales marked in feet, miles, and kilometers. 

NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS 



Series 




Scale 


1 inch represents 


1 centimeter 
represents 


Standard 

quadrangle size 

(latitude-longitude) 


Quadrangle 

area 

(square miles) 


7'/2-minute 

7'/iX 15-minute 

Puerto Rico 7Vi-minute 

15-minute 

Alaska 1:63.360 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


24.000 

25,000 

20,000 

62.500 

63,360 

100,000 

250,000 

1 ,000,000 

250,000 

500.000 


2,000 feet 
about 2,083 feet 
about 1 ,667 feet 
nearly 1 mile 
1 mile 

nearly 1.6 miles 
nearly 4 miles 
nearly 16 miles 
nearly 4 miles 
nearly 8 miles 


240 meters 
250 meters 
200 meters 
625 meters 
nearly 634 meters 
1 kilometer 
2,5 kilometers 
10 kilometers 
2.5 kilometers 
5 kilometers 


7ViX7'/4 min. 
7'/ixi5 m in. 
7 l /2X7i/ 2 min. 
15X 15 min. 
15X20 to 36 min 
30X 60 min. 
l°x 2° or 3° 
4°X6° 

1°X3° to 15° 
2°x 7'/4° 


49 to 70 

98 to 140 

71 

197 to 282 

207 to 281 

1568 to 2240 

4,580 to 8.669 

73,734 to 102,759 

4.089 to 8.336 

28,174 to 30.462 




U. S. 1:250,000 


U S. 1:1,000,000 


Antarctica 1:250,000 . . 


Antarctica 1:500.000 







CONTOUR LINES SHOW LAND SHAPES AND ELEVATION 
The shape of the land, portrayed by contours, is the distinctive characteristic of topographic maps. 
Contours are imaginary lines following the ground surface at a constant elevation above or below sea level. 
Contour interval is the elevation difference represented by adjacent contour lines on maps. 
Contour intervals depend on ground slope and map scale Small contour intervals are used for flat areas; larger intervals are used 

for mountainous terrain. 
Supplementary dotted contours, at less than the regular interval, are used in selected flat areas. 
Index contours are heavier than others and most have elevation figures. 

Relief shading, an overprint giving a three-dimensional impression, is used on selected maps. 
Orthophotomaps, which depict terrain and other map features by color-enhanced photographic images, are available for 

selected areas. 

COLORS DISTINGUISH KINDS OF MAP FEATURES 
Black is used for manmade or cultural features, such as roads, buildings, names, and boundaries. 
Blue is used for water or hydrographic features, such as lakes, rivers, canals, glaciers, and swamps. 
Brown is used for relief or hypsographic features — land shapes portrayed by contour lines. 
Green is used for woodland cover, with patterns to show scrub, vineyards, or orchards. 

Red emphasizes important roads and is used to show public land subdivision lines, land grants, and fence and field lines. 
Red tint indicates urban areas, in which only landmark buildings are shown 
Purple is used to show office revision from aerial photographs The changes are not field checked. 

INDEXES SHOW PUBLISHED TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS 
Indexes for each State, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, and Antarctica 

show available published maps. Index maps show quadrangle location, name, and survey date. Listed also are special maps 
and sheets, with prices, map dealers. Federal distribution centers, and map reference libraries, and instructions for ordering 
maps. Indexes and a booklet describing topographic maps are available free on request. 

HOW MAPS CAN BE OBTAINED 

Mail orders for maps of areas east of the Mississippi River, including Minnesota, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United 
States, and Antarctica should be addressed to the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, 1200 South Eads Street, 
Arlington, Virginia 22202. Maps of areas west of the Mississippi River, including Alaska, Hawaii, Louisiana, American 
Samoa, and Guam should be ordered from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, 
Denver, Colorado 80225. A single order combining both eastern and western maps may be placed with either office. 
Residents of Alaska may order Alaska maps or an index for Alaska from the Distribution Section, U. S. Geological Survey, 
Federal Building-Box 12, 101 Twelfth Avenue, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701. Order by map name, State, and series. On an 
order amounting to $300 or more at the list price, a 30-percent discount is allowed. No other discount is applicable. 
Prepayment is required and must accompany each order. Payment may be made by money order or check payable to the 
U. S. Geological Survey. Your ZIP code is required. 

Sales counters are maintained in the following U. S. Geological Survey offices, where maps of the area may be purchased in 
person: 1200 South Eads Street, Arlington, Va.; Room 1028, General Services Administration Building, 19th & F Streets 
NW, Washington, D. C; 1400 Independence Road, Rolla, Mo.; 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, Calif.; Room 7638, 
Federal Building, 300 North Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles, Calif.; Room 504, Custom House, 555 Battery Street, San 
Francisco, Calif.; Building 41, Federal Center, Denver, Colo.; Room 1012, Federal Building, 1961 Stout Street, Denver 
Colo.; Room 1C45, Federal Building, 1100 Commerce Street, Dallas, Texas; Room 8105, Federal Building, 125 South 
State Street, Salt Lake City, Utah; Room 1C402, National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, Va.; Room 678, 
U. S. Court House, West 920 Riverside Avenue, Spokane, Wash.; Room 108, Skyline Building, 508 Second Avenue, 
Anchorage, Alaska; and Federal Building, 101 Twelfth Avenue, Fairbanks, Alaska. 

Commercial dealers sell U. S. Geological Survey maps at their own prices. Names and addresses of dealers are listed in each 



( 



State index. 



IIOR— GEOLOGICAL 



WESTON VlRGlf 



009 29: X 3"1VDS XOOd 

000 SI 00001 000s 



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



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-11- 



V 



CONTOUR LINES 

A contour line is an imaginery line drawn on the ground which 
connects points of the same altitude or elevation. 

The contour interval is the vertical distance (difference in 
elevation! separating contour lines. While contour intervals between 
maps may vary, on any single map the interval is constant. The 
horizontal spacing of the contour lines, therefore, varies with 
land slope. In general, the closer the contour lines the steeper 
the slope. Wide spacing between lines indicates more gentle slopes. 
When contour lines cross streams the contour is bent into a V, 
the V points in the upstream direction. 



COMPARISON OF CONTOUR INTERVALS 



V 





10' CONTOUR INTERVAL. 



t) 




opes 




2' CONTOUR INTERVAL. 



1. Barbara Maire et. al, Wetlands and Floodplains on Paper 
(Lincoln, Mass.: Massachusetts Audubon Society, undated) 



-12- 



c 



THE SOIL SURVEY 

Man is dependent on soils. Soils provide the habitat 
for plants and crops; the foundations for buildings and roads; 
and receptacles for domestic, municipal, industrial and 
animal wastes. Soil management should be a fundamental 
planning concern and the soil survey is an essential planning 
tool. The soil survey, conducted by the Soil Conservation 
Service, provides the basic information needed for planning 
including: a map depicting different soil types and a 
description of the properties and limitations of these soils. 

Of particular interest for land use planning are the 
soil's "engineering properties" and "engineering interpreta- 
tions." These interpretations indicate the suitability of 
areas for different uses. For example, the suitability of 
areas for homebuilding sites involves an evaluation of the 
flood hazards, height of the water table, slope of the land, 
shrink-swell potential of the soil and depth of the soil to 
hard rock. 1 

The suitability of a site for septic tanks is rated 
according to the permeability of the soil (the ease with 
which water penetrates the soil) , the land slope, filtering 
capacity, level of the water table, and potential for flooding. 2 
Additional suitability interpretations include use for highways, 
ponds or reservoirs, and recreation. 

Soils maps, themselves, are very useful for floodplain 
delineation. Soils which are deposited by running water (called 
alluvial soils) or soils which are frequently covered by water 
differ in texture, color, or structure from those which 
develop under drier conditions. Such soils will, therefore, 
have classifications different from non-flood-prone soils. 

Attached is a chart depicting the soil suitability 
interpretations and a brief description of the major soil 
types found on the map sheet to be used in this exercise. 
Those soils which have developed under wet conditions 
or were deposited by running water can be identified 
from these descriptions . By drawing boundaries around these 
soil tvpes it is possible to make a rough delineation of 
the flood hazard area. 



1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 
Soil Survey For Wake County, North Carolina . (V7ashington, 

D.C.: GPO, 1970) {m 

2. Ibid. 



-13- 



SOIL ASSOCIATION 



Creedmore-White Store Association 

Gently sloping to hilly, deep and moderately deep, moderately 
well drained soild that have a very firm clayey subsoil; 
derived from sandstone, shale, and mudstone. 

Mayodan-Granville-Creedmoor Association 

Gently sloping to moderately steep, deep or moderately deep, 
well drained and moderately well drained soils that have a 
subsoil of friable sandy clay loam to very firm clay; derived 
from sandstone, shale, and mudstone. 

Herndon-Georgeville Association 

Gently sloping to moderately steep, deep, well-drained soils 
that have a subsoil of friable silty clay loam to clay; derived 
from phyllite (Carolina slates) . 

Appling-Durham Association 

Gently sloping to sloping, deep, well-drained soils that have 
a subsoil of friable sandy clay loam to firm clay; derived 
mostly from granite, gneiss, and schist. 

Cecil-Appling Association 

Gently sloping to steep, deep, well-drained soils that have a 
subsoil of red, friable to firm clay loam to clay; derived mostly 
from gneiss and schist. 

Cecil Association 

Gently sloping to steep, deep, well-drained soils that have a 
subsoil of firm red clay; derived mostly from gneiss and schist. 

Cecil-Madison Association 

Gently sloping to steep, deep, well-drained soils that have 
a subsoil of red, friable to firm clay loam to clay; derived 
mostly from gneiss and schist. 

Appling Association 

Gently sloping to moderately steep, deep, well-drained soils 
that have a subsoil of firm clay loam to clay; derived mostly 
from granite, gneiss, and schist. 

Wagram-Norfolk Association 

Nearly level to sloping, very deep, somewhat excessively drained 
and well drained soils that have a subsoil of friable sandy loam 
to sandy clay loam; formed in Coastal Plain sediments. 

Appling-Louisburg-Wedowee Association 

Gently sloping to steep, deep and moderately deep, well 
drained and somewhat excessively drained soild that have a sub- 
soil of very friable coarse sandy loam to firm clay; derived 
mostly from granite, gneiss, and schist. 



-14- 



KEY 



Map 

symbol 

AfA 
AgB 

AgB2 

AgC 

AgC2 

ApB 
ApB2 

ApC 

ApC2 

ApD 
AsB 
AsB2 

AsC 
AsC2 

Au 

a/) 

Bu 

CeB 

CeB2 

CeC 

CeC2 

CeD 

CeF 

CgB 

CgB2 

CgC 

CgC2 

C1B3 

C1C3 

C1E3 

Cm 

Cn 

Co 

Cp 

CrB 

CrB2 

CrC 



Mapping unit 

Altavista fine Bandy loam, to k percent slopes- 
Appling gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent 

slopes 
Appling gravelly sandy loam. 2 to b uercent 

slopes, eroded 
Appling gravelly sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent 

slopes 
Appling gravelly sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent 

slopes, eroded 

to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 



Appling sandy loam, 2 
Appling sandy loam, 2 

eroded 
Appling sandy loam, 6 
Appling sandy loam, 6 

eroded 

Appling sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Appling fine sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Appling fine sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Appling fine sandy loam, 6 
Appling fine sandy loam, 6 

eroded 
Augusta fine sandy loam 
Borrow area 
Buncombe soils 
Cecil sandy loam, 
Cecil sandy loam, 
Cecil sandy loam, 
Cecil sandy loam, 
Cecil sandy loam, 



to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



to 6 
to 6 



to 6 percent slopes, 
to 10 percent 
to 10 percent 



percent slopes 
percent slopes, eroded 
6 to 10 percent slopes 
6 to 10 percent slopes, eroded 
10 to 15 percent slopes 
Cecil sandy loam, 15 to ii5 percent slopes 
Cecil gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes- 
Cecil gravelly sandy loam, 2 

eroded 
Cecil gravelly sandy loam, 6 

slopes 
Cecil gravelly sandy loam, 6 

slopes, eroded 
Cecil clay loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 
Cecil 'clay loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 
Cecil clay loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 
Chewacla soils 
Colfax sandy loam 
Congaree fine sandy loam 
Congaree silt loam 

2 to 6 percent slopes 
2 to 6 percent slopes, 



Creedmoor sandy loam, 
Creedmoor sandy loam, 

eroded 
Creedmoor sandy loam, 



6 to 10 percent slopes 



Map 
symbol 

CrC2 

CrE 
CtB 

etc 

DuB 
DuB2 
DuC 
DuC2 

EnB 
EnB2 

EnC 
EnC2 

EnD2 

FaB 
FaB2 

FaC2 

GeB 
GeB2 

GeC 
GeC2 

GeD2 

Go 

GrB 

GrB2 

GrC 
GrC2 

GrD 
Gu 
HeB 
HeB2 

HeC 
HeC2 

HeD 

HrB 

HrB2 

HrC 

HrC2 

HrD2 

HrE 

LdB2 

LdC2 

LdD2 

LoB 

LoC 



Mapping unit 

Creedmoor sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Creedmoor sandy loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes 
Creedmoor silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
6 to 10 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, eroded 
to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



6 percent slopes 
6 percent slopes, 



Creedmoor silt loam, 
Durham loamy sand, 2 
Durham loamy sand, 
Durham loamy sand, 
Durham loamy sand , 

eroded 
Enon fine sandy loam, 
Enon fine sandy loam, 

eroded 
Enon fine sandy loam, 
Enon fine sandy loam, 

eroded 
Enon fine sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Faceville sandy loam, 
Faceville sandy loam, 

eroded 
Faceville 6andy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Georgeville silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Georgeville silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 



to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 



6 to 10 percent slopes 
6 to 10 percent slopes, 



Georgeville silt loam, 
Georgeville silt loam, 

eroded 
Georgeville silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Goldsboro sandy loam 

Granville sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Granville sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Granville sandy loam, 6 
Granville sandy loam, 6 

eroded 
Granville sandy loam, 
Gullied land 
Helena sandy loam, 2 
Helena sandy loam, 2 

eroded 
Helena sandy loam, 6 
Helena sandy loam, 6 

eroded 
Helena sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Herridon silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 



to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



10 to 15 percent slopes 

to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 

to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



4 



< 



to 6 percent slopes, eroded 
to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



Herndon silt loam, 2 
Herndon silt loam, 6 
Herndon silt loam, 6 

eroded 
Herndon silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Herndon silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes 
Lloyd loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded 
Lloyd loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, eroded 
Lloyd loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, eroded 
Louisburg loamy sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Louisburg loamy sand, 6 to 10 percent slopes 



-15- 



* 



KEY 



4n 



Map 
symbol 

LoD 
LwB 
LwB2 

LwC 

LwC2 

Ly 

Ma 

MdB2 

MdC2 

MdD2 
MdE2 

Me 

MfB 
MfB2 

MfC 
MfC2 

MfD2 

MfE 
MgB 

MgB2 

MgC 

MgC2 

MyB 

MyB2 

MyC 

MyC2 

MyD 
NoA 
NoB 
NoB2 

HoC 
NoC2 

OrB 
0rB2 

0rC2 

PkC 



Map 
Mapping unit aymbol 

Louisburg loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes PkF 
Louisburg-Wedovee complex, 2 to 6 percent slopes Ps 
Louisburg-Wedowee complex, 2 to 6 percent Ra 

slopes, eroded Fo 

Louisburg-Wedowee complex, 6 to 10 percent Sw 

slopes VaB 

Louisburg-Wedowee complex, 6 to 10 percent VaB2 

slopes, eroded VaC2 

Lynchburg sandy loam WaA 

Made land WaB 

Madison sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, WaC 

eroded WgA 

Madison sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, Wh 

eroded WkC 

Madison sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, WkE 

eroded WaB 

Madison sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, WnB2 

eroded 
Mantachie soils WnC 

Mayodan sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes WmC2 

Mayodan sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded WmD2 

Mayodan sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes 
Mayodan sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, WniE 

eroded Wn 

Mayodan sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, Wo 

eroded WsB 

Mayodan sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes WsB2 
Mayodan gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent 

slopes WsC 

Mayodan gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent WsC2 

slopes, eroded 
Mayodan gravelly sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent WsE 

slopes WtB 

Mayodan gravelly sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent WvD3 

slopes, eroded 
Mayodan silt loam, thin, 2 to 6 percent slopes WwC 
Mayodan silt loam, thin, 2 to 6 percent slopes, WwE 

eroded WwF 

Mayodan silt loam, thin, 6 to 10 percent slopes WxE 
Mayodan silt loam, thin, 6 to 10 percent slopes. Wy 

eroded 
Mayodan silt loam, thin, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Norfolk loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 
Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Norfolk loamy sand, 6 to 10 percent slopes 
Norfolk loamy sand. 6 to 10 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Orangeburg loamy sand, 6 to 10 percent slopes. 

eroded 
Pinkston sandy loam, to 10 percent slopes 



percent slopes 
percent slopes, eroded 



Mapping unit 

Pinkston sandy loam, 10 to k5 percent slopes 

F rummer sand 

Rains fine sandy loam 

Roanoke fine sandy loam 

Swamp 

Vance sandy loam, 2 to 6 

Vance sandy loam, 2 to 6 

Vance sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, eroded 

Wagram loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

Wagram loamy sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes 

Wagram loamy sand, 6 to 10 percent slopes 

Wagram-Troup sands, to k percent slopes 

Wahee fine sandy loam 

Wake soils, 2 to 10 percent slopes 

Wake soils, 10 to 25 percent slopes 

Wedowee sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 

Wedowee sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Wedowee sandy loam, 6 
Wedowee sandy loam, 6 

eroded 
Wedowee sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Wedowee sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes 
Wehadkee silt loam 
Wehadkee and Bibb soils 
White Store sandy loam, 
White Store sandy loam, 

eroded 
White Store sandy loam, 
White Store sandy loam, 

eroded 
White Store sandy loam, 10 to 20 percent 6lopes 
White Store silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
White Store clay loam, 2 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 
Wilkes soils, 2 to 10 percent slopes 
Wilkes soils, 10 to 20 percent slopes 
Wilkes soils, 20 to ^5 percent slopes 
Wilkes stony soils, 15 to 25 percent slopes 
Worsham sandy loam 



to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 

to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



Adapted from: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation 
Survey for Wake County, North Carolina, November 1970. 



u 



-16- 



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APPENDIX C 



SLIDE SHOW SCRIPT 



4> 



a 



Appendix C 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT SLIDESHOW 



AUDIO 



VISUAL 



SFX: RAIN, RUSHING WATER 



JOYCE MACDONALD : 

It was terrible. We had about 
15 minutes warning. I looked, and 
the water was just coming up like 
a monster. 

Had it happened at night, I'm 
really afraid that someone would 
have died. 

After 12 times, I quit counting. 



SHOTS OF FLOODING IN 
MONTGOMERY COUNTY, 
TEXAS 



AFTERMATH OF FLOODS 



BRUCE BERRYHILL : 

There are certain areas that should 
never be developed , that people should 
never live in, and this particular area 
was a good example. Nature kept telling 
the people over and over again, "You have 
no business being here, this is my area 
and as long as you're here I'm going 
to continue to bully you until eventually 
you will have to get out." 



MUSIC: THEME MUSIC UP FOR TITLES, 
THEN UNDER 



TITLE SEQUENCE 



NARRATOR : 

Every year it costs this country 
about $4 billion to pay for losses due 
to floods. And a large part of these 
costs are spent again and again, as 
communities rebuild in flood hazard 
areas and take their chances with 
another flood. 

Settlement in a coastal or river 
floodplain has always been attractive: 
fertile farmland, water and electric 
power, transportation, and recreation 
have been a powerful draw. 



FLOODS AND FLOOD 
DAMAGE IN DIFFERENT 
PARTS OF THE 
COUNTRY 



BUILDINGS IN COASTAL 
AREAS , NEAR RIVERS 



-2- 



AUDIO 



VISUAL 



NARRATOR (con't.) 

And they've induced us to forget, 
for a while, vthat a floodplain is, 
after all, a place where floods occur. 

Attempting to reduce the impact 

of periodic flooding, we've built 
structures to keep water away from 
us. Even though it's always been 
too expensive to design structures 
that would protect against the worst 
possible event, these bridges, dams 
and levies gave us a false sense of 
security about living in the floodplain, 

It's been a difficult learning 
experience. 

But in recent years, we've taken 
a new approach. The National Flood 
Insurance Program, established in 
1968, represented an important first 
step in federal efforts to reduce 
flood costs through non-structural 
measures. This program offers low- 
cost flood insurance to community 
residents and, in return, requires 
that communities adopt flood hazard 
management ordinances. These ordi- 
nances can significantly lessen the 
probability of greater flood damages 
occurring. 

To further emphasize the impor- 
tance of sound floodplain management, 
the President issued the Floodplains 
Executive Order in 1977. This order 
requires all federal agencies to give 
serious consideration to the impact 
of their activities on floodplains. 
It recognizes that huge economic 
losses are involved when there's an 
unwise investment in a flood-prone 
area, and requires that the special 
character and environmental values 
of floodplains be considered before 
dollars and lives are committed to 
such development. 

The newly created Federal Emer- 
gency Management Agency represents 
this new thrust in federal initiatives. 
FEMA's .six principal program offices 



DAMS , LEVIES 



FLOODS CAUSED BY 
DAMS BREAKING 

PICTURE OF BILL 
CREATING NFIP 



PICTURE OF EO 11988 



PICTURE OF 
PRESIDENT CARTER 



SLIDE SHOWING FEMA'S 
6 PROGRAM AREAS 



-3- 



AUDIO 



VISUAL 



NARRATOR (con't.) 

coordinate federal responses to all 
types of natural and man-made emer- 
gencies . 

The majority of disaster relief 
funds over the last few years have 
been spent on flood-related damages. 
In an attempt to move away from the 
traditional rebuilding and reflooding 
cycle, FEMA, through the Federal Insur- 
ance Administration, is now helping 
communities to reduce future hazards 
through floodplain management, flood- 
proofing and acquisition/relocation 
programs . 

The story of FIA's work in Mont- 
gomery County, Texas, is one of three 
community stories we'll be looking at. 
Each community had a flooding problem, 
and each devised its own strategy for 
solving that problem. 



SLIDE DEPICTING FLOOD 
SCENE WITH FIA TITLE 



OTHER FLOOD SLIDES 



MUSIC UP, THEN UNDER 



SHOTS OF MONTGOMERY 
COUNTY AS IT IS TODAY 



BOB CHENOWETH ; 

In the past ten years, we've come 
a long way in floodplain management. 
Especially in the sense of the non- 
structural solution vs. a structural 
solution. 

For years and years the idea was 
that you have to go out and protect 
the people by building a levy or a 
dam or some giant project, public 
works project, and slowly we've been 
turning that around to a non-structural 
solution. Instead of trying to keep 
the water away from the people, we're 
trying to keep the people away from 
the water. 



BOB CHENOWETH, WITH 
NAME AND TITLE ON SLIDE 



NARRATOR ; 

It was a solution that made sense. 
Whispering Oaks, a subdivision of 
Montgomery County, Texas, had been 
flooding an average of 4 to 5 times 
a year. 



FLOOD-DAMAGED HOUSES 



-4- 



AUDIO 



VISUAL 



NARRATOR (cont'd.) 

It was built in 1972, as part of 
a huge housing boom in the area sur- 
rounding Houston. Since it was built 
a year before Montgomery County joined 
the National Flood Insurance Program, 
the county had not yet passed their 
floodplains ordinance in compliance 
with the Program's guidelines. This 
ordinance would have prohibited new 
construction in the floodway had it 
been in effect. Instead, Whispering 
Oaks was built squarely in an old 
river bed , and prospective buyers were 
assured that the area would not flood. 



DIAGRAM OF FLOODWAY, 
FLOODPLAIN 



JOYCE MACDONALD ; 

We knew nothing about palmetto palms, 
or we would have known. Palmetto palms 
are plants that grow in standing water. 
In fact, I told the builder to please, 
when he leveled my yard after the house 
was finished, to see to it that they left 
those plants , because I thought they were 
beautiful, (laughs) Now we find out that 
we were actually on the river bed. 



PALMS GROWING NEAR 
FLOOD-DAMAGED HOUSES 



NARRATOR ; 

After joining the National Flood 
Insurance Program, Montgomery County 
should have been denying rebuilding 
permits to the damaged structures 
in the floodway. They were reluctant 
to do that, though, since that would 
leave the homeowners without a place 
to live. 

In July, 1979, the regional FEMA 
office informed the Montgomery County 
officials that they risked suspension 
from the flood insurance program, and 
they would become ineligible for future 
flood insurance or federal disaster 
relief funds unless they enforced the 
requirements of the floodplains ordinance 

At the same time, FEMA offered to 
work with county officials to develop 
a program that would move the residents' 
houses out of the hazard area. 

With this type- of federal support, 
county officials decided to deny the 
permits. 



COURTHOUSE IN CONROE 



-5- 



AUDIO 



VISUAL 



BOB CHENOWETH ; 

When these permits are denied, a 
homeowner is left stranded with a 
flood insurance check for his damages, 
but he is at the same time unable to 
rebuild or repair that structure. So 
the Federal Insurance Administrator 
made a determination that where an 
insured property owner had received 
the permit denial to make his repairs 
with his flood insurance monies, 
then she construed this loss to be a 
total loss, and at that point made 
funds available to that individual 
up to the limits of their policy. 

So the individuals were able to 
use the $35,000 flood insurance 
money in combination with the Small 
Business Administration low-interest 
disaster loan (due to the fact that 
this area had been a Pres identially- 
declared disaster area) , and take 
these funds and use them to pay off 
their existing mortgage, buy a vacant 
lot outside the floodplain, move 
that flood-damaged house out of the 
floodplain to the new location and 
repair it on the new location. 

NARRATOR (con't. ) : 

It makes a lot of sense to relocate 
the house out of the floodplain vs. 
repairing it and getting it ready for 
a new flood. 



SEQUENCE OF HOUSE 
BEING JACKED UP, 
MOVED , AND PUT ON 
NEW FOUNDATION 



NEW MUSIC UP, THEN UNDER 



SCENES OF FLOODING 
IN BALTIMORE COUNTY 



NARRATOR: 

Like Montgomery County, Baltimore 
County, Maryland has experienced tre- 
mendous growth over the last decade. 
And it, too, has been hard hit by 
flooding, much of the damage exacer- 
bated by inadequate structures and 
extensive residential development in 
the floodplain. 



-6- 



AUDIO 



JOHN SEYFFERT ; (cont'd) 

Baltimore "County today is recovering 
from the building boom of the late 60's 
and early 70' s, where the development 
pressures and the building activity 
were such that I honestly believe that 
the local government was just unable to 
keep up with it and to enforce and 
to adequately plan and provide for it. 

Back in the 60*5, there was very 
little thought given to what in fact 
was a floodplain. There was a lot of 
thought given to letting houses be 
built near little babbling brooks 
and little streams, and if the stream 
was in the way, they could bulldoze it 
over a little bit, put the house in, 
and the stream would stay off to the 
side . 

In the five year period from 1970 
to 1975, Baltimore County suffered in 
state, local and federal dollar damage 
about $85 million worth of flood-related 
damage. And lost 13 citizens to floods. 
Which did a great deal to heighten 
awareness, not only of citizens, but of 
local politicians. 

NARRATOR: 

This heightened awareness resulted 
in a determination by the county to 
solve its own flooding problems. A 
task force was created, and it found 
that in addition to the $85 million 
cost immediately evident, there were 
hidden costs associated with police, 
fire, and emergency services that 
brought the total even higher. 

None of these expenditures were 
solving the basic problem. Structures 
like bridges or culverts might be re- 
paired in one area, only to cause even 
more flooding downstream, or be damaged 
again during a subsequent storm. 

The task force decided that the 
problem had to be analyzed on a water - 
shed basis, and that a comprehensive 
solution had to be designed. 

It also made sense to take hard look 
at the economics of each situtation. 



VISUAL 



JOHN SEYFFERT, 
NAME AND TITLE ON 
SLIDE 






HOUSES LOCATED IN 
DANGEROUS AREAS 



FLOOD DAMAGE 



- 



TASK FORCE MEETING 



AREA MAP BY COMMUNITY 



SAME MAP AS A 
WATERSHED DIAGRAM 



-7- 



AUDIO 



VISUAL 



JOHN SEYFFERT : 

A classic vexample is that we had a 
small, highly reactive, highly developed 
watershed of about 25 square miles that 
had flooding problems that were affect- 
ing something in the order of between 
17 and 20 homes that were built in 
the floodplain. 

And what was causing the flood 
problems was an undersized bridge. 

The public works department had 
done a cost estimate on enlarging the 
bridge, which would cost about $1.8 
million. 

The task force sat down, and 
identified that the 20 homes were 
worth about $900,000 market value, 
plus relocation. I made the deter- 
mination that the county should buy 
the homes, either demolish or remove 
them, and turn the area into a linear 
park system for the community. 

And that was a recommendation 
which was made in 1976, and today 
is fact. 



EXAMPLE AREA 



BRIDGE IN AREA 



GRAPHIC TREATMENT 
OF THE NUMBERS 



NARRATOR : 

So far, the county has removed 
172 houses from the floodplain . . 
without outside help. 



JOHN SEYFFERT : 

Part of the uniqueness of our 
program is that it is all local 
money. There is no federal money 
and no state money. The total 
package of $26 million basically 
came from a reallocation of priori- 
ties within the county. Instead of 
spending $5 million a year on storm 
drain improvements that really didn't 
resolve any problems , we are now 
spending that same five million dollar 
spending level on acquisition of 
flooded homes. So that we are getting 
a positive result. 



-8- 



AUDIO 



VISUAL 



NEW MUSIC UP, THEN UNDER 



AERIAL SHORT OF 
SANIBEL ISLAND 



JOHN CLARK : 

Sanibel is a sand bar, a long one, 
12 miles long, that was built by ocean 
forces at a distance of about 4 miles 
from the mainland. It's all built out 
of sand and wrinkles like corduroy that 
extend from the north tip around the 
south tip of the island. In the center 
of it is a 3 ,500 acre wetland swamp area 
with a river in it. 

The island, until recently, was a 
community mainly of people interested 
in nature, nature freaks of all 
kinds. 

But it was a prime piece of real 
estate, and when the coastal boom 
hit here after World War II, 
speculators' interest was drawn 
to Sanibel. 



NATURAL BEAUTY 
OF ISLAND 



NARRATOR : 

A bridge was built from the 
mainland , and rapid development of 
the island came with it. 

Canals were cut through the island , 
draining the wetlands in the interior. 
Houses were built on the canals , and 
on the dunes , and began to pollute the 
water. 



CAUSEWAY 



CANALS 



PORTER GOSS : 

Back in 1972, it became obvious to 
those of us living here at the time, 
that the kind of development that was 
taking place wasn't what we wanted for 
Sanibel at all. Uncontrolled growth 
really was outstripping the services 
and the natural systems of the island. 

We had a lot of building going up 
that wasn't safe. The type of construc- 
tion that we were objecting to was con- 
struction that was put on the wrong type 
of foundation, too close to the water, 
and positioned on the island at too low 
a sealevel where it was perfectly obvious 
that a tidal surge, or any type of storm 
surge, was going to do some serious damage, 
if not knock the darn thing down. 



* 



-9- 



AUDIO 



VISUAL 



NARRATOR: 

The concerns were real. First was 
one of safety. Most of the people 
coming to Sanibel had no concept of 
the enormity of a coastal flood. 
In the event of a hurricane, it's 
likely the entire island would be 
over-washed by storm-driven waves. 
With only one bridge to the mainland , 
evacuation of a densely populated 
island would be impossible. 



DIAGRAM OF DIFFICULTY 
OF EVACUATION 



PORTER GOSS ; 

We decided we absolutely had to 
have a managed growth policy, and we 
could not come to an agreement with 
our local government on that point. 

So we just went ahead and decided 
to incorporate ourselves as a city — we 
had the support of the people to do 
that. By becoming a city, we were 
able to impose our own land use 
planning, and implement the plan as 
law. 

NARRATOR : 

About the time of the incorporation, 
new federal and state laws were being 
passed that set more stringent standards 
for type and location of buildings in 
coastal areas. For example, regulations 
issued by the National Flood Insurance 
Program required that new development 
in high hazard areas be elevated on 
pilings and constructed to withstand 
hurricane force winds. In addition, 
mangrove stands and sand dunes were 
to be protected. Sanibel used all 
these provisions as a starting point, 
and came up with their own stricter 
guidelines . 

They imposed a future limit on the 
population of the island, and distri- 
buted the permitted number of new struc- 
tures in accordance with the carrying 
capacities of natural systems. 

Strong performance standards were 
set for new development: distance 
from the beach, flood height elevation, 
limits of the clearing of vegetation. 



EXAMPLE OF 
GUIDELINES 



-10- 



AUDIO 

NARRATOR : (cont'd) 

They devised a plan for restoration 
of past ecological damage and insured 
a continuing high level of public 
involvement. 



VISUAL 



PORTER GOSS : 

Sanibel is a place where you walk 
the beach at night, you maybe fish a 
little bit, you shell a little bit at 
low tide — you enjoy it for what's 
here. 

And you don't try and change it. 

THEME MUSIC UP, THEN UNDER 



BEAUTY SHOTS OF 
SANIBEL 



REPRISE OF SLIDES 
FROM THREE EXAMPLES 



NARRATOR: 

Creative approaches to flood hazard 
management are being implemented by 
local government across the country. 

These communities have analyzed 
their particular situations, and drawn 
up plans that work to reduce flooding, 
and also to meet other community goals. 

NARRATOR : (con't) 

Drawing upon technical assistance 
and valuable data provided through the 
National Flood Insurance Program, as 
well as other federal , state and private 
sources , these communities have 
tailored their programs to best meet 
their needs. 



END MUSIC UP, THEN UNDER 



REPRISE OF SLIDES 
FROM OUR THREE 
EXAMPLES 



BRUCE BERRYHILL : 

Something has to be done to 
that flood over and over again, 
about it won't get it done, so 
just get in there and (this is 
a little pun we have) and get 



areas 

Talking 
let's 
kind of 
our feet 



wet. Let's just go ahead and get in 
there and try something. If it fails, 
well then, we'll £ry something else. 



G 



-11- 



a 



AUDIO 

PORTER GOSS : 

If enough people want to get something 
done, it'll happen. We have been told that 
there is no way we can do what we've done. 

We've done it, and we'll continue to 
do it as long as the people want it to 
be done. 



VISUAL 



"ASSISTANCE IS 
AVAILABLE FROM:" 



STATE FLOOD INSURANCE 
COORDINATOR 

FOR OVERALL COORDINATION 
OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE, 
CONTACT YOUR NFIP 
REPRESENTATIVE IN YOUR 
FEMA REGIONAL OFFICE 



2> 



D 



'- 



* 



APPENDIX D 



CASE STUDY MATERIALS 



<i 



i 



% 



Appendix D 



HAMPTON COUNTY/CITY OF OAKTON * 

Hampton is a coastal county located on a peninsula between 
the Atlantic Ocean and the Coral River (see attached maps). 
Oakton , which is located in the center of the county, is the 
largest city and county seat. Although the county contains 
other small towns, they will not be discussed in any detail 
in this case example. 

I . Physical Characteristics 

Hampton County 

Located in the lower part of the coastal plain physio- 
graphic province, the topography of the county is typified 
by sandy ridges , sandy loam plateaus , and swampy areas of 
Carolina bays. Land elevations vary from sea level upward to 
75 feet. Streambeds are gently sloping, with the lower reaches 
of most streams being under the influence of lunar tides. 

The 27 miles of oceanfront is comprised of a narrow band 
of barrier islands and beaches, most of which are backed by 
the intercoastal waterway. A large portion (2/3) of these 
islands and beaches is currently developed at low or medium 
densities with seasonal and year-round homes. However, a 
major section of low-lying islands (Wilton Island) comprised 
primarily of low salt marsh is as yet undeveloped. 

Approximately 19% of the county's total land area is 
developed for urban or industrial uses; the remaining area 
is comprised of agriculture and forestry, water and wetlands, 
and vacant land. The majority of the county is unincorporated. 

The climate in the county ranges from hot and humid in 
the summer to cool in the winter. Rain occurs throughout the 
year but is heaviest in the summer and early fall. 

Oakton 

Oakton encompasses approximately 22 square miles and lies 
along the east bank of Coaral River, 26 miles upstream from its 
mouth and 8 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. It is the county 
seat and a major port along the Atlantic coast. 

Numerous creeks transect the city, the most significant 
being Scott Creek which meanders through the northern portion 
of town, and James Creek running from southeast to northwest 
emtying into Scott Creek. Barney Creek transects the southwest 
portion of the town eventually emptying into Coral River. Much 
of the floodplain along the Scott Creek and Barney Creek is 
classified as riverine wooded swamp and contains a significant 
amount of primary and secondary wetlands. Along the Coral River, 
the floodplains consist primarily of brackish marsh typical 
of a tidal river system. 



* 



The case study community resembles an actual community in some 
respects. Facts have been changed, however, to make the case 
study more useful in the Institute. The study community should 
accordingly be considered fictitious. 



-2- 

Much of the city lies above the 100-year flood elevation 
on a bluff rising above Coral River. But some significant 
development does exist in the lowlands adjacent to the river 
and its tributaries, particularly Scott Creek, James Creek and 
Barney Creek. This development includes park facilities, warves , 
warehouses, storage tanks, commercial establishments and resi- 
dences . 

Little developable land remains in the area surrounding 
the central business district. Consequently, in recent years 
the areas around Barney and Scott Creeks have become increasingly 
attractive for development. 

II . Population 

The county population in 1970 was 80,000, with over 50 
percent living in Oakton. Although Oakton's population 
increased only slightly since then, the county's population 
grew steadily at the rate of 2-3% per year. During the summer, 
tourists flock to the county's relatively unspoiled beaches, 
tremendously increasing the population of the coastal areas. 
Many summer residents are now converting beach homes to year 
round residences. This trend could represent a serious problem, 
given the low level of existing public services presently 
provided by the county in this area. 

Because of the county's extensive and attractive coast 
and its solid industrial base, growth pressures are expected 
to continue. Many residents are beginning to express concerns 
about threats to their quiet rural lifestyle, environmental 
damage, and rising taxes resulting from unsound development. 

III . Principal Flooding Problems 

Hampton 

Storm tides generated in the Atlantic Ocean by hurricanes 
and other severe wind storms are the dominant source of flooding 
in Hampton Couty. During extreme tides most of the barrier 
beach islands are overtopped to such a depth that ocean waves 
pass directly into the sounds, impinging on the mainland shores 
and entering the estuaries of the coastal streams. Heavy storms 
can also generate tides which move up the Coral River and into 
its tributaries. 

Observed high water marks and tide gauge records show that 
ocean tides higher than 5 feet have occurred six times since 
1954. The last major hurricane in 1952 destroyed over 600 ocean- 
front homes and damaged another 300. Most of the homes have 
been replaced and many new ones have been built since then. 
Conseqently , observers expected that damages from the next 
hurricane will be quite costly. 

4 



« 



1) 



-3- 



In addition to flooding from storm tides, extreme rainfalls 
can generate flooding in the county's numerous smaller rivers 
and streams. However, due to the estuarine nature of the Coral 
and North Coral Rivers , flood flows from these upstream tribu- 
taries have, a negligible effect on river stages in Hampton County. 

Currently there are no flood protection projects within 
the unincorporated portion of the county. Along the coast, 
numerous beach nourishment projects are underway in an effort 
to counter the natural erosive effects which have been aggravated 
by construction of artificial inlets. 

Oakton 

Storm tides are also the dominant flood source in Oakton. 
Generated in the Atlantic Ocean by hurricanes and other severe 
windstorms, these tides move up the Coral River and into its 
tributaries. The highest tide of record occurred during Hurri- 
cane Hazel when the Coral River reached approximately 7 feet 
at the foot of Cook Street. (Cook Street runs parallel and 
just north of Route 40. ) Storm surges also caused flooding 
along Barney Creek and Scott Creek and lower portions of James 
Creek. 

During extreme rainfalls, most of the creeks in Oakton are 
also subject to flooding from stream overflow. A severe thunder- 
storm in 1969 produced $500,000 worth of damages. Coral River, 
however, due to its estuarine nature is negligibly effected 
by upstream flows. 

Local drainage and flood control projects involving stream 
channelization have been constructed along portions of James 
Creek, otherwise there are no flood control projects in the 
city. If development within the 100-year floodplain continues 
at its current rate, flood damages resulting from the next 
major hurricane can be expected to exceed $2 million. 

IV. Economic/Social Considerations 

Hampton 

The population of the county is growing rapidly, many of 
the new residents attracted by water-related amenities which 
the county has to offer. Lands located adjacent to water have 
become the most attractive for residential development. Along 
the coast, development on the barrier islands and inland water- 
way has increased rapidly over the last 25 years. A sizeable 
portion of these areas still remains relatively undeveloped, 
but pressure to construct residential/recreational homes is 
strong. Inland, most of the new residential development is again 
occurring adjacent to shorelines. 



-4- 



Industrial development, particularly in the area around 
Oakton has increased tremendously in recent years and is partly 
responsible for the county's rapid growth. Tourism and second 
home development along the coast are other factors contributing 
significantly to the county's economic base. 

The county has recently completed a land use analysis which 
identifies areas suitable for development. Suitability is 
based on a number of environmental factors, such as septic tank 
suitability, load supporting capability of soils, and unique 
values such as prime agricultural lands, wetlands, floodplain 
water recharge areas, etc. According to this analysis, over 
one half of the county is not suitable for any development 
whereas the rest should be developed with caution. 

Oakton 

The major portion of Oakton is already developed. Most 
of those areas still available and attractive for future develop- 
ment lie within the 100-year floodplain of the Coral River 
and James Creek. However, in recent years the city has not 
experienced significant growth pressures as the majority of 
new development within the county has occurred outside the city 
boundaries in the rural areas. 

Existing development within the 100-year floodplain of 
the Coral River consists primarily of industrial and commercial 
activities including railroad terminals, factories, warehouses, 
etc. , some of which must essentially be located adjacent to 
the river. Some residential development also exists along Coral 
River north of the industrial zone. Development within the 
100-year flood boundaries of Scott Creek, James Creek is almost 
entirely residential, much of it low income, mobile home develop- 
ment. Development along Barney Creek is primarily middle to 
high income residential. 

Flood damages resulting from Hurricane Hazel totaled over 
$1 million and city officials have estimated that due to 
increases in property value and new development within the flood 
hazard area, the next major hurricane could result in damages 
two to three times that figure. Seven people died during that 
hurricane and over 1,500 families were left homeless. Flooding 
resulting from heavy rains has periodically resulted in sub- 
stantial damages exceeding $500,000 much of which is damage to 
public property such as roads, bridges and sewer and water lines 
Experts project that a very heavy rain could produce close to 
$1 million in damages to property along James Creek and other 
tributaries. 



-5- 



V. Political Context 



Hampton 



J 



Hampton County is governed by a Board of Commissioners 
elected at large. The commissioners are generally sensitive 
to the need for a strong flood hazard management program in 
the county and are supportive of the state's coastal zone 
management efforts. The commissioners also recognize the 
importance of working closely with the incorporated areas of 
the county, particularly the city of Oakton , in developing a 
comprehensive plan. 

Some board members, however, are equally convinced of the 
need to promote continued economic development within the county 
and recognize the high economic value of shorefront properties. 
They are reluctant to impose what they might consider overly 
restrictive land use controls. 

The County has adopted standard zoning and subdivision 
regulations. These have recently been amended to incorporate 
the minimum requirements of the NFIP regular program, including 
for coastal areas: delineation of the high velocity zone; eleva- 
tion (on pilings) of new structures within the high hazard 
area to the 100-year flood level (which reflects storm surges 
but not wave height); minimum construction standards; and limita- 
tions on man-made alterations to sand dunes and mangrove swamps. 
Similar requirements also apply to inland flood hazard areas. 
Although the county did consider additional land use control 
measures such as mandatory set back requirements and prohibition 
of development on wetlands, officials voted these down as being 
too prohibitive. 

Oakton 

Oakton has a mayor-city county form of government. The 
mayor is elected by the voters and has considerable influence 
and power over actions of the city council. 

The present mayor has been in office for eight years, 
during which the city has not experienced any serious flooding. 
He does not consider flooding to be a significant problem and 
does not support the enforcement of stronger flood hazard 
management regulations. 

Oakton entered the regular phase of the NFIP program in 
1977 having developed an acceptable floodplain management pro- 
gram. This program consists of ordinances incorporated into 
their existing standard zoning regulations which essentially 
prohibit any new development in the floodway and require 
elevation of any new buildings within the 100-year floodplain 
to the 100-year„f lood level. To date, no attempt has been made 



-6- 



to further restrict development within the 100-year floodplain 
or to acquire additional portions of the hazard area for recrea- 
tion/open space or other purposes. (A one-mile stretch of 
James Creek is presently designated for recreation as is a 
portion of the southern shore of Barney Creek.) 

Local officials have encountered very little resistance 
to implementing the ordinances, since they do not appear to 
impose an unreasonable burden on most property owners. However, 
officials believe there would be strong public resistance to 
stronger ordinances which precluded development within the 100- 
year floodplain or involved any sort of acquisition/relocation 
program. Residents in the Barney Creek area, which is one of 
the more exclusive sections of town, are particulary resistant 
to any actions which might be initiated by local officials to 
restrict future use of their property. 

VI . Additional Institutional Considerations 

The State has enacted a Coastal Zone Management program 
which establishes specific state policies concerning prevention 
of unreasonable risk in hazard areas, minimizing future flood 
damages , encouraging establishment of parks and open space and 
flood hazard areas, and protecting natural and protective values 
of the shoreline. The state program requires that local govern- 
ments by the state to develop plans and implementation strategies 

All dredge and fill activities in navigable waters must 
receive a permit from the Army Corps of Engineers. The State 
has direct permitting authority over all coastal wetland and 
waterway activities and reviews all proposed development pro- 
jects in these areas to ensure that the integrity of these 
natural resources will not be adversely affected, and that the 
projects are consistent with state policies including those 
of coastal zone management, water quality, etc. 

The areawide 208 plan prepared for the county identifies 
storm water runoff as a major source of water pollution in the 
county and has recommended that local governments implement 
non-structural measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of 
future development. Suggested implementation measures include 
requirements for on site stormwater retention facilities for 
all new developments, local sediment control ordinances, and 
local acquisition programs to protect natural flood storage 
areas . 

The State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan has identi- 
fied an undeveloped area in the northwest corner of the town 
at the intersection of the Coral River and Scott Creek as a 
high priority recreation site. 



-7- 



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-11- 



Opportuniti es and Strategies -- Workshop Questions 

Opportunities 

1. What are the major sources of flooding in the community? 

2. What has been the impact of past floods in the community? 
In the county? What types of development presently 
exists in the flood hazard areas? 

3. Are there factors which might increase the potential 

for flooding in the future? What would be the community 
impacts of an increase in flooding? 

4. Are there any natural resources within the flood hazard 
area of the city, and/or county that presently serve 

a hazard mitigation function? If so, how? Are these 
currently protected in any way? 

5. What other natural resources exist within the city 
or county which could or should be protected under 
a comprehensive flood hazard management program? 

6. What measures (structural and non-structural) have 
already been taken to mitigate against flood hazards? 
What kinds of ordinances have been established to 
fulfill requirements of NFIP? 

7. What types of flood hazard mitigation opportunities 
exist within the city? Within the county? Pre-flood 
situation? Post-flood situation? 

8. What are some existing constraints (economic, social, 
political, environmental) which may affect the range 
of opportunities? 

9. What are some possible goals for a flood hazard mitiga- 
tion program in the city? In the county? How should 
these goals be established? Who should be involved? 

10. How do the flooding problems in the city and/or county 
relate to those of your area? What opportunities do 
you foresee in your area which may or may not exist 
for the city/county described here? 







-12- 



Review Questions/Strategies 



1. In addition to the existing ordinances, what 

types of strategies and specific tools are 
available to the city and the county to imple- 
ment a flood hazard mitigation program? Which 
goals does each group of strategies meet? To 
which stage of flood hazard (pre, during, post) 
do these strategies relate? 

2. How effective are standard land use controls 
such as zoning and subdivision ordinances? 
How might they be strengthened? 

3. Who are the actors (federal, state, and local) 
likely to be involved in developing a flood 
hazard management strategy? 

4. Who are the actors likely to have an economic 
stake in the adoption of a particular set of 
strategies? What are the social and economic 
impacts of various strategies? 

5. How is the existing political structure in 

the community and in the county likely to effect 
the final selection of strategies? 

6. How might existing flood hazard mitigation 
measures be included in the selection of 
strategies? 

7. How is the political situation described in 
the case example similar or different in your 
own community/county? What strategies might 
be most appropriate in your community/county? 



< 



-13- 



ROWLETT CREEK * 

I . Regional Context/Physical Characteristics of Watershed 

Rowlett Creek rises west of the city of McKinney and flows 
southeast to Lake Ray Hubbard on the East Fork Trinity River. 
The general land surface slope of the watershed is moderate or 
rolling. Stream slopes are steep in the upper portion of the 
basin and channels are deep cut into limestone with large channel 
capacities. Channel size and slope decrease on the main stem of 
Rowlett Creek in the lower half of the basin and the floodplains 
are relatively wide. 

The drainage area of Rowlett Creek is approximately 136 
square miles and includes all or portions of 10 municipalities 
and two counties. Approximately 8,100 acres of 9% of the total 
land area in the watershed lies within the 100-year floodplain. 

The majority of the land area (70%) is presently used for 
crops and grazing. Although the area is still predominantly 
rural, it lies adjacent to one of the fastest growing metro- 
politan areas in the county. Urbanization in this watershed 
is proceeding rapidly and is expected to continue in the future. 
In particular, the cities of Richardson, Garland, and Piano 
have experienced phenomenal growth in residential, commercial 
and light industrial development in recent years. 

II. Piano 

Piano, with a 1977 population of 51,000 is one of the 
largest cities in the Rowlett Creek watershed. Its population 
has increased nearly 220% since 1970. This rapid population 
increase has resulted in a conversion of over 6,000 acres of 
prime agricultural land to residential, commerical and industrial 
purposes. Although a significant portion of the town is still 
devoted to agricultural purposes, increased urbanization is 
expected to significantly alter the community land-use patterns 
in the next 20 years (see attached land-use map for more 
details ) . 

Because so much of the land area is devoted to grazing and 
crop production, forest land is extremely limited. The majority 
of trees are located in or directly adjacent to area creeks and 
drainage floodplains. These narrow strips of bottomland hardwoods 
constitute an area of great ecologic diversity providing an ideal 
habitat for a variety of plant and animal species. The majority 
of the community's limited wetlands are located within this bottom- 
land hardwood forest area. The edge zones between the bottonland 
hardwoods and cropland or grazing land are well defined and 
represent another ec ologically diverse area in the community. 

* The case study community resembles an actual community in some 
respects. Facts'* have been changed, however, to make the case 
study more useful in the Institute. The study community should 
accordingly be considered fictitious. 



-14- 



As the result of intense development pressures, many of 
these bottomland hardwood forests are currently being altered 
through clearing/grading practices which seriously threaten the 
ecologic value of these areas. 

III . Flooding Problems 

The surface in Piano is gently rolling to almost level. 
The town is transected by a number of narrow, well incised 
streams the largest being Rowlett Creek, Cottonwood Creek and 
Spring Creek. Rowlett and Cottonwood Creeks with their head- 
waters located approximately 10 miles north of Piano can be 
classified as having U-shaped stream valleys with relatively 
broad floodplains. Spring Creek, which originates within the 
confines of Piano, however, has a narrow floodplain more typi- 
cal of a V-shaped stream valley. 

Piano has experienced few major flooding problems in the 
past due primarily to the fact that the older portion of the 
city is located on the high ground between Rowlett and Spring 
Creeks. However, in recent years, significant new development 
has occurred in the vicinity of Spring Creek and Rowlett Creek, 
often encroaching on the floodplain. If this pattern continues, 
Piano could experience serious flooding problems in the future. 
In addition, the recent rapid watershed development in communi- 
ties upstream from Piano is expected to continue and could 
significantly increase the future flood hazard situation in 
Piano. To date, no major structural alterations have been 
made along any of the streams in the watershed, although 
several have been proposed. 

IV. Economic/Social Considerations 

Although Piano has experienced tremendous urbanization in 
recent years, a great deal of undeveloped land, primarily agri- 
culture land, still remains. While some of this undeveloped 
land lies within the 100-year floodplain, the majority lies 
outside the designated flood hazard area. 

The economic base in Piano, as in the rest of the water- 
shed, is agricultural although the town is rapidly being trans- 
formed into a bedroom community serving a nearby expanding 
metropolitan area. Commercial development has increased 
tremendously in response to the growth of residential develop- 
ment. Industrial development is limited in Piano but is 
expected to increase significantly if rapid growth in the 
area continues. 

Most of the recent development which has occurred within 
the flood hazard area consists of single- family residences, 
mobile homes, and commercial activities. It is estimated 
that under existing conditions, a 10-year flood event would 
produce nearly $"400,000 in damages and a 100-year flood would 



-15- 



i) produce over $1.5 million in damages. Continued rapid growth 

within the Rowlett Creek watershed and particularly within Piano 
is expected to increase these damage estimates significantly, 
unless strict development controls are implemented. 

The existing sewage treatment facility located at the 
confluence of Rowlett and Cottonwood Creek, presently serves only 
the downtown area. However, city officials are considering 
extending sewer service to the area of Rowlett Creek due north of 
the treatment plant as this are contains a number of single- 
family residences with failing septic systems. 

V. Political Context 

Piano is only one of ten communities sharing the Rowlett 
Creek watershed. Situated as it is in the center of the water- 
shed, Piano's flooding situation is likely to be impacted by 
development in upstream communities. In addition, development 
activities within Piano may in fact contribute to flooding 
problems downstream. Although the merits of intergovernmental 
cooperation within the watershed are obvious, as yet there is 
no formal mechanism to achieve such cooperation. 

The city of Piano is governed by a mayor who strongly 
favors continued growth. Development controls are not popular 
among many community residents, particularly the business 
interests who have realized a significant profit from the 
recent boom. The community has adopted standard zoning 
and subdivision ordinances. These have been amended to 
incorporate the minimum requirements of the NFIP including 
delineation of floodway district and a floodplain district, 
requirements for elevating new structures within the floodplain 
to the 100-year flood levels and limitations on new develop- 
ment within the defined floodway. However, the ordinances 
are not well enforced. Since the bottomland hardwood forests 
are the most attractive areas for residential development, 
city officials have been reluctant to impose serious con- 
straints on building in these areas. The community has not yet 
experienced any significant flooding and, therefore, is 
unconvinced of the need for a comprehensive flood hazard 
mitigation program. 

VI . Additional Institutional Considerations 

The state has recently adopted a floodplain law which 
establishes a 0.5 foot rise floodway and essentialy prohibits 
new development within the floodway. Local governments are 
required to review proposed new development projects within 
the 100-year floodplain to ensure that they will not produce 
an increase in flood heights that exceeds 0.5 feet. 



The area-wide 208 plans prepared for the two counties ' 

involved identify urban storm water runoff and agricultural 
runoff as the two major sources of water pollution in the 
region. The plans recommend that local governments implement 
non-structural measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of 
future developments. Suggested implementation measures 
include requirements for on-site stormwater retention 
facilities for all new developments, and local sediment 
control ordinances. 



is. 



% 



-17- 




LAKE RAY HUBBARD 



ROWLETT CREEK BASIN 
VICINITY MAP 



-18- 



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-20- 



Review Questions/Opportunities 

1. What are the major sources of flooding in the 
community? 

2. What has been the impact of past floods in the 
community? In the county? What types of 
development presently exist in the flood 
hazard areas? 

3. Are there factors which might increase the 
potential for flooding in the future? What 
would be the community impacts of an increase 
in flooding? 

4. Are there any natural resources in the floodplain 
that presently serve a hazard mitigation function? 
If so, how? 

5. What other natural resources might exist within 
the community which would be protected under a 
comprehensive flood hazard management program. 

6. What measures (structural and non-structural) 

have already been taken to mitigate against flood *, 

hazards? What kinds of ordinances have been 
established to fulfill requirements of NFIP? 

7. What types of flood hazard mitigation opportunities 
exist within the city? Pre-flood situation? 
Post-flood situation? 

8. What are some existing constraints (economic, social, 
political, environmental) which may affect the range 
of opportunities? 

9. What are some posible goals for a flood hazard 
mitigation program in the city? How should these 
goals be established? Who should be involved? 

10. How does Piano's flooding problems relate to those 

of your community? What natural features might exist 
in your community? What opportunities do you foresee 
in your community? 



* 



-21- 



/ J Review Questions/Strategies 




© 



1. In addition to the existing ordinances, what other 
types of strategies and specific tools are available 
to x the city to implement a flood hazard mitigation 
program? Which goals does each group of strategies 
(planning, regulation, acquisition/development, 
informational, financial) meet? To which stage of 
flood hazard (pre, during, post) do these strategies 
relate? 

2. How effective are the standard land use controls 
such as zoning and subdivison ordinances? How 
might they be strengthened? 

3. Who are the actors (federal, state, and local) 
likely to be involved in developing a flood hazard 
management strategy? 

4. Who are the actors likely to have an economic stake 
in the adoption of a particular set of strategies? 
What are the social and economic impacts of 
various strategies? 

5. How is the existing political strucutre in the 
community likely to effect the final selection of 
strategies? 

6. How might existing flood hazard mitigation measures 
be included in the selection of strategies? 

7. How is the political situation described in the case 
example similar or different in your own community? 
What strategies seem most appropriate for your 
community? 



Notes : 



*j 



* 



6 



<. 



> 



APPENDIX E 

SIMULATION EXERCISE (PAGAN) 

RIVERINE 



) 



PLANNING for ACTS of GOD AND NATOBE 
PAGAN - Biver 



by 



Allan G. Feldt, The University of Michigan 

and 
flarissa T. Roche, The Conservation Foundation 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This game was developed fcr presentation at a series of Community 
Flood Hazard Management Training Institutes sponsored by the Federal 
Emergency Management Agency. While the authors accept responsibility 
for the general content of the materials presented here, we are 
indebted to a number of persons and agencies for materials and ideas. 
Among others these include the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort 
Worth District, for materials derived from their Rowlett Creek 
studies, Katherine Warner of the University of Michigan, Clem 
Pastatter of the Conservation foundation, and Shannon Berger and David 
Feldt of Legacy Press. 



OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS: PAGAN is designed to be played in 
about three hours including debriefing. The first round should take 
about one hour allowing ten minutes for each of the six steps of play. 
Later rounds should take about one-half hour each with 5 minutes for 
each step. The game can theoretically be run with as few as three or 
as many as 142 persons by assigning up to 3 persons to each of the 42 
interest groups and to the 12 elected governmental positions. A 
separate table or room is needed for each ward plus each governing 
body plus one for the game operator and accountant. For a full run of 
all three jurisdictions and all wards this would mean a total of 15 
well separated tables cr rooms arranged spatially in a pattern 
approximating their geographic locations. Except for a pair of 
probability dice or their equivalent and a land use map of the thret 
towns, all materials required for the game are provided in this 
printout. 

Any nonprofit, educational, or governmental agency may copy 
all cr part of this document provided that each copy 
includes appropriate credit to the authors and the original 
sponsoring agency. Commercial or profit making 
organizations must obtain permission for use and copying in 
writing from the Conservation Foundation, Inc., 1717 
Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D.C., N.W. 20036 



" 



n 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ACKNOWTEDGEHENTS ii 

INTRODUCTION TO SIMULATICN/GAMES 1 

OVERVIEW 2 

COHHUNITY DESCRIPTIONS 4 

PLANO with TABLE IA, Land Dse by Bole and Location ... 4 

EICHARDSON with Table IB, Land Use by Role and Location, 7 

GARLAND with Table IC, Land Use by Role and Location . • 9 

ROLE DESCRIPTIONS 12 

FEMA Officials and Insurance Claim Applications 12 

local Government and Development Permits. ........ 14 

Ccommunity Business • 17 

Low Income Households ........... 20 

diddle Incoire Households 22 

High Income Households. ..... . . 24 

Agriculture 26 

Conservationists . 28 

STEPS CF PIAY 29 

TABLE II. IeveJs of Flood Protection 35 

TABLE III. Flood Damage Table 37 

OPERATOR'S INSTPUCTICNS 38 

TABLE IV. Total Acres of Lard Use by Type, "Owner," and 

Location - Three Towns .... ..... 44 

TABLE V. Interest Group Points Allocation Table 45 



in 



e 



AN INTRODUCTION TO SIHOIATION/GAMES 

Simulation/games have been widely used in many disciplines to 
represent the complexities of multiple decisions under conditions of 
uncertainty. They have been used in military training excercises for 
over 150 years, in business management training for over thirty years, 
and in urban planning for ever fifteen years. Through deliberate 
abstraction of a problem to it's basic elements, simulation/games 
allow participarts of widely varying backgrounds to gain an overview 
of the problem being considered which can clarify and broaden their 
perspective wher they are faced with similar though more detailed 
issues in the "real world." In addition to providing an overview, 
games also collapse time, thereby enabling a player to see the effects 
of decisions over many years in the course of a few hours of play. 

Mcst simulation/games consist of three principle elements plus a 
variety of artifacts in written, mathematic, graphic, or physical form 
whose purpose is to record or convey information to players. The 
first principle element is the Scenario - the data and description of 
the time and place being represented in the game. The second element 
is the Boles - the primary actors in the game including descriptions 
of who they are, what their relative interests and strategies may be, 
and what their status is at the beginning of the game. The third 
element is some form of Accounting System - which records the 
decisions of players and determines what impact they have on the 
scenario and the roles. The accounting system must also feed some or 
all of this irfcrmaticn back to the players on a regular basis as a 
guide to future decision making. 

Most games are played over a series of time periods called 
"rounds" approxiffating some amount of time in the "real world" ranging 
from hours to decades. Similar activities usually take place each 
round with players making more rapid and sophisticated decisions in 
later rounds, as they becoie more familiar with the game and it's 
rules. The first round is often very confusing since players must 
learn to understand both the mechanics of the game and the factors 
influencing their decisions. In later rounds confusion over rules and 
game mechanics dissipates while the complexity of decisions may 
increase due to the increasing sophistication of the players plus the 
increasing effect of decisions accumulated from previous rounds. 

Simulation/games can be reasonably accurate representations of 
the "real world" situations they depict but their outcomes should not 
be interpreted as predictive of how real events are likely to turn 
out. Simulatior/games are merely representations of how various 
components interact. The assumptions of the persons designing them 
plus the decisions of the players themselves strongly effect the 
outcome. Such an outcome represents at best only one of many possible 
worlds which could emerge in the "real world" system being modeled. 
Thus all simulation models, regardless of their complexity can never 
be anything more than instructional devices allowing us to observe and 
experiment with possible futures. 



OVERVIEW 

PURPOSE: PAGAN attempts to provide an understanding of the 
conflicting interests involved in developing a flood hazard management 
program. Based on case study materials, the game reguires players to 
try to resolve the conflict between advancing their own interests 
through acquiring more property and points (currency) and protecting 
their own and tbe community's interests through providing an adequate 
level of flood protection. 

GAflE STEPS: The game is played in successive rounds, each of 
which consists of six steps that take place over a time period 
representing five years. During each round, players are exposed to 
varying size storms and must consider the resulting costs of disasters 
that arise through their own activities, the activities of their 
neighbors and Acts of God And Nature. The steps are: 

1) Weather — Establish the amount of damage which has occurred 

through floods during the previous five years; 

2) Poin ts — Establish the points (currency) earned by each 

player; 

3) Tax es — Local governments assess and collect taxes; 

1) Development — Individual players develop additional units 
of land in order to accumulate wealth (points) ; 

5) Protecti on — The community establishes the desired level of 

flood protection. 

6) L oca l Government Action — Referendums, elections, and 

public meetings to establish future strategies to complete 
passage of floodplain ordinances, and to elect new local 
officials if necessary. 

SCENARIO: The action takes place in the three adjacent towns of 
Piano, Richardscr, and Garland, a rapidly suburbanizing area in the 
Rowlett Creek drainage district just outside a major metropolitan 
area. The area has suffered very little flood damage in the past but 
local authorities have warned of increasing possibilities of major 
floods due to developments in the area over the past decade. The 
amount of damage which might be sustained in future floods will be 
determined by both the type of development involved and the level of 
flood protection provided by local authorities. Players may influence 
the level of hazard protection and the degree of community development 
by investing pcints towards either or both of these options. Points 
received in later rounds depend upon how well the interests of each 
team were met in earlier rounds. 

ROLES: The three towns are made up of wards each of which in 
turn contains a number of interest groups represented by assigned game 
roles. Interest groups vary among the different areas but generally M 
consist of Low Income Households, fliddle Income Households, Upper 



I 



Incoie Households, Local Business, Local Conservationists, 
Agriculture, lecal Government elected by the players in each ward or 
township, and representatives of the Federal Emergency Management 
Agency (FEMA) • Each ward or township is seated at a separate table 
with the three communities located in different parts of the room or 
in separate looms. The central task, facing each community 
individually and as a group is to reach an agreement among diverse 
interests on the type of growth desired and the degree of hazard 
protection to be provided. Cooperation among wards, interest groups, 
and communities is encouraged but is hampered by problems of 
communication, differing interests and differing perceptions of the 
problems faced. 

ACCOUNTS: The basic variables in PAGAN are 1) the amount of land 
of a given type controlled by each player; 2) the amount of damage 
that land receives each round; 3) the number of points each player 
receives as a result of land holdings and damages; **) the tax rate set 
by local governments; and 5) the level of flood protection provided. 
Both players and the game operator keep records on the levels of these 
five variables during play and their figures are reconciled each round 
when PAGAN Points are paid out. 



" 



THE TOWN OF PLANO 

The three tovns of Piano, Bichardson, and Garland Bake up the 
lover half of the Rowlett Creek Basin, occupying about 66 square 
miles, 75% of which is still in agriculture or grazing. About 9,900 
acres or 23% of the area lies within the 100 year flood plain of 
Rowlett Creek, Cottonwood Creek, Spring Creek and their numerous 
tributaries. Prior to 1960 the area was almost exclusively farm and 
grazing land but rapid expansion of nearby metropolises has resulted 
in major developments of residential and commercial land uses as well 
as some expansion of light industrial uses. The growth rate of the 
three cities over the past decade has been very high. 

Piano grew at a rate of 11.1% per year over the past decade, 
increasing its 1970 population of 23,500 to 71,300 in 1980. Although 
over 70% of the town is still in agricultural use and almost 7% is 
vacant, continued population pressure over the next few decades is 
expected to reduce these percentages significantly. 

Piano is drained by 3 major creeks and their tributaries. 
Rowlett and Cottonwood Creeks to the East drain the large town of 
HcKinney upstream and have bread flood plains extending 400-1000 feet 
on each side of the creek beds. Spring Creek to the West is more 
deeply incised, drains a less urban hinterland, and has a narrower 
flood plain. Past flooding has been minor but new developments in and 
around the Spring Creek and Rowlett Creek floodplains plus continued 
development of the City of HcKinney may cause much more serious 
problems in the future. ^ 

The economic base of Piano is still primarily agricultural, 
although commercial, industrial and residential land uses have begun 
to become more dciinant. Recent developments in flood prone areas 
have led local authorities to estimate that a "10 year flood" would 
cause several hundred thousand dollars in damage to properties in the 
city while a "1C0 year flood" would cause well over a million dollars 
in damage. Furthermore, upstream developments have begun to change 
run off characteristics in the local watershed such that the 
probability of severe floods has been significantly increased in 
recent years. 

The older developed sections of Piano have experienced little 
flooding in the rast due to their location on the high ground between 
Rowlett and Spring Creeks. Recent single family houses and mobile 
home developments have occured to a considerable degree in or near the 
flood plains of the creeks and their tributaries. These developments 
in turn have begun to change local run off characteristics and have 
begun to affect downstream flooding probabilities. 

The mayor and most local business people strongly advocate 
continued growth and oppose any form of controls which might inhibit 
the current development boom. The community has adopted minimum NFIP 
reguirements (level II Table II) including designation of the 100 year 
flood plain and requiring elevation of new structures built within the 
flood plain. Pressures for continued development in the attractive 



wooded areas along the creeks and the lack of any important history of 
flooding activities have combined to produce very lax enforcement of 
these new regulations, however. Recent state regulations and 203 
planning studies have recommended that local authorities prohibit 
further development in the flood plain and also take steps to minimize 
storm water run off and pollution through the creation of storm water 
retention basins and strict enforcement of local sediment control 
ordinances. Public officials of Piano have not yet taken any steps to 
follow through on these recommendations. 

Piano is made up of five political wards with a diversity of 
interest groups in each. Ward One consists of the older city center 
plus much of the recent industrial and commercial growth. Residents 
are from the middle and lower income classes and there are no 
agricultural or conservationists interests in the ward at this time. 
This area is well above the "hundred year" flood line and is expected 
to suffer very little flood damage in even the most severe, flood. (Low 
Income, Hid Income, and Business) 

The Seco nd Ward lies just west of the downtown area and contains a 
little commercial develcpnent plus a small industrial park. Residents 
are predominantly middle income in lower density residential 
developments although a few lew income residents are found in high 
density residences near the business district and in low density 
residences just beyond the industrial park, several farms still exist 
in this ward butthere are no conservationist interests at this time. 
About 520 acres of Ward II are located in the flood plain and 160 of 
these acres contain residential or industrial developments. (Low 
Income, Mid Inccie, High Income, Business, Agriculture) 

The T hird Ward occupies the northwest part of Piano and makes up 
the major agricultural part of the city. Population is middle and 
upper income occupying low density residential units in the lower part 
of the ward. Several parks provide some strength to conservationist 
interests in this ward although the predominant interest group tends 
to be agriculture. About 1360 acres lie in the flood plain of either 
Spring or West Bcwlett Creek and 120 of these acres are developed in 
low density housing occupied by middle income groups. (Hid Income, 
High Income, Conservation, and AGriculture) 

The Fourt h Ward lies directly north of the downtown area and is 
heavily cut by branches of Rcwlett Creek and its tributaries. Host 
development consists cf low and high density residential areas along 
the southern edge of the ward together with a small commercial 
development. A croup of low income families occupying mobile homes 
spread along one of the creeks and a large new industrial complex just 
north of that make up the rest of the non-agricultural uses in the 
ward. About a third of the ward lies within the "hundred year" flood 
plain and about 160 acres of the flood plain contains developed 
properties. (Low Income, Mid Income, Business, and Agriculture) . 

The Fift h Ward occupies the sparsely settled eastern third of 
Piano. It contains only a few lower density residential areas all 
located in the beautifully wooded floodplains of Rowlett Creek and its 



western tributary draining the downtown area. Several pleasant parks 
are located here as well but the predominant interests arel 
agriculture. Aliost forty percent of Ward V lies within the flood^ 
plain including all 210 acres of current residential development. 
(Low Income, Mid Income, High Income, Conservation, and Agriculture). 



TABLE IA. Acres of land Use by Type, 
"Owner," and location - Town of Piano 



— 1 1 
Use Type | Cwner , 


r 




Ward 








Total 


I 

i i 


I 


II 


III 


IV 




V 


1 < 


















low . . . . | Lo Inc. . i 


40 


120 





160 




80 




400 


Density . .|I1ed. Inc. 


80 


680 


720 


320 




40 


1, 


,840 


Residences | Hi Inc. . 





40 


200 







120 




360 


High . . . | Lo Inc. . 


240 


40 





120 









400 


Density . . |Med. Inc. 





40 





120 









160 


Residences | Hi Inc. . 
























Commerce . | Business 


1 360 


80 





40 









480 


Industry .1 Business 
• 


1 360 


40 





120 









520 


1 

Parks Rec. | Ccnserv . 








120 







80 




200 


Agriculture! Agricult. 





1,280 


6,400 


1,920 


5, 


,120 


14 


,720 


Vacant . .JOperator 

i 


I 440 


400 


440 


80 




40 


1- 


,400 


r ■ - 

I U i A L . . «|. ........ 

1 


|1,520 


2,720 


7,880 


2,880 


2, 


,160 


20, 


,480 


| ... 

..IN FLOOD | .PLAIN . 


1 o 


520 


1,360 


1,080 


2, 


,160 


5, 


,120 



TO»N OF BICHABDSON 

The three tcwns of Piano, Bichardson, and Garland make up the 
lower half of the Bowlett Creek Basin, occupying about 66 square 
niles f 75* of which is still in agriculture or grazing. About 9,900 
acres or 23X cf the area lies within the 100 year flood plain of 
Bowlett Creek, Ccttonwood Creek, Spring Creek and their numerous 
tributaries. Prior to 1960 the area was almost exclusively farm and 
grazing land but rapid expansion of nearby metropolises has resulted 
in major developments of residential and commercial land uses as well 
as soae expansict of light industrial uses. The growth rate of the 
three cities over the past decade has been very high. 

Richardson occupies a narrow strip of land about one mile wide by 
six miles long between Plane and Garland Cities. Bichardson*s 
population has grown at a rate of 7. 731 per year since 1970, increasing 
its size from 8,100 persons in 1970 to 17,500 persons in 1980. 
Although over 5?% of the city is still in agricultural use and almost 
7% is vacant, continued population pressure over the next few decades 
is expected to reduce these percentages significantly. 

Bichardson is heavily cut by Spring and Bowlett Creeks and their 
tributaries. Over 305 of the land area lies within the hundred year 
floodplain of these two creeks and their tributaries, including 440 
developed acres. No history of flood damage in Bichardson exists at 
all since until quite recently the town was almost completely 
agricultural in its development. The area is expected to undergo 
increasingly severe flooding problems, however, due to the heavy 
development occuring upstream in both Piano and HcKinney. Indeed, 
local experts have indicated that the probability of "10 year" and 
"100 year" floods are now substantially greater than the normal 10% 
and 1*, respectively. Bhile still largely agricultural, recent 
subdivisions have resulted in the conversion of almost a thousand 
acres to residential and commercial uses. 

Local residents and officials are more amused than concerned over 
recent growth, chuckling among themselves at the outlandish prices the 
"city folks" are willing to pay for almost worthless grazing land. 
Town officials reluctantly agreed to entering the emergency phase of 
the NFIP program (level II, Table II) , requiring specification of the 
hundred year flood plain and assurances that the town will begin 
efforts to more closely regulate developments in the floodplain. 
Local opinion is that this step is just some more federal paperwork 
that has to be dene to keep the state and federal government people 
happy. No one in Bichardson takes the matter very seriously. As 
such, property cwners in Bichardson are entitled to 50% reimbursement 
for damages sustained for one cccurence only. Subsequent damages will 
not be covered by insurance unless the community enters a regular 
program at a higher level of protection. 

Bichardson is made up of only two wards with most development 
occuring in the western First lard. The First Ward contains a small 
commercial district and industrial district plus a scattering of low 
and high density residential areas occupied by all three income 



classes. Six hurdred and eighty of the First Ward's 2,200 acres lie 
within the hundred year flccd plain and 240 of these acres are 
occupied by low density housing occupied primarily by middle income 
residents. Agricultural interests are still an important part of 
First Hard activities but several large farms have succumbed to the 
higher prices being offered for urban land uses and only 1,280 acres 
remain in agriculture. (Low Income, Hid Income, High Income, 
Business, and Agriculture) 



( 



The S econ d Ward is even more sparsely populated containing only 
200 acres of low density residential developments, all located within 
the hundred year flcod plain. A small business district, 80 acres of 
parks and several large farms make up the rest of the Second Ward. 
(Mid Income, High Income, Business, Conservation, and Agriculture) 



TABU IB. Acres of Land Use by Type, "Owner," 
and Location - Town of Bichardson 



Use Type 


~T 


Cwner 


r 

Ward 




Total 


i 


I 


II 


Low .... 


T 


Lo Inc. . 


I 160 







160 


Density • . 




fled. Inc. 


200 


160 




360 


Residences 


I 


Hi Inc. . 





40 




40 


High ... 


r - 


Lo Inc. . 













Density . . 




Red. Inc. 


40 







40 


Residences 




Hi Inc. . 


40 







40 


Commerce 




Business 


I 120 


40 




160 


Industry 


i 


Business 


80 







80 




r 












Parks Pec. 




Conserv. 





80 




80 


Agriculture 




Agricult. 


I 1,280 


1,920 


3 


,200 


Vacant • • 


I ... 


Operator 


280 







280 


TCTAL ... 


1 — 
t 




2,200 


2,240 


4 


,440 








. .IN FLOOD 


r 


.PLAIN . 


I 240 


200 




440 



( 



THE TCtiN OF GARLAND 

The three tcwns of Piano, Richardson, and Garland Bake ap the 
lower half of the Rowlett Creek Basin, occupying about 66 square 
miles, 75* of which is still in agriculture or grazing. About 9,900 
acres or 23T cf the area lies within the 100 year flood plain of 
Rcwlett Creek, Ccttcnwood Creek, Spring Creek and their numerous 
tributaries. Prior to 1960 the area was almost exclusively farm and 
grazing land but rapid expansion of nearby metropolises has resulted 
in major develorsents of residential and commercial land uses as well 
as some expansion of light industrial uses. The growth rate of the 
three cities over the past decade has been very high. 

Garland grew at a rate of 9.2% per year over the past decade, 

increasing its 1S70 population of 13,400 to 33,600 in 1980. Although 

over 83% of the town is still in agricultural use and almost 2% is 

vacant, continued population pressure over the next few decades is 
expected to reduce these percentages significantly. 

Garland is drained by Rowlett and Spring Creeks, the latter 
joining the Rowlett just south and east of the downtown business 
district. The flccd plain of Rcwlett Creek is quite broad in Garland, 
extending to as much as 1500 feet on each side of the creek bed in 
some areas. While flooding has been only a minor problem in the past, 
substantial new developments up stream plus a number of developments 
within the flocd plain of Rowlett and Spring Creeks make the 
likelihood of significant damage from future floods much greater than 
in the past. State and federal officials have estimated that flood 
damages could range frcm several hundred thousand dollars for a "ten 
year* flood up tc almost a million dollars for a "hundred year" 
flood. They also warn that the probabilities of such floods occuring 
has increased due to changes in run off patterns incurred by 
substantial urban development in McKinney, Piano, and Richardson. 

The economic base of Garland is still primarily agricultural, 
although industrial and commercial uses have begun to impinge on farm 
lands, particularly in the first and third wards. Over half of the 
agricultural lands are located in the southern Third Ward with the 
balance fairly evenly divied between the other two wards. 

Local officials have thus far been delighted with the recent 
increase in tcwn population and business activity. They have been 
actively promoting Garland as a primary commuting suburb of the nearby 
metropolis, especially emphasizing the amenities to be found in the 
southern parts of town around Lake Roy Hubbard into which Rowlett 
Creek drains. The community has adopted minimum NFIP requirements 
(Level II, Table II) including designation of the hundred year flood 
plain and reguiring the new structures in the floodplain be elevated 
to the level of expected hundred year floods. Controversy still 
surrounds this neve, however, since it is seen by some as inhibiting 
further growth and development. Thus far, enforcement of the 
requirements has been lax. Recent state regulations and 
recommendations stemming from local 208 plan studies have suggested 
that local authorities prohibit further development in the flood plain 



10 

and that they litimize storm water run off and pollution through the 
creation of storm water retention ponds and enforcement of local £ 
sediment contrcl ordinances. 

Garland is vade up of three political wards each electing one 
representative to the town board. The First Ward is Bade up of the 
original dcwntown area and its recently expanded business and 
residential district. Almost all housing in the area contains Hiddle 
Income Residents except for a 40 acre high density public housing 
project just ncrth of the downtown business district and a few low 
income residents on the southern edge of the downtown area. Nine 
hundred and twenty acres of Ward One lie within the floodplain of 
Rowlett or Spring Creeks and 440 of these acres contain some kind of 
land use developirent. Three thousand eight hundred and forty acres of 
Ward One are still in agricultural uses. (Low Income, (lid Income, 
Business, and Agriculture) . 

The Se con d jjard lies on the eastern boarder of Garland and its 
developments are largely extensions of the downtown developments found 
in Ward One. This consists of a small Industrial area and a 
scattering of Lew and Middle Income residents occupying both low and 
high density residential areas. Seven hundred and sixty acres of Ward 
Two lie in the flccd plains of Rowlett Creek and 360 of these acres 
contain developed properties. Over 3,000 acres are still in 
agricultural uses and Ccnservationist interest are represented in an 
eighty acre park just outside the Rowlett Creek floodplain. (Low 
Income, Mid Inccve, Business, Conservation, and Agriculture). 



The Thi rd Ward occupies the southern half of Garland and abuts 
the increasingly popular summer home area bordering Lake Roy Hubbard. 
An Industrial area along the northern border lines the banks of 
Rowlett Creek just outside the hundred year floodplain. Residential 
units in the southern lake shore area are exclusively High Income 
residents while a few Low Incoie residents are found in the north 
western part of the ward. Most of the ward is still made up of 
faming and grazing lands comprising a total of 8,360 acres. One 
thousand seven hundred and twenty acres lie within the hundred year 
flood plain of Rcwlett Creek with 240 acres currently occupied by 
industrial or residential developments. (Low Income, Mid Income, High 
Income, Business, Conservationists, and Agriculture). 



< 



TABLE IC. Acres of Land Ose by Type, 
"Owner," and Location - Town of Garland 



11 



Use Type 


-4- 
i 


Owner 


i 




Ward 




Total 






i 


I 


II 


III 




i 




T 












Low .... 




Lo Inc. . 




40 


80 


120 




240 


Density . . 




Med. Inc. 




760 


280 





1 


,040 


Residences 


i r 


Hi Inc. • 










40 




40 


High ... 


r 


Lo Inc. • 




40 










40 


Density . . 




fled. Inc. 




120 


80 







200 


Residences 


L. 


Hi Inc. . 










120 




120 


Commerce 


r 


Business 




400 





40 




440 


Industry 




Business 


J 


80 


80 


160 




320 








1 












Parks Rec. 




Conserv. 







80 


80 




160 


Agriculture 




Agricult. 




3,840 


3,200 


7,680 


14 


,720 


Vacant . . 


i_ 


Operator 




160 


40 


120 




320 


TOTAL ... 








5,440 


3,840 


8,360 


17, 


,640 






, w-r v 


. .IN FLOOD 


r 


.FLAIN . 




960 


760 


1,720 


3 


,400 



r 



12 

ROLE DESCRIPTION - FEMA OFFICIALS (1 Team) 

As employees of the Federal Insurance Administration you have two 
primary responsibilities relating to the residents of the area. 

1. You will administer flood insurance payments to property 
owners who sustain damage as the result of a flood. Payments 
will be conditioned as follows: 

a) The Community must be enrolled in the National Flood 

Insurance Program. At the start of the game all 
cormunities are in the NFIP program. However, they do 
have the option to drop out if they choose. 

b) Property cwners frcm eligible communities must reguest 

payment on the appropriate forms (available only from 
FIA officials) indicating they have in fact purchased a 
flcod insurance policy. 

c) For the fir st flood even you will pay all eligible 

property owners who reguest reimbursement 50% of the 
total damage sustained. 

d) If, in subseguent rounds of play, property owners again 

sustain property damage you may not provide any 
reimbursener.t unless the commun ity in which the property 
2it£§I lives has adop_ted Flood Protection Level III or 
higher. If the community has adopted the appropriate ( 
level of flood protection, you may again reimburse 
property owners 50% of total damages sustained. 

2. You may provide technical assistance to local communities 
upon reguest. 

In order to accomplish your tasks most effectively, you may want 
to appoint certair FIA officials to handle Flood Insurance and others 
to provide technical assistance. 



13 



APPLICATION FOP NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PAYMENT 

Name/Bcle: 

Location: 

Round: 

Land Use Type: 

No. Acres Damaged: 

Value (Acres Damaged/40) : 

Business Value (Acres Damaged/20) : 

Amount Requested (Ic maximum of 50% of damage: _ _____ 

Amount Awarded: $ 

Request Denied: (explanation) 



(Signature of FIA Official) 

APPLICATION FOR NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PAYMENT 

Name/Role: 

Location: 

Round: 

Land Ose Type: 

No. Acres Damaged: 

Value (Acres Dawaged/UO) : 

Business Value (Jcres Damaged/20) : 

Amount Requested (To maximum of 50% of damage: 

Amount Awarded: $ 

Request Cenied: (explanation) 



(Signature of FIA Official) 



14 

ROLE DESCRIPTION - LOCAL GOVERNMENT (1-3 Teams) 

As elected officials you are responsible for the health and 
safety of your constituents as well as naintaining a stable and 
efficient comnurity. The issues of conmunity growth, flood and 
hurricane protection, and the management of frictions between other 
community groups are your foremost concerns, though other goals may 
also guide your decisions. Your performance will be judged by your 
constituents in an election at the end of every second round. 

local government has 4 basic powers: 

a) . You may collect taxes on the PAGAN points received by 
residents of your jurisdiction. The initial rate is 10% and 
it may be increased to as much as 40%. If Flood Protection 
Level V is passed it lay reach 50%. The new tax rate must be 
announced at the end of each round or it is assumed to remain 
the same as in the previous round. 

b) • Tou may place reasonable restrictions on new development 
by zoning certain areas within your jurisdiction for limited 
kinds of land uses or for no development at all. Tou may 
modify the existing reguirement for "balanced" development by 
requiring developers to provide 40 acres of parkland in 
addition to the required 40 acres of commercial development to 
accompany each 240 acres of residential development. New 
construction requires a building permit signed by local 
government, but refusal to sign a permit must be justified on 
the basis of a zoning decision placed on an official zoning 
map and announced at least one round prior to the refusal to 
sign. Tevelopers may sue for triple damages if they feel the 
refusal to sign is arbitrary and capricious. Such suits will 
be adjudicated by the game operator. 

c). You should propose a level of flood protection which 
accurately reflects the interests of your constituency. 
Representatives cf various wards should be sure they maintain 
contact with constituencies they represent. 

d) . You may enact any of the five levels of Flood Protection 
Programs described elsewhere provided that you meet the 
necessary costs and other requirements listed. 

e) . You may have 5 minutes at the end of each round {just 
before the election in even numbered rounds) to make public 
announcements regarding your programs, policies, zoning 
changes, tax rates, etc. You are advised to avoid letting 
this period turn into a public hearing or the 5 minutes 
allotted will be quickly used up. Any government or any group 
of 5 players may petition the game operator for a 10 minute 
public hearing once each round. 



I 



15 

f ) . You lay buy land from other players at the current 
market rate. If Level V Protection has been enacted 
you also have the pover to condemn land in High Hazard 
Areas for subsequent purchase by local government. 

g) • Ycu may assess each interest group an emergency levy of 
one point whenever a storm of hurricane severity or greater 
occurs to a community at less than a level IV Protection 
Level. These funds are to be used to provide emergency 
assistance to those interest groups most severely hurt by the 
storm. 

In order tc accomplish your objectives and use these powers 
effectively it is suggested that you appoint one of your members to 
each major task, e.g., tax collector, building inspector, flood 
protection director, and a chairperson to call meetings and deal with 
the public. If you wish, you may "hire" persons from the community to 
perform some of these tasks, paying them 1 or 2 points per round. 



1i 



16 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Location 
Height _ 



Base Cost 
Surcharge 



land Use 
No. Acres 
Developer 
Approved 



Location 
Height _ 



B as e C ost 
Surcharge 



Land Use 
No. Acres 
De velo per 
Approved __ 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 

Location Land Use 

Height No. Acres 

Base Cost Developer 

Surcharge Approved 

DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Location 

Height 

Base Cost 



Surch arg e 



Land Use 
No. Acres 
Develope r 
Approved 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Location 



Height 



Land Use 



Location 



No. Acres Hei ght 



Base Cost Developer 

Surcharge Approved 

DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Base C ost 
Surcharge 



L and Use 

No. Acres 

Develo per 
Approved 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Location 

Height 

Base Cost 
Surcharge 



Land Use 

No . Acres 
Developer 
Approved 



Location 



Height 



Base C ost 
Surcharge 



Land Use 

No. Acres 

Develope r 

Approved 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Location 
Height _ 



Base Cost 

Surcharge 



Land Use 
No.. Acres 
Developer 
Approved 



Location 
Height _ t 



Base Cos t 
Surcharge 



L an d Use 
No. Acres 
_ Develope r 
Approved 



17 

ROLE DESCRIPTION - COflMUNITY BUSINESS (1-8 Teams) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or 
township. They may play their role independently or they may combine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or on any other basis that seems appropriate. 

As local business people you are interested in continued 
community stability and growth. A larger and more prosperous 
community will result in larger sales and service revenues, and in 
most instances the community business group has strongly supported new 
development. In addition to growth the business group must also 
address issues of disaster preparedness and flood protection, 
balancing the cost of these programs against the costs of development 
and the possible negative effects of restrictions on where new 
development may cccur. These restrictions are explained in the LEVELS 
OF FLCCD PROTECTION descriptions. Business interests are locatedin 
Wards I, II, and IV of Piano; in Hards I and II of Richardson; and in 
Wards I, II, and III of Garland. 

As local business people ycu may undertake new developments in 
the community. Vacant land may be purchased from the game operator 
and "developed" at a cost of 10 PAGAN Points per 40 acre unit. The 
cost of developient of parkland or agricultural land is only 3 points 
per 40 acre unit. Each developement undertaken, however, must be 
"balanced" in terms of the mixtures of new land uses provided within 
the sase municipality. A "balanced" mixture of land uses is defined 
as six 40 acre ucits cf residences and one 40 acre unit of commerce or 
industry. Local governnent may enact legislation reguiring 40 acres 
of parks and open space to acccnpany each "balanced" development. 

No development may be undertaken without a buildng permit signed 
by the appropriate local official. It is the responsibility of such 
officials to insure that additional local regurements for "balance" 
have been met. 

Newly developed residential units may not be operated by Business 
players. They oust be "sold" to other players representing 
Residential interests in that ward or township. The purchase price is 
whatever price can be agreed upon by the two groups of players 
involved. Commercial or Industrial developments may be retained and 
operated by the developer or may be sold to another group of business 
interests. No business property is considered in operation until the 
Residential units developed with it have been "sold" to legitimate 
Residential interest groups. Parks and Open Spaces developed in such 
a package become the property of the local municpality with point 
benefits going to the local Conservationists. 

Each group of players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. We ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the rcle you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 



18 



1) your fanily; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.) ; and 

4) the rcles you have played in the community (both 
governmental and ncn-governaental) • 



( 



CURRENT STATUS - BUSINESS 



City or County: Date of Run 
















Ward or Towrship: Name of Player 


















BASIS Rd. 1 Status Rd. 2 


Rd. 


3 


Rd. 


<♦ 



DEVELOPED 4CRES 

YIELD at 2Ft/40 

STORM DAMAGE . 

POINTS RECEIVED 

NEW DEVELOPMENT 

LCCATIO . . 

COST .... 

POINTS SFE*T . 

FINAL BAIAJCE . 

TOTAL DEV. 1CBES 



( 



This is your score sheet which you will use to calculate 
your points during each round. Please note that points are the 
equivalent of currency for the purposes of this gaae. 



19 

The total rumber of points allocated to your role at the 

start of round one is indicated on line U. This total will 

remain constant throughout each round regardless of the 
number of players assigned to each role. 

Con*t worry if you're a bit confused. This accounting 
system will be fully explained before the start of the game. 



20 

BOLE DESCRIPTION - LOB INCOME HOUSEHOLDS (1-8 Teams) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or l^ 
township. They nay play their role independently or they may coabine 
forces with other players from the same district, the sane interest 
group in other areas, or en any other basis that seems appropriate. 

As low income households you are concerned about the impacts of 
community growth and flood damage on your portions of the community. 
At the same time flood protection proposals frequently emphasize 
restrictions on new construction and possible relocation and 
demolition of tuildings in the flood plain. Because so much of your 
property is located in lowlying areas, you should be careful in 
supporting flood protection measures that nay prevent you from 
developing further and which may even result in elimination of your 
holdings and ycur role in the game. It might be advisable to demand 
relocation assistance as the price for your support of various flood 
protection proposals. Low income households are located in Hards 
I, II, IV, and V of Piano; Ward I of Richardson; and Vards I, II, and 
III of Garland. 

Each group of players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. We ask. you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the role you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 

1) your fatily; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.); and 

4) the roles you have played in the community (both 
governmental and non-governmental) . 



This is ycur score sheet which you will use to calculate 
your points during each round. Please note that points are the 
equivalent of currency for the purposes of this game. 

The total number of points allocated to your role at the 

start of round one is indicated on line 4. This total will 

remain constant throughout each round regardless of the 
number of players assigned to each role. 

Don't worry if you 1 re a bit confused. This accounting 
system will be fully explained before the start of the game. 






21 

CURRENT STATUS - LOW INCOME HOUSEHOLDS 











City or County: 


Date of Bun 














Ward or Township: 


Name of Player 






BASIS 


Fd. 1 Status Pd. 2 


Bd. 3 


Bd. (1 



DEVELOPED ACBES 
YIELD at Ut/UO 
STORK DAflACE . 
POINTS RECEIVED 
NEW DEVELCIHENT 

LOCATICN . . 

COST . . . . 

POINTS SPEKT . 

FINAL BALANCE . 

TCTAL DEV. JCRES 



22 
ROLE D3SC5IPTION - HIDDLE INCOME HOUSEHOLDS (2-10 Teams) 

r 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or V^ 
township. They may play theic role independently or they may combine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or on any other basis that seems appropriate. 

As middle income households you are interested in maintaining the 
current status of the community. Issues of community growth and flood 
protection are important to you, but the costs associated with them 
may make them undesirable or dangerous to your position. Bapid 
community growth opens the door to "new elements" in the community 
which may threaten community stability and the relatively powerful 
position of the middle class. While increased levels of flood 
protection are desireable for both economic and humanitarian reasons, 
as major tax payers your interest group will pay a major share of the 
costs. The benefits to ycur interest group will be less than to some 
other groups since most of your property holdings are already located 
at higher elevations. Fliddle income households are located in every 
Ward in all three towns except Ward III of Garland. 

Each group of players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to estatlish their roles. He ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the rele you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: •* 

1) your family; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.); and 

4) the roles you have played in the community (both 
governmental and ncn-governmental) . 



This is your score sheet which you will use to calculate 
your points during each round. Please note that points are the 
eguivalent of currency for the purposes of this game. 

The total number of points allocated to your role at the 
start of round one is indicated on line 4. This total will 
remain constant throughout each round regardless of the 
number of players assigned to each role. 

Don»t worry if you^e a bit confused. This accounting 
system will be fully explained before the start of the game. 



( 



23 



CURRENT STATUS - HIDDLE INCOME HOUSEHOLDS 



City or County: 


Date of Run 


















Ward or Towrship: 


Name of Placer 










BASIS 


Rd. 1 Status Pd. 2 


Rd. 


3 


Rd. 


4 



DEVELOPED ACRES 
YIELD at lPt/40 
STORK DAMAGE . 
POINTS RECEIVED 
NEW DEVELOPMENT 
LOCATICS . . 

ttj I • • • • 

POINTS SEEKT . 

FINAL BAIAKCE . 

TOTAL DEV. ACRES 



% 



24 

ROLE DESCRIPTION - HIGH INCOME HOUSEHOLDS (1-6 Teams) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or 
township. They may play their role independently or they may combine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or on any other basis that seems appropriate. 



As high ircome ho 
overall guality cf the cc 
taxes. Higher levels o 
construction cost for man 
waterfront areas, and 
higher costs may discoura 
from building there. One 
growth which might cha 
measures as an inhibition 
of protection cd both pe 
residents are located in 
of Richardson; and Ward I 



useholds you are interested in im 
irmunity without being forced to 
f flood protection significantly i 
y of Hampton County* s scenic but f 
some individuals have suggested 
ge individuals other than high inc 

the whole, you tend to oppose 
llenge your status. Seeing flood 

to growth, you tend to favor hig 
rsonal and intellectual grounds. 
Wards II, III, and V of Piano; War 
II of Garland. 



proving the 
pay higher 
ncrease the 
lood prone 

that these 

one players 

community 

protection 
her levels 
High income 
ds I and II 



Each group cf players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. He ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the rcle you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 



1) your family; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.); and 



4) the roles you have played in the 
governmental and non-governmental). 



community (both 



This is ycur score sheet which you will use to calculate 
your points during each round. Please note that points are the 
eguivalent of currency for the purposes of this game. 

The total number of points allocated to your role at the 

start of round one is indicated on line 4. This total will 

remain constant throughout each round regardless of the 
number of players assigned to each role. 

Dc^t worry if you*re a bit confused. This accounting 
system will be fully explained before the start of the game. 



25 



CURRENT STATUS - HIGH INCOME HOUSEHOLDS 



City or County: 


Date of Run 


















Ward or Township: 


Name of Player 




















BASIS 


Rd. 1 Status Rd. 2 


Rd. 


3 


Rd. 


4 



DEVELOPED ACRES 
YIELD at 1Ft/<»0 
STOEM DAMAGE . 
POINTS RECEIVED 
NEW DEVELOEMENT 

LOCATICF . . 

COST .... 

POINTS SEEKT . 

FINAL BALANCE . 

TOTAL DEV. ACRES 



26 

PCIE DESCRIPTION - AGBICOLTORE (2-9 Teams) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or 
township. They may play their role independently or they aay coabine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or en any other basis that seems appropriate. 

As farmers you are interested in maintaining existing lands under 
cultivation and preventing the allocation of too much vacant or 
agricultural land for new development. In general you oppose growth 
as a threat to ycur own status but you are not opposed to selling some 
of your own farm land at a good profit to others looking for 
developable acreage. Taxes are burdensome, especially for farms 
located within the city limits. Your lands suffer very little from 
flood or wind damage except for occasional soil salinization due to 
high tides. As a result you tend to be indifferent to flood 
protection proposals except for the costs and taxes they reguire. 
Agricultural interests are located in every Ward of the three towns 
except Ward I of Piano. 

Each group cf players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. We ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the rele you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 

1) your family; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.); and 

U) the roles you have played in the community (both 
governmental and non-governmental). 



This is ycur score sheet which you will use to calculate 
your points during each round. Please note that points are the 
eguivalent of currency for the purposes of this game. 

The total number of points allocated to your role at the 

start of round one is indicated on line 4. This total will 

remain constant throughout each round regardless of the 
number of players assigned to each role. 

Dc^t worry if you*re a bit confused. This accounting 
system will be fully explained before the start of the game. 



/ 



* 



27 



CURRENT STATUS - AGRICULTURE 



City or County: 


- - -- ■ 


Date of Bun 


















Hard or Township: 




Name of Player 


















BASIS 


Rd. 


1 Status Rd. 2 


Rd. 


3 


Bd. 


4 



DEVELOPED ACRES 
YIE-LD at lPt/6U0 
STORK DAMAGE . . 
POINTS RECEIVED 
NEW DEVELOPMENT 
LOCATICF . . 

\. vOl • • • • 

POINTS SPEFT . . 
EINAI BAIAhCE . 
TOTAL DEV. ACRES 



28 

ROLE DESCRIPTION - CONSERVATIONISTS (1-5 Teams) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or ( 
tovnship. They may play their role independently or they may combine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or on any other basis that seems appropriate. 

Conservationists are concerned with the preservation of existing 
parks and playgrounds, the control of new development, and the 
maintenance of existing natural barriers and safeguards against 
flooding. While you favor the growth restraints contained in flood 
protection proposals, you fear that providing higher levels of 
protection and insurance may make some ecologically sensitive areas 
more available to new development. Since Conservationists are not 
actually property owners like other players in the game, your major 
activity will have to involve encouraging other players to behave more 
responsibly towards the environment. Such encouragement may be 
through persuasicn or through legislation as well as through the 
direct exercise of political and financial power where you have only a 
small amount of clout. 

One of your more promising strategies is to encourage more park 
developments in low lying and sensitive areas - paying development 
costs with public funds when possible but offering some of your own 
points in support as veil. You may be able to convince your local 
government to pass legislation reguiring that developers provide 40 
acres of parks and open space as part of a legally reguired "balanced" 
development package necessary for approval of building permits. Other <fc 
players probably do not realize that the number of points you receive 
is based upon the amount of land in parks and playgrounds; whether 
publicly or privately owned. Since existing parkland is publicly 
owned, Conservat icnists do rot normally have to pay taxes to local 
government. Taxes must be paid, however, on income from privately 
owned parks. Conservationists are located in Wards III and V of 
Piano; in Ward II cf Richardson; and in Wards II and III of Garland. 

Each group cf players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. We ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the rcle you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 

1) your family; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.); and 

tt) the coles you have played in the community (both 
governmental and non-governmental) . 



29 



CURRENT STATUS - CONSERVATIONISTS 



City or County: 


Date of Run 


















Ward or Towrship: 


Name of Player 










BASIS 


Rd. 1 Status Rd. 2 


Rd. 


3 


Rd. 


4 



DEVELOPED JCFES 
YIELD at lPt/40 
STORM DAMAGE . 
POINTS RECEIVED 
NEW DEVELOIMENT 

LOCATIO . . 

COST .... 

POINTS SPENT . 

FINAL BALANCE . 

TOTAL DEV. ACRES 



This is your score sheet which you will use to calculate 
your points during each round. Please note that points are the 
equivalent of currency for the purposes of this game. 

The total rumber of points allocated to your role at the 

start of round one is indicated on line 4. This total will 

remain constant throughout each round regardless of the 
number of players assigned to each role. 

Don*t worry if you^re a bit confused. This accounting 
system will be fully explained before the start of the game. 

A normal round is 30 minutes long with twice as much time given 
in the first rourd to allow players to familiarize themselves with the 
mechanics of the game. The end of a round is indicated by a bell, 
whistle, or sirer indicating that the flood season has arrived. 
There are six steps in each round with the first two controlled by the 
game operator. The next 3 are controlled by players themselves and 
may overlap to seme degree. The last step allows local government 5 
minutes to make puMic announcements and 5 minutes to elect or re- 
elect city officials in even numbered rounds. 



30 

STEP 1; W SAT BER - The first step is to determine the amount of 
damage which occurred through storms and floods during the 
previous 5 years. Probability dice are rolled 5 times to 
determine the severity of the storms and the amount of damage 
inflicted in each year. The Plood Damage Table gives the 
probabilities of various levels of floods and the amount of 
damage suffered under various levels of protection. Damage is 
reported as a percentage loss to all properties in each ward. 
The lagritude of the loss is based upon the number of 
developed parcels lying within the floodplain. Loses may be 
decreased by providing higher protection levels for already 
existing properties, by preventing further developments in the 
floodplain, and by elininating existing properties from the 
flood plain. 

Rules 

1. The game operator rolls probability dice 5 times (once 
for each year) • The numbers on the dice will tell the 
game operator what level of flood is assumed to have hit 
the communities. Note that the 

probability of Light Floods occuring decreases by 1% for 
every 100 acres of floodplain which is developed upstream. 
Conversely, the probability of either Heavy or Severe 
Floods increases by the same amount. We assume that 
residents upstream are behaving exactly as residents in 
these three communities in terms of development locations. 

STEP 2: POINTS - The success of each team is partially reflected by 
the number of points accumulated. Each team starts with a 
specific number of points and more are collected in successive 
rounds. These points may be used to purchase additional 
developments, build additional developments (Business teams 
only) , pay taxes, rebuild damaged properties, and influence 
other players through contributions, gifts, etc. Points are 
earned by "owning" developed land. They may be lost through 
natural forces such as floods (the percentage loses determined 
in Step 1) , or through poor financial planning. 

Rules 
1- Initial Points - Each interest group has been assigned 
ownership of a specific number of acres of developed land. 
The amount of land owned is given on line 2 of the Current 
Status Form provided with each role description. The 
location is described in the community description and is 
indicated on the community map. The type of development 
corresponds initially to the type of inerest group. 

i) Residential interest groups receive one point for 
every 40 acres of undamaged residential land owned. 

ii) Business interests receive two points for every 40 
acres of undamaged Commercial of Industrial land 
uses owned . 



< 



31 



iii) Conservationists receive one point for every 40 

acres of parks which exist in their ward or 

township, although this land is usually owned by 
the local municipality. 

iv) Agriculture interests receive one point for every 
640 acres of undamaged agricultural land owned. 

v) Local officials receive points through taxation. 
Local officials should be careful to not confuse 
the public points they control with the points 
owned by the interest groups they originally 
belonged to. Mixing the two is considered 
unethical. 

2» Increasing Points - Additional points are earned by 
acquiring additional 40 acre parcels of land. These are 
acquired by purchasing them from one of the Business teams 
at a price negotiated between the buyer and seller. 
Points arc paid out by the game accountant during the 
second step of play based upon transactions completed 
during the previous round. 

3« increasing PoiEts - Players receive fewer points if 
property controlled by them is damaged by floods or 
hurricanes in Step 1. The decrease in points received is 
proportional to the percentage damage received rounded to 
the rearest whole nuaber of points. The percent damage to 
properties in each ward or township due to various types 
of storms is given in TABLE IV, the Storm Damage Table. 
In the event of a storm of hurricane severity or greater, 
all interest groups in communities at less than a Level IV 
of Protection must pay a one point emergency appropriation 
to local government to help defray costs of emergency 
assistance. 

**• Property Damage - Once damaged by a hurricane or 
flood, a development is assumed to continue in the same 
damaged condition yielding a lower return of points unless 
the owner decides to repair the property. Damaged 
property may be repaired at a cost per 40 acre unit equal 
to the percentage of damage being repaired times 10 points 
(the cost of original contruction) . 

5- Insurance - Property owners in communities enrolled in 
the Flood Insurance Program are usually eligible for flood 
insurance payments providing 50% of the value of the 
property damage sustained. Damaged property owners must 
file a claim form with the PEHA Officials who will approve 
or disapprove the claim and pay the appropriate points. 
These points may be used for repairs or towards the 
purchase of new properties. 



32 

*>• Accounting - Players are expected to calculate the 
number of points they are entitled to receive each round 
on the Current Status Form accompanying each role 
description. The game accountant will review this 
information each round before paying out the PAGAN points 
which have been earned. 

STEP 3_i TAXES - Each city and the county is empowered to collect 
taxes at a level deteroined by local government but varying 
between 10* and 4C% of the points earned. For the first round 
the tax rate is set at 20% for each of the three towns. At 
the end cf the first round each government must announce the 
new tax rate for the next round. Taxes due are rounded up or 
down to the nearest whole integer of points received at Step 
II of the current round. Conservationists are exempt from 
paying taxes on their properties. 

STEP Hi DEVEICEEFNT - Players from Business Interest teams may 
develop additional groups of 40 acre parcels of land in any 
location provided they have a signed Development Permit from 
the Building Inspector of the jurisdiction where the 
development is to occur. Development may occur only on land 
currently owned by the Business Team. 

Rules 

1. A Business Team may purchase land from the operator or 
frcv other teams at whatever price can be agreed upon. 
All land sales must be recorded on the Current Status Form 
of tcth buyer and seller. The buyer can earn points on 
developed land only if he/she represents an interest group 
appropriate to the type of development involved. Existing 
developments may be demolished at a cost of 2 points per 
40 acres of land to be cleared. Building permits are 
issued by local government officials when they have 
determined that the proposed development is in compliance 
with local zoning regulations, the general and local 
requirements for "balanced" combinations of development, 
and other development controls enacted locally including 
those required by approved hazard management programs. 

2. A "balanced** combination of new developments is 
defined as six 40 acre parcels of residential development 
and one 40 acre parcel of commercial or industrial 
development. Local government may modify this "balanced" 
development requirement to require one additional 40 acre 
parcel of parks and open space. 

3. The cost to develop a 40 acre parcel of land for most 
uses is ten points. Parks and Agricultural land costs 3 
points per 40 acres. To reflect the existance of public 
services and roads, however, new development can only 
occur en parcels sharing at least one side with a 
previously developed parcel • The cost of development of 



r> 



V 



33 

a parcel nay be increased by 10-35% (the development 
surcharge) due to construction requirements imposed by the 
flocd protection level currently in effect. 

H. Additional pcints earned by newly developed land 
parcels is not paid out until Step 2 of the next round. 

5. Players nay combine points with other players in any 
combination that seems workable regardless of interest 
group designation cr location. However, one player must 
be clearly designated as the party eligible to receive 
points from the accountant for any land developed through 
such ccibinations. 

STEP 5i PROTECT ION - Local government may enact one of the five 
hazard protection levels listed on Table II, the Levels of 
Flood Protection Table. 

Rules 

1. local government may enact one of the five hazard 
protection levels, pass appropriate zoning legislation and 
hold those referendums which may be required to implement 
the new level. 

2. J^a^ the descriptions of the flood h az ard pr o tectio n 
l§y.§is C-afSLfuliy. lQ d e term in e the exact requiremen t s £or 
enactment. All costs and other requirements must be met 
or the protection level provided in the previous level 
continues by default. 

3« HQ.±£. ±k§L%. the. c ost s and protec ti ons lis ted are 
cumu lative from one level to the next . Only the 
difference between the new level and the previous level 
applies to either costs or benefits. 

4. It is the local government's responsibility to obtain 
the necessary points to implement the flood protection 
program selected either through taxes, donations, or other 
sources. 

STEP 6^ ELEC TION - As the last step in each round, each local 
governmert is allowed five minutes to address their citizens. 
This would normally ccnsist of announcements of new levels of 
protecticn provided, new tax rates, new zoning restrictions 
and so en and might include appeals for reelection or passage 
of upcoming referenda. 

flules 

1. Following any announcements referenda may be held and 
in even numbered rounds an election of local officials is 
held. Please note that any level of flood protection 



34 

beycrd Level II requires a referendum. If the required 
referendum has net already been held as a part of Step 
Five above, it must be held at this time. 

2. Also durinq this period, any group of five or more 
players may petition the local government and the game 
operator for a hearing if some pressing issue has not been 
adequately handled or discussed. 



35 

TABLE II. LEVELS OF FLOOD PROTECTION 



P) 



V 



NOTE: All costs and change figures are relative to Level I. Actual 
costs and changes are the difference between current level and 
new level to be enacted, e.g., in going from Level II to 
Level III the community Bust pay and additional 60 points; 
construction costs will increase by 5%; and property damages 
will be decreased by an additional 10%. 

* NO PROTECTION: Development permitted with no effort to mitigate 

against potential flood damages. Community chooses not to enter 

or remain ir N.F.I. P. No flood insurance is available to local 
property owrers. 

Number of Community Points Needed to Implement: 
Property Tamages Community-wide Reduced By: 0% 
Construction Costs Increased By: 0% 

REQUIRED ACTIONS: No enactment reguired — default condition. 

II M INI MAL PROTECTION: Community adopts minimum FIA regulations. No 

development allowed within the "floodway." New construction 
within the 100 year flood plain must be elevated to the 100 year 
flood height. Insurance payments will cover 75% of the losses 
for the first occurance only . No coverage is provided for 
subseguent damages. 

Number of Community Points Needed to Implement: 40 
Property Taraages Ccmmunity-wide Reduced By: 10% 
Construction Ccsts Increased By: 10% 

REQUIRED ACTIONS: Enactment by any town government. 

III MEDIUM PRpTF CTI ON: Community adopts minimum NFIP requirements. 

New construction within the 100 year floodplain must be elevated 
P.2S foot above J00 year flood levels . Existing structures which 
are not flcodpioofed are designated as in violation of the local 
building code. Develop evacuation/rescue plans. Insurance 
payments will cover 75% of the losses for each occurance. 

Number of Community Points Needed to Implement: 100 
Property carnages Community-wide Reduced By: 20% 
Construction Ccsts Increased By: 15% 

REQUIRED ACTIONS: Community referendum needed to adopt new 
building code. Enactment by town government required (if 
referendum passes and if reguired points are available). 



36 



IV HIGH PROTECTION: Any new development in 100-year floodplain Bust 
comply with strict perfornance standards which ensure protection 
of critical natural resources. Carefully regulated development 
in uplands to minimize increases in flood flows and to protect 
water quality and other natural resources. Hew construction in 
the 100 year flood plain must be elevated 1 foot above the 100 
year flood levels. Local aovernments c oordinat e in developing 
community flood evac uat ion plans and pos t-disaster rec over y plans 
which include publi c acquisition of most seriously damaged 
properties and r el ocati o n assistance to a ffecte d residen ts. 
Insurance rayments will cover 75% of the losses for ea ch 
occurance. 

Number of Community Points Needed to Implement: 180 
Property Taaages Ccmmunity-vide Reduced By: 4015 
Construction Costs Increased By: 25% 

REQUIRED ACTIONS: The evacuation plan must be passed by the local 
government and publicly posted. Evacuation refuge areas must be 
designated and stockpiled. Referendum in affected communities 
most approve policy of public purchase of flood damaged 
properties. 

v HIGHEST PROTECTION: Adopt a fully integrated hazard mitigation 
and natural resource protection program, including all of the 
measures described under HIGH PROTECTION above. In ad ditio n 
ins titut e a Eerjnit sy ste m to regulate develo pment on ecologicall y 
vital areas within the community^ including wetlands and edge 
zonesj. Begin now to acquire by. con demn a tion and purchase those 
land a nd bui ldi ngs in the most flood hazardous ar eas. provid e 
f°£ removal of s tru ctures^ restoration of area to its natural 
sta_t§ and relocation of affected resi dents . Adopt performance 
standards fcr upland development which ensures minimal increases 
in flood flows and soil erosion. Implement aggressive 
acquisition relocation program prior to next disaster, pursuing 
efforts tc restore natural resource values wherever possible. 
Initiate cooperative actions with other communities sharing the 
same watershed. Insurance payments will cover 75% of the losses 
fcr each cccurance. 

Number of Community Points Needed to Implement: 300 
Property Tamages Ccmmunity-wide Reduced By: 60% 
Construction Costs Increased By: 35% 

REQUIRED ACTIONS: HIGH PROTECTION must have been in effect at 
least one round earlier. Reguires approval of each affected local 
government plus a local referendum to raise the tax limit. Allows 
local governments to raise taxes an additional 10% above the 
normal limits in order to provide funds for purchasing flood 
hazard areas. 



« 



37 



TABLE III. FLOOD DAMAGE TABLE 
Percent Damage by Location, Protection Level, and Flood Severity 





























"T - 

1 






Piano 




1 


Richardson 


| Garland 




PROTECTION 


1 






Wards 




1 


Hards 






Wards 




LEVEL 


L-- 










i 












1 

I 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


i 

V I 

t 


I 


II 


I I 


II 


III 




LIGHT 


FLOODS. Prob. 


= 0.89, 


No's. = 


12- 


100 






I 


T 

J 
1 














i 

1 

20 | 


20 


10 


| 60 


50 


20 


II 


1 














10 | 


10 





1 o 


40 


10 


III 


1 














I 








1 o 


30 





IV 


1 














I 








1 o 


20 





V 


1 














I 








1 o 

1 - 


10 









HE/VY FLOODS. 


Prob. 


= 0.1C 


I, No's. 


= 2 


-11 






I 


~T" 
1 
1 





20 


10 


20 


• 

I 

40 | 


40 


30 


I 80 


70 


40 


II 


1 





10 





10 


30 1 


30 


20 


I 70 


60 


30 


III 


J 














20 1 


20 


10 


I 60 


50 


20 


IV 


1 








C 





10 | 


10 





| 50 


40 


10 


V 


1 
1 














I 








| 40 


30 









SEVERE 


FLOODS 


Prob. ■ 0. 


01, No. 


■ 










"T 
1 










i 
1 






V~" 






I 


1 


10 


40 


30 


40 


60 | 


60 


50 


| 100 


90 


60 


II 


1 





30 


20 


30 


50 | 


50 


40 


I 90 


80 


50 


III 


1 





20 


10 


20 


40 | 


40 


30 


I 80 


70 


40 


IV 


i 





10 





10 


30 | 


30 


20 


I 70 


60 


30 


V 


1 
.1 














20 | 


20 


10 


I 60 


50 


20 



c 



38 

CFERATOB'S INSTBOCTIONS 

NUMBER OF FIAYFRS; PAGAN-Coastal has been designed to accoaodate 
a large variety of players. Some approximate knowledge of the number 
of players to be accomodated must be available before the game, 
however, in order to decide which of the political jurisdictions are 
to be employed in the game run. In general, two or even three players 
are preferred in each role in order to force players to discuss their 
decisions among themselves, thus improving the information flow and 
learning potential of the game. Having at least two players in each 
role also allows for one to serve as a public official while the other 
can stay M at hcae" taking care of the special interests of the role. 

The total game consists of 42 interest groups or roles plus 12 
elected officials in the 3 jurisdictions and a team of FEMA officials. 
For a small group cf players, the Town of Richardson alone could be 
played involving 10 interest groups plus 2 elected officials and the 
FFMA officials. Ideally this would involve 2 players per interest 
group with three to be elected to public office plus 1 or 2 persons 
assigned to represent FEMA for a total of 23-24 players. As few as 
twelve players could be accomodated if 1 were appointed to each 
interest group, the town government, and FEMA. 

Other combinations of 2-3 persons per team plus the use of larger 
jurisdictions and combinations of jurisdictions provides a 
considerable range of ways in which varying numbers of players may be 
accomodated in varying arrangements of the game. The table below 
summarizes these possibilities. 

NUMBER OF PLAYEBS 
OPTIMUM MINIMUM MAXIMUM 

BICHARDSON CNLY 24 12 35 

GARLAND ONLY 33 16 48 

PLANO CNLY 41 19 59 

FICHARDSON AND GIRIAND 57 28 83 

BICHARDSON AND PIANO 65 31 94 

GARLAND AND PLANC 74 35 107 

ALL THREE TOWNS 98 47 142 

ROOM ARRANGIMENTS: A separate table for each ward or township 
plus one for each governing body and the FEMA officials should be 
arranged in a single large room in a pattern roughly conforming to 
their geographic distribution on the county map. Enough room must be 
provided to allow players relatively easy access to each other* s 
tables for pu£ roses of bargaining and discussion. The table for the 
elected officials should be located near the center of their 
respective wards and townships while the table for the game operator 
and accountants should be located off to the side, preferably near a 
blackboard or bulletin board. 

If a single large room is not available, each jurisdiction played 
could be located in a separate smaller room. Provison for movement * 
between rooms must be made, however, and a sngle larger meeting area 



fc 



39 

where all players can come together for "community meetings" and the 
debrifing at the end of the game is desireable. Separate roons for 
each jurisdiction usually results in lower levels of communication and 
cooperation between them, a situation it may be desireable to simulate 
in order to make plaers struggle with ways to oercome these problems. 

Each table and/or rocm shculd be clearly labelled with the name 
of the jurisdicticn an ward or township seated there. 

EQ UIP MENT; aside from paper and pencils, the only special 
equipment required by the game is some method of generating random 
numbers from 1 to 100 and some type of overlay map of the county large 
enough and distlayed prominently so that players may refer to it in 
their discussions and so that changes in land uses may be recorded 
upon it. 

Probability dice consisting of a pair of icosohedrons can 
usually be purchased in local hobby shops. Before casting them for 
the players be sure they understand which die represents the tens 
digits and which the units digits. Usually 00 is taken as 100. If 
probability dice are not readily available, a table of random numbers 
may be found in the back of most statistics texts. another 
possibility is to put 20 slips of paper into a paper bag. Two slips 
each should be numbered from to 9. drawing two slips of paper from 
the tag then generates two numbers with the ist number designated as 
the tens digit ar.d the second number as the units digit. 

The large map cf the county may be sketched fairly roughly since 
its major purpose is simply as a focus for discussion and to provide 
some location where »ajor changes in land uses can be indicated. An 
overlay of acetate or other erasable transparency will allow the map 
to be readily changed with grease pencils. 

PEIOR TO PLJY: If possible, several days before the game all 
players should receive a copy of the Introduction, the Overview, the 
Steps of Play, a City or County Map, an appropriate Community 
Description including Tables I and II, the Levels of Flood Protection 
Table (Table III), and the Stern Damage Table (Table IV). Specific 
role descriptions should usually not be provided beforehand in order 
to ensure that each role is filled at the time of play by assigning 
them enly at the actual start of the game. 

It is preferable to assign players to their roles first and to 
then ask them to choose their elected representatives from among 
themselves at the rate of one representative from each ward to serve 
on the City Council plus one representative from each city and each 
township to serve on the County Board of Supervisors. In this way 
they tend to have a clearer image of the fact that they are 
representing a particular constituency. If necessary, however, 
players may be assigned directly to local government immediately at 
the beginning cf play. In any event, role descriptions for local 
government including Building Permit Forms should be placed on the 
appropriate tables prior to the start of the game. 



40 

Enough copies of each role description to provide one for each 
player should be reproduced before the game. Extra copies of the ■ 
Steps of Play, Storm Damage Table, Flood Protection Table, and the 
Community Descriptions should also be reproduced prior to play since 
many of the players vill fail to bring their copies with them to the 
actual game run. 

Fill out a Current Status Form for each role being played and 
place several copies on the apropriate tables just before play begins 
or have an assistant pass these forms out to the apropriate interest 
groups while you are making your introductory remarks. Acreage 
figures and points for each interest group are given in the Interest 
Group Points Allocation Table (Table V) presented at the end of the 
Operators Instructions section. 

A single experiened operator can probably handle a game involving 
only one municipality. If inexperienced, an accountant assistant 
should be used for even a small game run. If two or more 
jurisdictions are being used in the same game, two or even three 
accountant assistants should be used to assist the game operator. 

DURING PLA Y - Only a very brief 5-10 minute introduction to the 
game should be provided prior to beginning the first round. Players 
usually have many guestions to ask prior to play but answering them 
before the game often creates more confusion than help. Host 
questions are much better answered during and immediately after the 
first round of play. The introduction should consist of guickly 
pointing out the locations of the various interest groups and V 
governments, the Steps of Play, the Storm Damage Table, the Levels of 
Flood Protection, the maps and the Current Status Form accompanying 
each of the rele descriptions. Players should be asked to locate 
their ward and their land developments on the land use map and to note 
the corresponding acreage figures given on the Current Status form. 

Players should be informed that the number of points they are 
about to receive are based upon the number of acres of land they own 
in their ward or township less a percentage equal to the amount of 
storm damage received in each of the last five years. The amount of 
land owned may be increased by the players following the procedures 
outlined in the Development Step of Play. 

Prior to tie first step of play, local officials must be elected 
if you have not already appointed them. Allow plaers a few minutes to 
discuss this amoivj themselves and then call for the election. Bemind 
them that the position is only held for two rounds and that they will 
have a chance to change their choices at the end of the next round. 
Some forcefulness may be called for here in order to get the election 
carried out quickly. 

Immediately following the election and the movement of the elected 
players to the tables provided for their respective goernments, 
announce the beginning of the game with the arrival of the hurricane 
season. Explain the meaning and use of the dice and roll them the » 
first time. Then refer players to the Storm Damage Table and show ^ 



41 

then how the severity of the storm and the associated damage levels 
are determined by the nunbers rolled by the dice. Roll the dice four 
■ore tises to represent the remaining four years and announce the 
total impact of sterns over the previous five years in terns of the 
total amunt of damage accumulated. This varies by vard or townsip but 
pointing out one or two such cases and summing the percentages is 
usually enough tc make players understand how the procedure works. 

Players should then be instructed to fill out their Current 
Status Forms and go to the accountant to receive their initial PAGAN 
Points, thus initiating the second step of play. While this is going 
on, the operator sculd circulate among individual tables to help 
players to detersine their total damages and complete their Current 
Status Forms. Seme confuson can be expected here during the first 
round but by the second round this step should be quite 
straiqhtfovard. V'hile individual teams are obtaining their points, 
turn to the F1HA officials and warn them that they should be 
encouraging insured teams to make insurance claims for damages 
sustained. Players should be informed that they may be eligible for 
insurance and that they should check the rules under the second step 
of play as well as the FEHA officials to determine their eligibility. 

Gradually rost players will have worked themselves through the 
second step of the round. Points will have been collected and 
insurance forms filled out and possibly approved. FEHA officials will 
need some PAGAN Points to meet the claims filed. The operator should 
provide these carefully in order to make the FEHA officials a little 
cautious in approving claims. In general, the operator should provide 
just enough funds to meet all legitimate claims but should give the 
clear impression that funds will not be provided for poorly handled or 
spurious claims. A careful review of the claims filed in the first 
round is usually sufficient to make FEHA officials behave responsibly 
in later rounds. 

While all this is happening, local government should be meeting 
and appointing its own officers as suggested in their role 
descriptions. Urge them to appoint the tax collector right away so 
that you can help him/her begin to collect taxes at the first round 
rate of 20% as scon as individual teams have collected their points 
from the accountant. This gets the third step of play under way and 
completed while steps 1 and 2 are still underway for some of the 
players 

The initiation of step 4 may reguire a little more deliberate and 
separate discussion, although a few teams may have already moved into 
this step while you have been helping others through the earlier 
steps. At this point, the Business Teams in particular should be 
advised as to how they may undertake development, purchasing land from 
the operator and putting together enough funds to make up a "balanced" 
development package. It is likely that several Business Teams may 
have to combine resources in order to gain enough points for both land 
purchase and contruction. It may be that only part of the land 
purchases may be accomplished in the first round and no development 
will occur. 



42 

The operator is cautioned to exercise some care in allowing 
Busines Teaas to bay land. Development as an option in the game is , 
desireable and necessary foe realism in competition with flood ■-' 
proction issues. Some players may become totally engrossed in 
development, however, and prevent the entire community from 
considering flood protection programs. Some competition for attention 
and resources is desiieable but the operator can and should limit such 
efforts by refusing to sell enough land or making the prices for land 
high enough to irhibit too much development, it may take two or three 
rounds before any developer or combination of developers will have 
enough funds available to put a complete development package together. 

While all this is going on, many players including local 
government should be considering the possibility of enacting higher 
levels of flood protection, i.e., undertaking step 5. The operator 
should be ready to help explain the meaning of the various levels and 
to show how the amount of protection provided decreases the amount of 
damage shown in the Storm Damage Table. Local Government officials 
should be cautioned to irake sure they have enough funds available to 
pay for the level cf protection enacted and that they are aware of any 
referendums which may te required. 

Finally, th< elected spokesperson for local government should be 
coached to prepare a statement and agenda for step 6. Announcements 
must be made, referenda held, and perhaps a brief public hearing 
allowed for. Following completion of the public hearing the operator 
should step in to answer questions. After some discussion of the 
events in round one, the operator should point out that the players \ 
now know most of the rules and that the next round can and should 
proceed much mere quickly. The operator then pulls out the 
probability dice thereby announcing the start of the next round and 
the arrival of the hurricane season. 

The second and third rounds should proceed much more quickly and 
with less and less need for the intervention of the operator. Players 
should be encouraged to get into side discussions on the relative 
merits of various levels of flood protection and the ways in which it 
effects the community. As the third round draws to a close, it is 
probably time to consider breaking off the actual play of the game and 
leading the participants into a more general discussion of what has 
happened during the game. 

DEEfllEFIN G - Individual style dictates the manner in which the 
debriefing is to be held but several steps of discussion often help to 
lead the players out of the game and back into issues to be addressed 
in the real world. 

Some time is needed in the beginning of every debriefing to allow 
players to let off steam. Ask one or two of the players to describe 
what they were trying to accomplish and how well they succeeded. If 
several jurisdictions are being played, asking for a report from each 
and drawing comparisons among them may be helpful. 



f) 



43 

After a short time, however, players should be directed away froi 
happenings in the game towards broader questions regarding the 
significance of what happened to their interest groups. Did their 
flood protecticr program work? What kinds of problems were 
encountered in trying to get higher levels of protection passed? Mere 
these problems realistic? Which groups worked for flood protection 
programs and which ones were opposed? Why did they take these stands? 

Fairly quickly the discussion will take on its own character and 
lead players away from the game towards much broader discussions of 
flood protection issues and philosophies. At some point along here 
the game and the debriefing ends and the conference picks up again. 
In closing, thank the players for their participation. Then go buy 
yourself and your assistants a couple of good stiff drinks. 



I 




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APPENDIX E 
SIMULATION EXERCISE (PAGAN) 
COASTAL 



V 






PLANNING for ACTS of GOD AND NATDBE 
PAGAN - Coastal 



by 



Allan G. Feldt, The University of Michigan 

and 
Marissa T. Roche, The Conservation Foundation 



ii 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This game was developed for presentation at a series of Community •> 
Flood Hazard Management Training Institutes sponsored by the Federal 
Emergency Management Agency. While the authors accept responsibility 
for the general content of the materials presented here, we are 
indebted to a number of persons and agencies for materials and ideas. 
Among others these include the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort 
Worth District, for materials derived from their Rowlett Creek 
studies, Katherine Warner of the University of Michigan, Clem 
Rastatter of the Conservation Foundation, and Shannon Berger and David 
Feldt of Legacy Press. 



OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS: PAGAN is designed to be played in 
about three hours including debriefing. The first round should take 
about one hour allowing ten minutes for each of the six steps of play. 
Later rounds should take about one-half hour each with 5 minutes for 
each step. The game can theoretically be run with as few as nine or 
as many as 126 persons by assigning up to 3 persons to each of the 41 
geographically separated interest groups and to the 14 elected 
governmental positions. A separate table is needed for each ward or 
township plus each governing body plus one for the game operator and 
accountant. For a full run of all three jurisdictions and all wards 
and townships this would mean a total of 16 well separated tables in 
one very large room or in 3 or 4 separate rooms, rooms arranged 
spatially in a pattern approximating their geographic locations. 
Except for a pair of probability dice or their eguivalent, all 
materials reguired for the game are provided in this manual. 

Any nonprofit, educational, or governmental agency may copy 
all cr part of this document provided that each copy 
includes appropriate credit to the authors and the original 
sponsoring agency. Commercial or profit making 
organizations must obtain permission for use and copying in 
writing from the Conservation Foundation, Inc., 1717 
Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D.C., N. W. 20036 



XI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

Ad Introduction To Siaulation/Games 1 

Overview* • 2 

COMMUNITY DESCRIPTIONS 4 

Hampton County with Table I, Land Use; and lift, 

Ownership • • 4 

Oakton City with Table I, Land Use; and IIB, Ownership . 8 

Hamilton Beach City with Table I, Land Use; and IIC, 

Ownership • . 11 

ROLE DESCRIPTIONS 13 

FEMA Officials and Insurance Claim Applications 14 

Local Government and Development Permits 16 

Community Business. ...... ..... 19 

Low Income Households .......... 22 

Riddle Inccse Households. ........ . 24 

High Income Households. ................. 26 

Agriculture • 28 

Conservationists 30 

STEPS 0? PLAY 32 

TABLE III. Levels of Flocd Protection 37 

TABLE IV. Storm Damage ..... 39 

OPERATOR'S INSTRUCTIONS 40 

TABLE V. Interest Group Points Allocation. ....... 46 

TABLE II. Total Interest Group Land Ownership (Acres) • . 47 



in 



" 



v 



AN INTRODUCTION TO SIMOLATION/GAHES 

Simulation/games have been widely used in nany disciplines to 
represent the complexities of multiple decisions under conditions of 
uncertainty. They have been used in military training excercises for 
over 150 years, in business management training for over thirty years, 
and in urban planning for over fifteen years. Through deliberate 
abstraction of a problem to it*s basic elements, simulation/games 
allow participants of widely varying backgrounds to gain an overview 
of the problem being considered which can clarify and broaden their 
perspective when they are faced with similar though more detailed 
issues in the "real world." In addition to providing an overview, 
games also collapse time, thereby enabling a player to see the effects 
of decisions over many years in the course of a few hours of play. 

Most simulation/games consist of three principle elements plus a 
variety of artifacts in written, mathematic, graphic, or physical form 
whose purpose is to record or convey information to players. The 
first principle element is the Scenario - the data and description of 
the time and place being represented in the game. The second element 
is the R ole s - the primary actors in the game including descriptions 
of who they are, what their relative interests and strategies may be, 
and what their status is at the beginning of the game. The third 
element is some form of A cco unting S yste m - which records the 
decisions of players and determines what impact they have on the 
scenario and the roles. The accounting system must also feed some or 
all of this information back to the players on a regular basis as a 
guide to future decision making. 

Host games are played over a series of time periods called 
"rounds" approximating some amount of time in the "real world" ranging 
from hours to decades. Similar activities usually take place each 
round with players making more rapid and sophisticated decisions in 
later rounds, as they become more familiar with the game and it § s 
rules. The first round is often very confusing since players must 
learn to understand both the mechanics of the game and the factors 
influencing their decisions. In later rounds confusion over rules and 
game mechanics dissipates while the complexity of decisions may 
increase due to the increasing sophistication of the players plus the 
increasing effect of decisions accumulated from previous rounds. 

Simulation/games can be reasonably accurate representations of 
the "real world" situations they depict but their outcomes should not 
be interpreted as predictive of how real events are likely to turn 
out. Simulaticn/games are merely representations of how various 
components interact. The assumptions of the persons designing them 
plus the decisions of the players themselves strongly effect the 
outcome. Such an outcome represents at best only one of many possible 
worlds which could emerge in the "real world" system being modeled. 
Thus all simulation models, regardless of their complexity can never 
be anything more than instructional devices allowing us to observe and 
experiment with possible futures. 



OVERVIEW 

PURPOSE: PAGAN attempts to provide an understanding of the 4 
conflicting interests involved in developing a flood hazard management 
program. Based on case study materials, the game requires players to 
try to resolve the conflict between advancing their own interests 
through acguiring more property and points (currency) and protecting 
their own and the community's interests through providing an adequate 
level of flood protection. 

GAME STEPS: The game is played in successive rounds, each of 
which consists of six steps that take place over a time period 
representing five years. During each round, players are exposed to 
varying size storms or hurricanes and must consider the resulting 
costs of disasters that arise through their own activities, the 
activities of their neighbors and Acts of God And Nature. The steps 
are: 

1) W eat her — Establish the amount of damage which has occurred 

through storms, hurricanes and floods during the previous 
five years; 

2) Points-- Establish the points (currency) earned by each 

player; 

3) Taxes — Local governments assess and collect taxes; 

**) Develop ment -- Individual players develop or purchase << 
additional units of land; 

5) Protection — Local government establishes the desired level 

of flood protection; 

6) Local Government Actio n — Referendums, elections, and 

public meetings to establish future strategies to complete 
passage of floodplain ordinances, and to elect new local 
officials if necessary. 

SCENARIO: The action takes place in Hampton County and it's two 
cities of Oakton and Hamilton Beach. The county's population is 
around 103,000 with 48,000 living in Oakton and another 15,000 within 
the seaboard resort community of Hamilton Beach. The entire area is 
subject to periodic damage from storm tides and winds at known 
probabilities. The degree of damage sustained is determined by the 
severity of the storm, the type of development, and the level of 
hazard protection provided. Players may influence the level of hazard 
protection and the degree of community development by investing points 
towards either or both of these options. Points received in later 
rounds depend upon how well the interests of each team were met in 
earlier rounds. 

ROLES: The two cities and the county are made up of wards or 
townships, each of which in turn contains a number of interest groups 
represented by assigned game roles. Interest groups vary among the v 



different areas but generally consist of Low Income Households, diddle 
Income Households, Upper Income Households, Local Business, Local 
Conservationists, Agriculture, Local Government elected by the 
players in each ward or township, and representatives of the Federal 
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) • Each ward or township is seated 
at a separate table with the three communities located in different 
parts of the rocm or in separate rooms. The central task facing each 
community individually and as a group is to reach an agreement among 
diverse interests on the type of growth desired and the degree of 
hazard protection to be provided. Cooperation among wards, interest 
groups, and communities is encouraged but is hampered by problems of 
communication, differing interests and differing perceptions of the 
problems faced. 

ACCOUNTS: The basic variables in PAGAN are 1) the amount of land 
of a given type controlled by each player; 2) the amount of damage 
that land receives each round; 3) the number of points each player 
receives as a result of land holdings and damages; 4) the tax rate set 
by local governents; and 5) the level of damage protection provided. 
Both players and the game operator keep records on the levels of these 
five variables during play and their figures are reconciled each round 
when PAGAN Points are paid out. 



HAflPTON COUNTY DESCRIPTION 

Hampton is a coastal county located on a peninsula between the 
Atlantic Ocean and the Coral Biver. It's terrain consists primarily 
of sandy ridges, sandy loan plateaus, and swampy areas on typical 
Carolina bays. Land elevations range from sea level to as much as 
seventy five feet, with a series of dunes and bluffs extending along 
most of the county's Atlantic coastline. A narrow band of barrier 
islands extends along the coastline, shielding the intercoastal 
waterway from storm and wave effects during all but the most severe 
storms. 

The county contains only two cities, Oakton which is located on 
the bluffs overlooking the Coral River and Hamilton Beach which 
occupies one of the larger barrier islands and is primarily a resort 
community. The population of Hampton County was 80,000 in 1970 and 
103,000 in 1980. Less than 50% of this population (48,000) lives in 
Oakton with another 15, COO (25,000 summer) persons in Hamilton Beach 
and about 6,000 persons living in six small outcounty villages. The 
remainder of the County's population lives in low density residential 
areas clustered primarily on or near shorelines and on farms in the 
county's agricultural areas. 

Since 1970 population has increased at a steady rate of 2-3% per 
year, with much cf the new development occuring in rural areas and 
along the coastlines. Currently about 11% of the county's total land 
area is developed for urban or industrial uses, about 21% is under 
agricultural cultivation, and the remainder consists of forest, water, 
wetlands, and vacant land. The climate of Hampton county ranges from 
hot and humid in the summer to cool in winter. Mean annual 
precipitation is 54 inches while the average wind velocity is 9 m.p.h. 

Hampton county is subjected to occasional storms and hurricanes 
and their associated wind and flood damage. During extreme tides and 
storm surges most of the barrier islands and beaches are overtopped to 
such an extent that ocean waves pass directly into the intercoastal 
waterway, effecting mainland shores, estuaries, and coastal streams. 
Storm surges and high tides also move up the Coral River and it's 
tributaries, effecting the city of Oakton and it's environs. Observed 
high water marks and tide gauge records indicate that ocean tides 
higher than five feet have occured six times since 1954. A hurricane 
(winds greater than 73 mph) can be expected to strike Hampton county 
one year in twenty while a great hurricane (winds greater than 125 
mph) can be expected to strike one year in fifty. Storm surges and 
floods rising well above the 10 foot contour line can be expected one 
year in a hundred. Floods above the 20 foot contour line have never 
occured and are considered impossible locally due to the estuarine 
character of the area. 

Hampton county has recently entered the Regular National Flood 
Insurance Program at a minimum level of protection (Level II, Table 
III). This means that land owners will be reimbursed for 50% of the 



4 



damage incurred from storms, hurricanes, and floods. This insurance 
will not cover damages from a second occurence unless the community 
increases its level of protection prior to the next storm. 

A recent land use analysis which focused on development 
suitability of county lands found that nearly 50% of Hampton county is 
unsuitable for other than agricultural development, and that much of 
the remainder shculd be developed only with extreme caution. Recently 
adopted land use regulations have begun to implement this study"s 
findings, but resistance on the part of several County Commissioners 
who feel that such regulations will stifle needed economic growth 
within the county has prevented further regulation of land uses. The 
fact that the land use study singled out shoreline properties as being 
most hazardous has caused particular problems, since much of Hampton 
County's recent growth has involved the construction of low density 
residences and high rise condominiums on these types of sites. 

Because of this new development along the river banks and 
coastlines of Hampton county the level of damage from another major 
hurricane like that of 1952 is expected to increase substantially. 
Many of the residences and businesses which were heavily damaged or 
destroyed in 1952 have been rebuilt in the same places, and the large 
numbers of newly developed residences within the five to twenty foot 
contours pose a constant danger of massive damage and dislocation of 
county residents. Some beach nourishment and refurbishment programs 
are currently in effect using federal monies, but Hampton county is 
essentially without any current hazard management or flood protection 
programs at this time beycnd meeting the minimum NFIP requirements. 

In addition to Oakton and Hamilton Beach, the county is made up 
of the four rural townships of Anne, Beauregard, Charles, and Desmond. 
Each township and each city elects one representative to the County 
Commission for a two round period resulting in a total of six County 
Commissioners setting county policy. 

Anne Township lies west of the Coral River and its northern fork 
and is made up largely of agricultural holdings with a few residential 
areas above the twenty foot contour. Its population is made up of 
agricultural interest groups plus low and middle income interest 
groups. Due to their inland position plus the lack of any development 
other than agriculture below the 20 foot contour, residents have been 
totally indifferent to previous local efforts at flood control. (Low 
and Hid Income, Agriculture, and Conservationists) 

Beauregard Township lies north of Oakton and the North Coral 
River and west of Highway 21. The area contains over 40% of the 
agricultural lards in the county together with three moderate sized 
villages containing some commercial and industrial developments. Host 
developed areas lie above the twenty foot contour although the 
Northernmost village lies just above the ten foot contour close to the 
banks of the North Coral River. Its population is made up of low and 
middle income interest groups, commercial interests, and agricultural 
interests. As the township most likely to profit from continued 
industrial and commercial expansion of the county, most residents of 



Beauregard Township favor continued growth and development while their 
major concern fcr flood hazard management programs has been to 
maintain a strong positive image of the county in order to impress 
potential investors. (Low and Mid Income, Agriculture, Business and 
Conservationists) 

Charles Township occupies the northeastern coastal part of the 
county , excluding the City of Hamilton Beach. The area is sparsely 
settled except fcr a fishing village in the north and a small group of 
middle class retirees on Wilton Island. The area is frequently 
severely damaged by ocean storms. Hurricane Agness resulted in total 
loss of almost all structures in the township but caused no deaths. 
Both the low and middle income interest groups actively oppose most 
flood hazard prcgrams as a threat to their livelihood and way of life 
as well as another example of Washington Socialism. Conservationists 
among the middle class residents of Hilton Island favor some form of 
government intervention, however, in order to prevent unbridled 
speculation and despoliation of beach front properties. (Low and Hid 
Income, and Conservationists) 

Desmond Township lies south of Oakton along the coastal and 
estuarine marsh area. lower lying parts of the township are subject 
to frequent flooding and local residents have been vociferous in their 
demands for better flcod control and lower flood insurance premiums. 
Particularly hard hit have been the middle class residents along the 
Coral Fiver flats in the south and on Duffy's Island just offshore. A 
recently completed high rise apartment project was placed just above 
the ten foot contour in order to placate these concerns. The fifteen 
story building is guaranteed to be completely floodproof and commands 
a striking view of the river mouth and the Atlantic Ocean. Lower 
Income residents live in the 1950's subdivision constructed on high 
ground just south of Oakton and work in industries and commercial 
establishments located in Oakton. The middle class in the other two 
localities are irade up of a combination of retired persons and middle 
management personnel from Oakton industries. Although politically 
conservative they are strong opponents of continued growth. They 
support the local conservationists to a limited extent since both 
groups tend to favor limiting growth and greater flood 
protection. (Low and Kid Income and Conservationists) 



TABLE I. COMMUNITY LAND USE IN ACRES 



Land Use Type 



Oaktoo Hamilton Beach | Hampton County 



Low density residential 
High density residential 

Commercial 

Industrial ....... 

Parks and playgrounds 

Agriculture 

Vacant 



2600 
480 
480 
480 
160 
1280 
3000 



Total 8500 

total square miles . • • 13.28 



520 

120 

80 

40 

160 



1120 



20 40 
3.19 



7320 
880 
560 
720 
960 
21760 
73400 



105600 
165.0 



TABLE IIA. INTEREST GROUP LAND OWNERSHIP (Acres) 





T 




Hampton County 


Towns 




Interest Group 


1 










r 


A 


B 


C 


D 




i 












I 










Lo Inc. 




160 


640 


960 


480 


Mid Inc. 




160 


960 


320 


800 


Hi Inc. 
















Bus. . . 







200 








Conser. 




160 


120 


120 


240 


Agric. . 




11520 


8960 








TOTAL . 




19680 


10880 


1400 


1520 



OAKTON CITY DESCRIPTION 

Oakton is the principal city of Hampton County lying on the East 
bank of the Southeastward flowing Coral Biver 26 Biles upstream from 
the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic shoreline, however, is only about 8 
miles to the East. The city is roughly bounded on the north by Scott 
Creek and on the South by Barney Creek, both emptying into the Coral 
Piver. The original city was located on bluffs above the Coral River 
and its surrounding floodplains and marshes. Continued expansion 
during the past century has resulted in substantial development in 
lower lying areas along the Coral River and the creeks. 

Average annual rate of population growth has been less than 1.0% 
over the past three decades and is expected to remain at that low rate 
indefinitely unless one of several new industries currently being 
sought by local business and government officials should decide to 
locate in Oaktcn. The 1980 population has been reported to be about 
48,000 persons, up slightly from the 46,000 reported in 1970. Very 
little development has occured within the five foot contour at any 
time but substantial growth between five and twenty feet has occured 
over the course of the last three decades. In particular, the areas 
below the bluffs along the Coral River are filled by industrial and 
high density residential developments. 

A hurricane (winds greater than 73 mph) can be expected to strike 
the area on the average of one year in twenty while a great hurricane 
(winds greater than 125 mph) can be expected to strike one year in 
fifty. Flood carnage over the last three decades has amounted to 
several hundred thousand dollars in property damage every two to five 
years, although local officials expect these amounts to increase due 
to both inflationary effects and due to greater development below the 
ten foot contour. The great hurricane in 1952 resulted in seven local 
deaths, 1500 families left homeless, and over one million dollars in 
property damage. This was the hurricane which provided storm surges 
of eight feet above sea level in Oakton. Storm surges of greater than 
10 feet above sea level but below 20 feet can be expected one year out 
of every hundred. Heavy local rains sometimes also produce flooding 
of local creeks although this effect is minor due to the estuarine 
character of the area. Other than channelization of parts of James 
Creek, no important flood control measures have been initiated in the 
area. 

Oakton entered the Regular National Plood Insurance Program a few 
years ago with a flood plain management program at the Medium Level of 
Protection (Level III, Table III) . This means that land owners will be 
reimbursed for 503? of the damage incurred due to floods, hurricanes, 
and storms for all occurences. Resistance to these ordinances has 
been minimal thus far due priaarily to low growth and development 
pressures. Resistance to the existing ordinance might be expected to 
increase if the growth rate of the area were to increase dramatically. 

The First Ward lies along and below the bluff and consists of 
lower income households at low densities along the river, an older 
industrial section along the river and moderate income apartments and 



tovnhouses along the bluff above the 20 foot contour. The areas along 
the river are subject to annual floods of one to three feet but ' the 
low income residents are suspicious of attempts at flood control since 
it «ay force them frcm their homes, most of which are owner occupied. 
Damage to either residential or industrial areas is usually slight due 
to the relatively low investment contained in most of these 
structures. (Low and Middle Income, Business) 

The Second Ward consists of a comparatively modern industrial and 
dock area along the river front and Barney Creek backed by a high 
quality residential development along the lowlands of Barney Creek. 
Comprising middle and upper income people, this recently built up area 
contains both single family homes and a large group of apartments, 
and condominums just south of Barney Creek below the 10 foot contour. 
Residents of the ward are largely uninformed about flood control 
measures and seerr unaware of the high flooding potential of their 
neighborhood. A number of persons in the area are strong supporters 
of conserving the pleasant green areas and willows along Barney Creek. 
(Mid and Hi Income, Business, and Conservation.) 

The Third Ward occupies most of the downtown business district, a 
strong middle class low density residential area to the north, plus a 
group of twenty year old apartments along highway 101 and the edge of 
the bluff. The population is predominantly conservative and business 
oriented and is generally opposed to efforts at flood control since it 
seems only likely to benefit the "riff raff 1 ' along the river and the 
newer rich folks out along Barney Creek. Ward Three has no immediate 
flooding problems of its own since it is primarily located above the 
30 foot contour. (Mid Income and Business) 

The Fourth Ward contains the newer developing and still 
undeveloped sections to the north of the downtown business district 
and consists largely of the valleys created by Scott and James Creeks. 
Housing tends tc be primarily lew density residential and lower income 
including a number of mobile home parks. The small area of higher 
density residences near the CBD consists of elderly and lower income 
rent subsidized housing. One of the city's most treasured parks, 
Burbank Park, is found along James Creek extending into the Fifth 
Ward. A few residual farms are still in operation along the outskirts 
of the built up area and an older agricultural village now within the 
city limits lies at the extreme eastern edge of the ward. (Low and Mid 
Income, Business, Conservationists, and Agriculture.) 

The Fifth Ward resembles the Fourth, consisting of residual 
agricultural developments on the periphery plus lower income housing 
of both densities near the CBD and along the banks of James Creek 
including the upper half of Burbank Park. A few business holdings are 
also found along the eastern edge of the CBD. The outlying village at 
the intersection of highways 17 and 40 has become a stylish close-in 
bedroom community of middle income people living in restored colonial 
housing. (Low and Middle Income, Agriculture, Business and 
Conservationists) 



10 



TABLE I. COMMUNITY LAND USE IN ACRES 



Land Use Type 



Oakton Hamilton Beach | Hampton County 
H 



Low density residential 
High density residential 

Commercial . • 

Industrial ....... 

Parks and playgrounds 

Agriculture 

Vacant .. 



Total , 

total square miles . . . 13.28 



2600 


520 


7320 


460 


120 


880 


480 


80 


560 


480 


40 


720 


160 


160 


960 


1280 





21760 


3000 


1120 


I 73400 


8500 


2040 


105600 


13.28 


3.19 | 


1 165.0 



TABLE IIB. INTEREST GROUP LAND OWNERSHIP (Acres) 



1 
Interest Group 


r 

Oakton Hards 


Type 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


Lo Inc. 


120 








800 


200 


Hid Inc. 


160 


320 


720 


400 


200 


Hi Inc. 





160 











Bus. • • 


160 


440 


240 


40 


80 


Conser. 





40 





40 


80 


Agric. • 











640 


640 


TOTAL . 


! 440 


960 


960 


1920 


1200 



11 

HAMILTON BEACH CITY DESCRIPTION 

Hamilton Beach is a small resort town located on the barrier 
island of Berwick on the South Atlantic coast. A complex series of 
dunes , reefs, and beaches provide recreational and scenic attractions 
for summer residents and visitors, while traffic along the 
intercoastal waterway between the barrier islands and the mainland 
coastline provides some year round employment and business. Much of 
the town is located on dunes overlooking the white sand beaches of 
Hamilton Bay, while an assortment of hotels, summer homes, and 
cottages line the island's Atlantic shoreline. The island can be 
reached by the Alexander bridge at it's Southern end, or by the 
Hamilton Beach ferry at it»s Northern end. 

The town of Hamilton Beach is small, ranging in size from about 
15,000 permanent residents in the winter to over 25,000 residents at 
the height of the sumoer tourist season. Since 1970 the population 
has grown steadily but slowly. Though some local businesses exist on 
the island, most residents do much of their shopping and other errands 
in Oaktcn, which is substantially larger and only about five miles 
away. As the second largest city in Hampton County, Hamilton Beach 
plays an important role in Haapton county politics, serving as a 
meeting center and rallying point for residents and homeowners up and 
down the Atlantic coastline. While the ten thousand or so summer 
residents cannot vote directly in local elections, their presence is 
approved and their interests play an important part in local political 
S decisions. 

Hurricanes strike about one year in twenty, causing 50-70% 
destruction of all structures. Great hurricanes occur about once 
every fifty years and result in substantial destruction of the 
community. Loss of life and property damage over the past twenty 
years has been ffininal due to the absence of any hurricanes. Total 
inundation of the island is to be expected in most major storms. 
Despite the dangers of an occasional hurricane, most residents are 
unwilling to support local or county government actions to limit 
development or to restrict construction to hurricane and flood 
resistant types of development. Such activities are viewed as 
"socialist" and are not supported by the general populace. 

Hamilton Beach enrolled in the National Flood Insurance program 
in 1979. They have not yet entered the Regular Phase of the NFIP but 
their Flood Insurance Study has been completed and local officials are 
presently considering adopting floodplain management regulations to 
meet the reguirements of the Regular Program requirements of the NFIP 
(Level II, Table III) • As such, property owners in Hamilton Beach are 
entitled to 50% reimbursement for damages sustained for one occurence 
only. Subsequent damages will not be covered by insurance unless the 
community enters a regular program at a higher level of protection. 

land uses are predominantly residential, with low density 

residential uses in the majority. A small amount of land is used for 

V\\\ high density residences and even smaller amounts are used for 

' commercial and public facility purposes. The beaches themselves are 



12 



either publicly cr commercially owned with a 160 acre park providing 
some developed public access. Except for minor repair facilities no 
industrial development of any kind exists. 

Ward One is made up of the older residential and commercial 
centers around the old "ferry village at the northern end of the 
island. Residents and interest groups are primarily middle income and 
business in orientation. (Hid Income and Business) 

The Second Ward is the middle of the island and contains middle 
income residents along the beaches and lover income residents along 
the back bay. (low and Hid Income) 

In the Third Ward at the southern end of the island residences 
are newer and more exclusive including a series of ten story apartment 
buildings. Residents are primarily "summer folks" of upper income 
status with a sprinkling of middle income residents in some of the 
older "cottages." A fairly strong conservation group is active in 
this ward, concerned primarily with preserving the 160 acre Ocean 
Front Park located here. (Hid and High Income and Conservationists) 



TABLE I. COHHUNITY LAND USE IN ACRES 



land Use Type 



Oakton Hamilton Beach | Hampton County 



Low density residential 2600 

High density residential 480 

Commercial 480 

Industrial • 480 

Parks and playgrounds • 160 

Agriculture 1280 

Vacant 3000 

Total 8500 

total sguare miles . . . 13.28 



520 

120 

80 

40 

160 



1120 



2040 
3.19 



7320 
880 
560 
720 
960 
21760 
73400 



105600 
165.0 



TABLE IIC. INTEREST GROUP LAND OWNERSHIP (Acres) 



13 



Interest group 


- 1 ■ 
■ 




Hamilton 


Beach 


Wards 




Type 


1 
■ 


I 




II 




III 




l 












Lo Inc. 









80 







Bid Inc. 




160 




200 




80 


Hi Inc. 














120 


Bus. . . 




120 












Conser . 














160 


Agric. . 

















TOTAL . 




280 




280 




360 



14 

POIF DESCRIPTION - FEMA OFFICIALS (1 Team) 

As employees of the Federal Insurance Administration you have two 
primary responsibilities relating to the residents of the area. 

1« You will administer flood insurance payments to property 
owners who sustain damage as the result of a flood. Payments 
will be conditioned as follows: 

a) The Community oust be enrolled in the National Flood 

Insurance Program. At the start of the game all 
ccirmunities are in the NFIP program. However, they do 
have the option to drop out if they choose. 

b) Property cwners from eligible communities must request 

payment on the appropriate forms (available only from 
FIA officials) indicating they have in fact purchased a 
flcod insurance policy. 

c) For the first flood you will pay all eligible property 

owners who request reimbursement 50% of the total damage 
sustained. 

d) If, in subsequent rounds of play, property owners again 

sustain property damage you may not provide any 
reirabursement unle ss the community in which the property 
Q*L£Z lives has adopted Flood Prot ectio n Level III or 
]Li3h££« If the community has adopted the appropriate 
level of flood protection, you may again reimburse 
property owners 50% of total damages sustained. 

2. You may provide technical assistance to local communities 
upon request. 

In order tc accomplish your tasks most effectively, you may want 
to appoint certain FIA officials to handle Flood Insurance and others 
to provide technical assistance. 



15 



t> 



APPLICATION FOB NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PAYMENT 

Name/Bole: 

Location: 

Round: 

Land Use Type: 

No. Acres Damaged: 

Value (Acres Damaged/40) : 



Business Value (Acres Damaged/20) : 

Amount Reguested (Tc maximum of 50% of damage: 

Amount Awarded: $ 

Reguest Denied: (explanation) 



(Signature of FIA 

Official) 

APPLICATION FOP NATIONAL fLOOD INSURANCE PAYMENT 
Name/Role: 
Location: 

Round: 

Land Use Type: 

No. Acres Damaged: 

Value (Acres Damaged/40) : 

Business Value (Acres Damaged/20) : 



Amount Reguested (To maximum of 50% of damage: 

Amount Awarded: $ 

Reguest Denied: (explanation) 



(Signature of FIA 

Official) 



16 

ROLE DESCRIPTION - LOCAL GOVERNMENT (1-3 Teams) 

As elected officials you are responsible for the health and 
safety of your constituents as well as maintaining a stable and 
efficient community. The issues of community growth, flood and 
hurricane protection, and the management of frictions between other 
community groups are your foremost concerns, though other goals may 
also guide your decisions. Your performance will be judged by your 
constituents in an election at the end of every second round. 

local government has 6 basic powers: 

a) . You may collect taxes on the PAGAN points received by 
residents of your jurisdiction. The initial rate is 10% and 
it may b€ increased to as much as 40%. If Flood Protection 
Level V is passed it may reach 50%. The new tax rate must be 
announced at the end of each round or it is assumed to remain 
the same as in the previous round. 

b) . You may place reasonable restrictions on new development 
by zoning certain areas within your jurisdiction for limited 
kinds of land uses or for no development at all. You may 
modify tie existing reguirement for "balanced" development by 
requiring developers to provide 40 acres of parkland in 
addition to the reguired 40 acres of commercial development to 
accompany each 240 acres of residential development. New 
construction reguires a building permit signed by local 
government, but refusal to sign a permit must be justified on 
the basis of a zoning decision placed on an official zoning 
map and announced at least one round prior to the refusal to 
sign. Developers may sue for triple damages if they feel the 
refusal to sign is arbitrary and capricious. Such suits will 
be adjudicated by the game operator. 

c). You should propose a level of flood protection which 
accurately reflects the interests of your constituency. 
Representatives of various wards should be sure they maintain 
contact with constituencies they represent. 

D) . You may enact any of the five levels of Flood Protection 
Programs described elsewhere provided that you meet the 
necessary costs and other reguirements listed. 

d) . You may have 5 minutes at the end of each round (just 
before the election in even numbered rounds) to make public 
announcements regarding your programs, policies, zoning 
changes, tax rates, etc. You are advised to avoid letting 
this period turn into a public hearing or the 5 minutes 
allotted will be guickly used up. Any government or any group 
of 5 players may petition the game operator for a 10 minute 
public rearing once each round. 



• 



17 

f). You nay buy land from other players at the current market 
rate. If Level V Protection has been enacted you also have 
the power to condemn land in High Hazard Areas for subsequent 
purchase by local government. 

g) . Tou may assess each interest group an emergency levy of 
one point whenever a storm of hurricane severity or greater 
occurs to a community at less than a Level IV Protection 
Level. These funds are to be used to provide emergency 
assistance to those interest groups most severely hurt by the 
storm. 

In order to accomplish your objectives and use these powers 
effectively it is suggested that you appoint one of your members to 
each major task, e.g., tax collector, building inspector, flood 
Protection director, and a chairperson to call meetings and deal with 
the public. If you wish, you may "hire" persons from the community to 
perform some of these tasks, paying them 1 or 2 points per round. 







D 



18 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



DEVELOPMENT PERHIT 



Location 
Height 



Land Use 
No. Acres 



Location 
Height _ 



Base Cost Developer 

Surcharge Approved 

DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 

Location Land Use 

Height No. Acres 

Base Cost Developer 

Surcharge Approved 

DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Base Cost 



Land Use 
No . Acres 
Developer 



Surcharge Approved 

DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Location 
Height _ 



Base Cost 
Sur charge 



L and Use 
No. Acres 
Developer 
Approved 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Location 



Land Use 



Height Nck Acres 

Base Cost Developer 

Surcharge Approved 

DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 

Location Land Use 

Height No. Ac res 

Base Cost Developer 

Surcharge Approved . 

DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Location 



Height 



Base Cost 
Surcharge 



Land Use 

No. Acres 

De velope r 

Approved 



DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Location 

Height _ 



Base Cost 



L and Use 
No. Acres 
Developer 
Approved _ 



Sur charge 

DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 



Location 

Height 

Base Cost 
Surcharge 



_ Land Use 
NOj_ Acres 

__ Developer 
Approved 



Location 
H eight _ 



Base Cost 
Surc ha rge 



L and Use 
No. Acres 
Developer 
Approved 



19 

ROLE DESCRIPTION - COHKONITY BUSINESS (1-7 Teaas) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or 
township. They say play their role independently or they may combine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or on any other basis that seems appropriate. 

As local business people you are interested in continued 
community stability and growth. A larger and more prosperous 
community will result in larger sales and service revenues, and in 
most instances the community business group has strongly supported new 
development. Ic addition to growth the business group must also 
address issues of disaster preparedness and flood protection, 
balancing the cost of these programs against the costs of development 
and the possible negative effects of restrictions on where new 
development may occur. These restrictions are explained in the LEVELS 
OF FLCCD PROTECTION descriptions. Business interests are locatedin 
every Ward of Oakton, in Beauregard Township, and in Hard I of 
Hamilton Beach. 

As local business people you may undertake new developments in 
the community. Vacant land may be purchased from the game operator 
and "developed** at a cost of 10 PAGAN Points per 40 acre unit. The 
cost of development of parkland or agricultural land is only 3 points 
per 40 acre unit. Each developement undertaken, however, must be 
"balanced" in terms of the mixtures of new land uses provided within 
the same municipality. A "balanced** mixture of land uses is defined 
as six 40 acre units of residences and one 40 acre unit of commerce or 
industry. Local government may enact legislation requiring 40 acres 
of parks and open space to accompany each "balanced" development. 

No development may be undertaken without a buildng permit signed 
by the appropriate local official. It is the responsibility of such 
officials to insure that additional local requrements for "balance" 
have been met. 

Newly developed residential units may not be operated by Business 
players. They Bust be "sold" to other players representing 
Residential interests in that ward or township. The purchase price is 
whatever price can be agreed upon by the two groups of players 
involved. Commercial or Industrial developments may be retained and 
operated by the developer or may be sold to another group of business 
interests. No business property is considered in operation until the 
Residential units developed with it have been "sold" to legitimate 
Residential interest groups. Parks and Open Spaces developed in such 
a package becoie the property of the local municpality with point 
benefits going tc the local Conservationists. 

Each group of players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. We ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the role you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 



20 



1) your fasily; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.); and 

4) the roles you have played in the community (both 
govermental and non-governmental). 

CURRENT STATUS FORM - BUSINESS 













*"" ' 


■ ■■ H II 


City 


or County: 






Date of Run 


















Hard 


or Township: 






Name of Player 


■ ■ .. -. --■ 














BASIS 


Bd. 


1 


Status Rd. 2 


Rd. 3 


Rd. 4 



DEVUOPET ACRES 
YIELD at 2Pt/40 
STORM DAMAGE . 
POINTS RECEIVED 
NEW DEVELOPMENT 

LOCATICK . . 

COST .... 

POINTS SPENT . 

FINAL BAIAFCE . 

TOTAL DEV. ACRES 



This is your score sheet which you will use to calculate your 
points durinq each round. Please note that points are the equivalent 
of currency for the purposes of this game. 



: 



>) 



21 

The total number of points allocated to your role at the start of 
round one is indicated on line 2. This total will remain constant 
throuqhout each tound regardless of the number of players assigned to 
each role. 

Don't worry if you're a bit confused. This accounting system 
will be fully explained before the start of the game. 











22 



HOLE DESCRIPTION - LOW INCOME HOUSEHOLDS (1-8 Teams) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or 
township. They nay play their role independently or they may combine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or on any other basis that seems appropriate. 






As low in 
community growth 
At the same t 
restrictions on 
demolition of 
property is loca 
supporting floo 
developing furth 
holdings and y 
relocation assis 
protection prop 
I, IV, and V of 
of Hamilton Beac 



come households you are 
and flood damage on yo 
ime flood protection 

new construction an 
buildings in the flood 
ted in lowlying areas 
d protection measures 
er and which may even r 
cur iole in the game, 
tance as the price for 
csals. Low income h 
akton; in every townshi 
h. 



concerned about the impacts of 
ur portions of the community. 

proposals frequently emphasize 
d possible relocation and 
plain. Because so much of your 
, you should be careful in 
that may prevent you from 
esult in elimination of your 
It might be advisable to demand 
your support of various flood 
ouseholds are located in Wards 
p of the County; and in Ward II 



Each group cf players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. we ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the rcle you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 



1) your family; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.); and 



4) the roles you have played in the 
governirental and non-governmental). 



community (both 



This is ycur score sheet which you will use to calculate your 
points during each round. Please note that points are the equivalent 
of currency for the purposes of this game. 

The total number of points allocated to your role at the start of 

round one is indicated on line 2. This total will remain constant 

throughout each round regardless of the number of players assigned to 
each role. 

Don't worry if you*re a bit confused. This accounting system 
will be fully explained before the start of the game. 



- 



23 



COPRENT STATUS FORM - LOW INCOME HOUSEHOLDS 





















City or County: 








Date of Bun 
























Sard or Tonrship: 








Name of Player 




---- 






BASIS 


Rd. 


1 


St 


atus Rd. 2 


Rd. 


3 


Rd. 


4 



DEVELOPED ACRES 
YIELD at iPt/UO 
STORM DAMAGE . 
POINTS RECEIVED 
KEW DEVELCPMENT 

LOCATIC* . . 

COST .... 

POINTS SPEV'T . 

FINAL BAIAFCE . 

TCTAI DEV. ACRES 



2* 

BOLE DESCPIPTION - MIDDLE INCOME HOUSEHOLDS (3-12 Teams) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or 
township. They may play their role independently or they may combine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or en any other basis that seems appropriate. 

As middle itcome households you are interested in maintaining the 
current status of the conmunity. Issues of community growth and flood 
protection are important to you, but the costs associated with them 
may make them urdesirable or dangerous to your position. Rapid 
community growth opens the door to "new elements* 1 in the community 
which may threaten community stability and the relatively powerful 
position of the middle class. While increased levels of flood 
protection are desireable for both economic and humanitarian reasons, 
as major tax payers your interest group will pay a major share of the 
costs. The benefits to your interest group will be less than to some 
other groups since most cf your property holdings are already located 
at higher elevations. Middle income households are located in every 
Ward and Township in the County. 

Each group of players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. We ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the rele you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 

1) your faiily; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.); and 

U) the roles you have played in the community (both 
governffental and non-governmental). 



This is your score sheet which you will use to calculate your 
points during each round. Please note that points are the equivalent 
of currency for the purposes of this game. 

The total number of points allocated to your role at the start of 
round one is indicated on line, 2. This total will remain constant 
throughout each round regardless of the number of players assigned to 
each role. 

Dcn»t worry if you 1 re a bit confused. This accounting system 
will be fully explained before the start of the game. 



25 



CUBBFNT STATUS FOBK - HIDELE INCOHE HOUSEHOLDS 



City or County: 


Date of Bun 


.— — 






Hard or Township: 


Name of Player 


!.!■»- . - —- I . 












BASIS Bd. 


1 Status Bd. 2 


Bd. 3 


Bd. 


4 



DEVELOPED ACBES 
YIELD at 1Pt/40 
STOBH DAHAGE . 
POINTS RECEIVED 
NEW DEVELOPMENT 

LOCATICK . . 

COST .... 

POINTS SPENT . 

FINAI BAIAflCE . 

TOTAL DEV. ACBES 



26 

ROLE DESCRIPTION - HIGH INCOME HOUSEHOLDS (0-2 Teams) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or 
township. They may Flay their role independently or they may combine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or on any other basis that seems appropriate. 

&s high icccme households you are interested in improving the 
overall quality cf the community without being forced to pay higher 
taxes. Higher levels of flood protection significantly increase the 
construction cost for many of Hampton County's scenic but flood prone 
waterfront areas, and some individuals have suggested that these 
higher costs may discourage individuals other than high income players 
from building there. One the whole, you tend to oppose community 
growth which might challenge your status. Seeing flood protection 
measures as an inhibition to growth, you tend to favor higher levels 
of protection cc both personal and intellectual grounds. High income 
households are located only in Ward II of Oakton and in Ward III of 
Hamilton Beach. 

Each group of players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. Me ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the role you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 

1) your family; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.); and 

4) the roles you have played in the community (both 
governmental and non-governmental). 



This is your score sheet which you will use to calculate your 
points during each round. Please note that points are the equivalent 
of currency for the purposes of this game. 

The total number of points allocated to your role at the start of 
round one is indicated on line 2. This total will remain constant 
throughout each round regardless of the number of players assigned to 
each role. 

Don't worry if you're a bit confused. This accounting system 
will be fully explained before the start of the game. 



. 



- 



27 



COFFENT STATCS FORM - HIGH INCOME HOUSEHOLDS 



City or County: 


Date of Run 


















Ward or Township: 


Name of Player 










BASIS 


Fd. 1 Status Rd. 2 


Rd. 


3 


Rd. 


4 



DEVELOPED ICBES 
YIELD at Ut/40 
STORM DAMACE . 
POINTS RECEIVED 
NEW DEVEIOIMENT 

LOCATION . . 

COST .... 

POINTS SPENT . 

FINAL BALANCE . 

TOTAL DEV. *CFES 



28 

RCIE DESCRIPTION - AGRICULTURE (0-4 Teams) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or 
township. They nay play their role independently or they may combine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or on any other basis that seems appropriate. 



As farmers 
cultivation and 
agricultural Ian 
as a threat to y 
of your own f 
developable acre 
located within 
flood or wind da 
high tides. A 
protection propo 
Agricultural in 
Anne and Beaureg 



you are interested 

preventing the 
d for new developme 
cur cwn status but 
arm land at a g 
age. Taxes are 

the city limits, 
mage except for occ 
s a result you 
sals except for the 
terests are located 
ard Townships. 



in maintaining existing lands under 
allocation of too much vacant or 
nt. In general you oppose growth 
you are not opposed to selling some 
ood profit to others looking for 
burdensome, especially for farms 

Your lands suffer very little from 

asional soil salinization due to 

tend to be indifferent to flood 

costs and taxes they require. 

in Wards IV and V of Oakton and in 



Each group cf players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. We ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the rcle you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the ether people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 



1) your family; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.) ; and 



4) the roles you have played in the 
governmental and non-governmental) . 



community (both 



This is your score sheet which you will use to calculate your 
points during each round. Please note that points are the equivalent 
of currency for the purposes of this game. 

The total number of points allocated to your role at the start of 
round one is indicated on line 2. This total will remain constant 
throughout each round regardless of the number of players assigned to 
each role. 

Don*t worry if you're a bit confused. This accounting system 
will be fully explained before the start of the game. 



29 



CUBBENT STATDS FORM - AGBICOLT'JBE 



















City or County: 






Date of Bun 


















Hard or Township: 






Name of Player 




















BASIS 


Bd. 


1 


Status Bd. 2 


Bd. 


3 


Bd. 


4 



DEVELOPED ACBFS 
YIELD at IPt/640 
STOBM DAMAGE . . 
POINTS BECFIVED 
NEW DEVELOPMENT 
LOCATICJi . . 

COST .... 
ECINTS SPEFT . . 
FINAL BALANCE . 
TOTAL DEV. ACBES 



% 



30 

ROLF DESCRIPTION - CONSERVATIONISTS (1-8 Teams) 

Players represent a specific interest group in each ward or 
township. They may play their role independently or they may combine 
forces with other players from the same district, the same interest 
group in other areas, or on any other basis that seems appropriate. 

Conservationists are concerned with the preservation of existing 
parks and playgrounds, the control of new development, and the 
maintenance of existing natural barriers and safeguards against 
flooding. While ycu favor the growth restraints contained in flood 
protection proposals, you fear that providing higher levels of 
protection and insurance may make some ecologically sensitive areas 
more available to new development. Since Conservationists are not 
actually property owners like other players in the game, your major 
activity will have to involve encouraging other players to behave more 
responsibly towards the environment. Such encouragement may be 
through persuasicn or through legislation as well as through the 
direct exercise of political and financial power where you have only a 
small amount of clout. 

One of your more promising strategies is to encourage more park 
developments in low lying and sensitive areas - paying development 
costs with public funds when possible but offering some of your own 
points in support as well. You may be able to convince your local 
goernment to pass legislation reguiring that developers provide 40 
acres of parks and open space as part of a legally required "balanced" 
development package necessary for approval of building permits. Other 
players probably do not realize that the number of points you receive 
is based upon the amount of land in parks and playgrounds; whether 
publicly or privately owned. Since existing parkland is publicly 
owned, Conservationists do ret normally have to pay taxes to local 
government. Taxes must be paid, however, on income from privately 
owned parks. Conservationists are located in Wards II, I?, and V of 
Oakton; in Ward III of Hamilton Beach; and in all four of the County 
Townships. 

Each group of players will take fifteen minutes at the start of 
the game to establish their roles. We ask you to be imaginative and 
to fill in the role you have been assigned with a variety of personal 
and professional information which you will create. As you describe 
yourself to the other people in your group (ward) you will want to 
describe: 

1) your family; 

2) your hobbies; 

3) your specific profession (i.e., if you are a business 
interest, what type of business do you operate.); and 

4) the roles you have played in the community (both 
governoental and non-governmental) . 



31 

CURRENT STATUS fORW - CONSERVATIONISTS 









City or County: 


Date of Run 




Sard or Towrship: 


Name of Player 




BASIS 


Rd. 1 Status Rd. 2 Rd. 3 Rd. 


4 



DEVELOPED JCHES 
YIELD at Ut/UO 
STORH DAMAGE . 
POINTS RECIIVID 
NEW DEVELCIHENT 

LOCATICF . . 

COST ... . 

POINTS SPEFT . 

FINAL BALANCE . 

TCTAL DEV. 1CFES 



This is your score sheet which you will use to calculate your 
points during each round. Please note that points are the equivalent 
of currency for the purposes of this game. 

The total number of points allocated to your role at the start of 
round one is indicated on line 2. This total will remain constant 
throughout each round regardless of the number of players assigned to 
each role. 

Don't worry if you're a bit confused. This accounting system 
will be fully explained before the start of the game. 



32 



STjgS OF £LAY 



A normal icund is 30 minutes long with twice as much time given ♦ 
in the first rourd to allow players to familiarize themselves with the 
mechanics of the game. The end of a round is indicated by a bell, 
whistle, or siren indicating that the flood season has arrived. There 
are six steps in each round with the first two controlled by the game 
operator. The next 3 are controlled by players themselves and may 
overlap to some degree. The last step allows local government 5 
minutes to make public announcements and 5 minutes to elect or re- 
elect city officials in even numbered rounds. 

STE P 1: WEATEER - The first step is to determine the amount of 
damage which occurred through storms and floods during the 
previous 5 years. Probability dice are rolled 5 times to 
determine the severity of the storms and the amount of damage 
inflicted in each year. The Flood Damage Table gives the 
probabilities of various levels of floods and the amount of 
damage suffered under various levels of protection. Damage is 
reported as a percentage loss to all properties in each ward. 
The cagritude of the loss is based upon the number of 
developed parcels lying within the floodplain (below the 20 
foot contour) . Loses may be decreased by providing higher 
protection levels for already existing properties, by 
preventing further developments in the floodplain, and by 
eliminating existing properties from the flood plain. 

Bules (^ 

1. The game operator rolls probability dice 5 times (once 
for each year) . The numbers on the dice will tell the 
game operator what level of flood or hurricane has hit the 
communities in each of the previous five years. 

STEP 2: P OINTS - The success of each team is partially reflected by 
the number of points accumulated. Each team starts with a 
specific number of points and more are collected in successive 
rounds. Ihese points may be used to purchase additional 
developments, build additional developments (Business teams 
only) , pay taxes, rebuild damaged properties, and influence 
other players through contributions, gifts, etc. Points are 
earned by "owning" developed land. They may be lost through 
natural forces such as floods (the percentage loses determined 
in Step 1) , or through poor financial planning. 

Bules 
1 • Initial Pcints - Each interest group has been assigned 
ownership of a specific number of acres of developed land. 
The amount of land owned is given on line 2 of the Current 
Status Form provided with each role description. The 
location is described in the community description and is 
indicated on the community map. The type of development 
corresponds initially to the type of inerest group. 



33 



i) Residential interest groups receive one point for 
every 40 acres of undamaged residential land owned. 

ii) Business interests receive two points for every 40 
acres of undamaged Commercial of Industrial land 
uses owned. 

iii) Conservationists receive one point for every 40 

acres of parks which exist in their ward or 

township, although this land is usually owned by 
the local municipality. 

iv) Agriculture interests receive one point for every 
€40 acres of undamaged agricultural land owned. 

v) local officials receive points through taxation. 
Local officials should be careful to not confuse 
the public points they control with the points 
owned by the interest groups they originally 
belonged tc- Mixing the two is considered 
unethical. 

2- Increasing Points - Additional points are earned by 
acguiring additioral 40 acre parcels of land. These are 
acquired by purchasing them from one of the Business teams 
at a price negotiated between the buyer and seller. 
Points are paid out by the game accountant during the 
second step of play based upon transactions completed 
during the previous round. 

3» Decre as ing Points - Players receive fewer points if 
property controlled by them is damaged by floods or 
hurricanes in Step 1. The decrease in points received is 
proportional to the percentage damage received rounded to 
the nearest whole number of points. The percent damage to 
properties in each ward or township due to various types 
of storms is given in TABLE IV, the Storm Damage Table. 
In the event of a storm of hurricane severity or greater, 
all interest groups in communities at Less than a Level IV 
level of Protection must pay a one point emergency payment 
to local government to help defray costs of emergency 
assistance. 

**• Pl2£££iY- Damage - Once damaged by a hurricane or 
flood, a development is assumed to continue in the same 
damaged condition yielding a lower return of points unless 
the owner decides to repair the property. Damaged 
property may be repaired at a cost per 40 acre unit egual 
to the percentage of damage being repaired times 10 points 
(the cost of original contruction) . 

5» Insu ra nce - Property owners in communities enrolled in 
the Flood Insurance Program are usually eligible for flood 
insurance payments providing 50^ of the value of the 



34 

property damage sustained. Damaged property owners Bust 

file a claim form with the FEMA Officials who will approve 
or disapprove the claim and pay the appropriate points. 
These points may be used for repairs or towards the 
purchase of new properties. 

6. Accounting - Players are expected to calculate the 
number of points they are entitled to receive each round 
on the Current Status Form accompanying each role 
description. The game accountant will review this 
information each round before paying out the PAGAN points 
which have been earned. 

STEP 3: TAXES - Each city and the county is empowered to collect 
taxes at a level determined by local government but varying 
between 10* and 40% of the points earned. For the first round 
the tax late is set at 20% for each of the three towns. At 
the end of the first round each government must announce the 
new tax rate for the next round. Taxes due are rounded up or 
down to the nearest whole integer of points received at Step 
II of the current round. Conservationists are exempt from 
paying taxes on their properties. 

STEP Hi DEVElOEflENT - Players from Business Interest teams may 
develop additional groups of 40 acre parcels of land in any 
location provided they have a signed Development Permit from 
the Building Inspector of the jurisdiction where the 
development is to occur. Development may occur only on land 
currently owned by the Business Team. 

Rules 

1. A Business Team may purchase land from the operator or 
from other teams at whatever price can be agreed upon. 
All land sales must be recorded on the Current Status Form 
of both buyer and seller. The buyer can earn points on 
developed land only if he/she represents an interest group 
appropriate to the type of development involved. Existing 
developments may be demolished at a cost of 2 points per 
40 acres of land to be cleared. Building permits are 
issued by local government officials when they have 
determined that the proposed development is in compliance 
with local zcning regulations, the general and local 
reguirements for "balanced* combinations of development, 
and other development controls enacted locally including 
those reguired by approved hazard management programs. 

2. A "balanced" combination of new developments is 
defined as six 40 acre parcels of residential development 
and one 40 acre parcel of commercial or industrial 
development. Local government may modify this "balanced" 
development requirement to require one additional 40 acre 
parcel of parks and open space. 



) 



i) 



)) 



35 

3. The cost to develop a 40 acre parcel of land for most 
uses is ten points. Parks and Agricultural land costs 3 
points per U0 acres. To reflect the ezistance of public 
services and roads, however, new development can only 
occur on parcels sharing at least one side with a 
previously developed parcel . The cost of development of 
a parcel may be increased by 10-35% (the development 
surcharge) due to construction requirements imposed by the 
flocd protection level currently in effect. 

4. Additional pcints earned by newly developed land 
parcels is not paid out until Step 2 of the next round. 

5. Teams may combine points with other teams in any 
combination that seems workable regardless of interest 
group designation cr location. However, one team must be 
clearly designated as the party eligible to receive points 
from the accountant for any land developed through such 
combinations. 

STEP 5_i P ROT ECTION - Local government may enact one of the five 
hazard protection levels listed on Table III, the Levels of 
Flood Protection Table. 

Bules 

1. Local government may enact one of the five hazard 
protection levels, pass appropriate zoning legislation and 
hold these referendums which may be required to implement 
the new level. 

2- I^ad the descri ptio ns of the f lood hazard pro tectio n 
l§y.els ca refully to deter mine the exact requirements for 
enactment. All costs and other requirements must be met 
or the protection level provided in the previous level 
continues by default. 

3- Np.t§ that the costs and protections listed are 
cuflrulative from cjie level to the next . Only the 
difference between the new level and the previous level 
applies to either costs or benefits. 

4. It is the local government's responsibility to obtain 
the necessary points to implement the flood protection 
program selected either through taxes, donations, or other 
sources. 

STEP 6^ ELECT ION - As the last step in each round, each local 
government is allowed five minutes to address their citizens. 
This would normally consist of announcements of new levels of 
protection provided, new tax rates, new zoning restrictions 
and so od and might include appeals for reelection or passage 
of upcoming referenda. 



36 

Bales 

1. Following any announcements referenda may be held and 
in even numbered rounds an election of local officials is 
held. Please note that any level of flood protection 
beyond level II requires a referendum. If the required 
referendum has not already been held as a part of Step 
Five above, it must be held at this time. 

2. Also during this period, any group of five or more 
players may petition the local government and the game 
operator for a hearing if some pressing issue has not been 
adequately handled or discussed. 



) 



37 

TABLE III. LEVELS OF FLOOD PROTECTION 



i) 



1) 



(All costs and change figures are relative to Level I. 
Actual costs and changes are the difference between current level and 
new level to be enacted.) 

I NO PPOTECTICN: Development permitted with no effort to mitigate 
against potential flood damages. Community chooses not to enter 
or remain in N.F.I. P. No flood insurance is available to local 
property owrers. 

COST TC IBPLEMENT: Points 

CHANGE EAMAGE EY: % 

CHANGE CCNSTBUCTION COST BY: Points 
NO ENACTMENT REQUIRED - Default condition 

II MINIMAL PPCTECTION: Community adopts minimum FIA regulations. 
New construction within the 100 year flood plain or in designated 
High Hazard Areas must be elevated on pilings to the 100 year 
flood height. New construction in High Hazard Areas must also be 
securely anchored and built to withstand wave action. Insurance 
payments will cover 75% of the losses for the first oc cu rance 
onl y. No coverage is provided for subseguent damages. 

COST TC IMPLEMENT: 40 Points 

CHANGE CAMAGE BY: -10 % 

CHANGE CCNSTBUCTION COST BY: *10 Points 
ENACTMENT BY ANY CITY OR COUNTY GOVERNMENT 
REQUIRES DESIGNATION CF HIGH HAZARD AREAS 

III MEDIUM PBCTECTION: Community adopts minimum 
N.F.I. P. requirements. New construction within the 100 year 
floodplain must be elevated one foot above 100 year flood levels 
and must be f lccdproofed. Existing structures which are not 
floodproofed are designated as in violation of the local building 
code. New construction in High Hazard Areas must be elevated to 
a height above maximum recorded wave heights and must be located 
behind primary dunes. Insurance payments will cover 75% of the 
losses for each occurance. 

COST TC IMPLEMENT: 100 Points 

CHANGE DAMAGE BY: -20 % 

CHANGE CONSTRUCTION COST BY: *15 Points 
CCMMUNITY REFERENDUM TO ADOPT NEW BUILDING CODE 
ENACTMENT BY ANY CITY OR COUNTY GOVERNMENT - IF REFERENDUM 
PASSES 

REQUIRES DESIGNATION OF PRIMARY DUNE LINE AT 5 FOOT CONTOUR 



38 



IV HIGH PROTECTION: Any alteration of primary protective geological 
structures such as dunes, beaches, river banks and bluffs is 
prohibited without a special impact statement approved by the 
county engineer, the county board of commissioners, and the 
governing body of the affected local jurisdiction. As in MEDIUM 
PROTECTION, new construction in the 100 year flood plain must be 
elevated 1 foot above the 100 year flood levels. County and 
local government coordinate in developing community hurricane 
evacuation plans and post-disaster recovery plans which include 
public acguisition of most seriously damaged properties and 
relocation assistance to affected residents. Insurance payments 
will cover "75* of the losses for each occurance. 

COST TC IMPLEMENT: 180 Points 

CHANGE DAMAGE BY: -40 % 

CHANGE CONSTRUCTION COST BY: *25 Points 

THE EVACUATION FLAN HOST BE PASSED BY THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT 
AND PUBLICIY FCSTED. 

PRIMARY GEOLOGICAL PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES MUST BE DESIGNATED 
EVACUATION REPUGE AREAS MUST BE DESIGNATED AND STOCKPILED 
REFERENDUM IN AFFECTED COMMUNITIES MUST APPROVE POLICY OF 
PUELIC PURCHASE OF FLOOD DAMAGED PROPERTIES. 

V HIGHEST PRCTECTION: Adopt a fully integrated hazard mitigation 
and natural resource protection program, including all of the 
measures described under HIGH PROTECTION above. In addition 
institute a permit system to regulate development on ecologically 
vital areas within the community, including wetlands, coral 
reefs, and edge zones. Begin now to acquire by condemnation and 
and purchase land and buildings in the most flood hazardous 
areas. Provide for removal of structures, restoration of area to 
its natural state and relocation of affected residents. 
Insurance payments will cover 15% of the losses for e ach 
occurance. 

COST TC IMPLEMENT: 300 Points 

CHANGE EAMAGE BY: -60$ 

CHANGE CONSTRUCTION COST BY: *35 Points 

HIGH PROTECTION MUST HAVE BEEN IN EFFECT AT LEAST 1 ROUND 
EARLIER. 

REQUIRES APPROVAL OF EACH LOCAL GOVERNING BODY PLUS 
PASSAGE OF A REFERENDUM TO BAISE THE TAX LIMIT. 

ALLOWS LOCAL GOVERNMENT TO RAISE TAXES AN ADDITIONAL 10% TO 
PROVIDE FUNTS FOR PURCHASING FLOOD HAZARD AREAS. 



39 



) 



TABLE IV. STORM DAMAGE 
Percent Damage by Location, Protection Level, and Storm Severity 



i) 

























PROTECTION 




Oakton 




T 

| Hamilton Beach| Hampton 


County 


LEVEL 




Wards 




1 


Wards 


1 
i 




Tovns 




I 


II III 


IV 


v I 

1 


I 


II 


III 1 
i 


A 


B 


C D 


LIGHT STORMS 


Proh. = 0. 


50, No»s. 


= 51-10C 


1, a "good 


year." 


SEVERE STORMS. 


Pr 


ob. = 0.25, No's. 


= 26- 


"50, 


"a 1-' 


) year storm." 


I 


20 


20 


10 


T 
1 

01 


50 


40 


~~T" 

I 

50l 








10 10 


II 





10 





01 


40 


30 


40| 











III 











01 


30 


20 


30| 











IV 











Oj 


20 





201 











V 











01 


10 





101 











HTTPRICANE. Pr> 


Db . 


= 0. 15, No's. 


= 11 


-25, 


an " 


•11-30 


yea 


r storm." 


I 


40 


40 20 


30 


1 

1 

20| 


70 


60 


i 

1 

70| 








30 30 


II 


30 


30 10 


20 


101 


60 


50 


60) 








20 20 


III 


20 


20 


10 


01 


50 


40 


501 








10 10 


IV 


10 


10 





0| 


40 


30 


40| 











V 











01 

■ 


30 


20 


301 











GREAT HURRICANE. 


Prob.=0.08, No's.= 


3-10, 


, a "31-70 


year storm, " 


I 


60 


60 40 


50 


1 

1 

40) 


90 


80 


1 

1 

901 


30 


30 


50 50 


II 


50 


50 30 


40 


30| 


80 


70 


801 


20 


20 


40 40 


III 


M0 


40 20 


30 


20| 


70 


60 


701 


10 


10 


30 30 


IV 


30 


30 10 


20 


10| 


60 


50 


60| 








20 20 


V 


20 


20 


10 


01 

t 


50 


40 


501 

■ 








10 10 


HOLOCAUST! 


Prob.=0.02, 


No«s. 


= 1-2 


!, a "71-500 ye< 


ic storm 


b « 


I 


90 


90 70 


80 


i 

1 

70] 


100 


100 


■ 

1 

100| 


30 


40 


80 80 


II 


80 


80 60 


70 


60 1 


90 


90 


901 


20 


30 


70 70 


III 


70 


70 50 


60 


50 1 


80 


80 


601 





20 


60 60 


IV 


60 


60 40 


50 


401 


70 


70 


701 





10 


50 50 


V 


50 


50 30 


40 


301 


60 


60 


601 








40 40 



"» 



40 



OPERATOR'S INSTRUCTIONS 



a lar 
of p 
howev 
to be 
are 
dec is 
learn 
role 
can s 



elect 
For 
be pi 

FEMA 

group 

assig 

nine 

group 



NUMBER OF PIAY2I?S: PAGAN-Coasta 
ge variety cf players. Some app 
layers to be accomodated nus 
er, in order to decide which cf 

employed in the game run. lu g 
preferred in each role in order 
ions among themselves, thus impr 
ing potential of the game. Ha 
also allows for one to serve as 
tay "at heme" taking care cf the 



1 has been designed to accomodate 
roximate Knowledge of the number 
t be available before the game, 
the political jurisdictions are 
eneral, two or even three players 
to force players to discuss their 
oving the information flow and 
ving at least two players in each 
a public official while the other 
special interests of the role. 



The total g 
ed official 
a small gr 
ayed involv 
officials. 

with thr 
ned to repr 
players cou 
, the city 



ame consists of 41 interest groups or roles plus 14 
s in the 3 jurisdictions and a team of FEMA officials, 
cup of players, the City of Hamilton Beach alone could 
ing 7 interest groups plus 3 elected officials and the 
Ideally this would involve 2 players per interest 
ee to be elected to public office plus 1 or 2 persons 
esent FEMA for a total of 15-16 players. As few as 
Id be accomodated if 1 were appointed to each interest 
government, and FEMA. 



Other combinations of 2-3 persons per team plus the use of larger 
jurisdictions and combinations of jurisdictions provides a 
considerable range of ways in which varying numbers of players may be 
accomodated in varying arrangements of the game. The table below 
summarizes these possibilities. 



OPTIMUM 



NUMBER OF PLAYERS 
MINIMUM 



MAXIMUM 



HAMILTON BEACH CKLY 16 

HAMPTCN COUNTY OLY 32 

OAKTON CNIY 40 

HAMILTON BEACH «• COUNTY 46 

OAKTON AND HAMIITCN BEACH 54 

OAKTON AND COUNTY 70 

ALL THREE JURISDICTIONS 84 



9 
17 
21 
25 
29 
37 
45 



24 
48 
60 
69 
81 
105 
126 



ROOM ARRANGEMENTS: A separa 
plus one for each governing 
arranged in a single large room i 
their geographic distribution en 
provided to allcw players relati 
tables for purposes of bargaini 
elected officials should be 1 
respective wards and townships 
and accountants should be located 
blackboard or bulletin board. 



te table for each ward or township 
body and the FEHA officials should be 
n a pattern roughly conforming to 

the county map. Enough room must be 
vely easy access to each other's 
ng and discussion. The table for the 
ocated near the center of their 
while the table for the game operator 

off to the side, preferably near a 



If a single large room is not available, each jurisdiction played 
could be located in a separate smaller room. Provison for movement 
between rooms must be made, however, and a sngle larger meeting area 



41 

where all players can cone together for "community meetings" and the 

debrifing at the end of the game is desireable. Separate rooms for 
each jurisdiction usually results in lower levels of communication and 
cooperation between them, a situation it may be desireable to simulate 
in order to make plaers struggle with ways to oercome these problems. 

Each table and/or rocm shculd be clearly labelled with the name 
of the jurisdiction an ward or township seated there. 

EQUIPMENT: aside from paper and pencils, the only special 
equipment required by the game is some method of generating random 
numbers from 1 to 100 and some type of overlay map of the county large 
enough and displayed prominently so that players may refer to it in 
their discussions and so that changes in land uses may be recorded 
upon it. 

Probability dice consisting of a pair of icosohedrons can 
usually be purchased in local hobby shops. Before casting them for 
the players be sure they understand which die represents the tens 
digits and which the units digits. Usually 00 is taken as 100. If 
probability dice are not readily available, a table of random numbers 
may be found in the back of most statistics texts. another 
possibility is to put 20 slips of paper into a paper bag. Two slips 
each should be numbered from to 9. drawing two slips of paper from 
the bag then generates two numbers with the ist number designated as 
the tens digit ard the second number as the units digit. 

The large map of the county may be sketched fairly roughly since 
its major purpose is simply as a focus for discussion and to provide 
some location where major changes in land uses can be indicated. An 
overlay of acetate or other erasable transparency will allow the map 
to be readily changed with grease pencils. 

PRIOR TO P1J.Y: If possible, several days before the game all 
players should receive a copy of the Introduction, the Overview, the 
Steps of Play, a City or County Hap, an appropriate Community 
Description including Tables I and II, the Levels of Flood Protection 
Table (Table III), and the Storm Damage Table (Table IV). Specific 
role descriptions should usually not be provided beforehand in order 
to ensure that each role is filled at the time of play by assigning 
them only at the actual start of the game. 

It is preferable to assign players to their roles first and to 
then ask them to choose their elected representatives from among 
themselves at the rate of one representative from each ward to serve 
on the City Council plus cne representative from each city and each 
township to serve on the County Board of Supervisors. In this way 
they tend to have a clearer image of the fact that they are 
representing a particular constituency. If necessary, however, 
players may be assigned directly to local government immediately at 
the beginning cf play- In any event, role descriptions for local 
government including Building Permit Forms should be placed on the 
appropriate tables prior to the start of the game. 



42 

Enough copies of each role description to provide one for each 
player should te reproduced before the game. Extra copies of the 
Steps of Play, Storm Damage Table, Flood Protection Table, and the 
Community Descriptions should also be reproduced prior to play since 
many of the players will fail to bring their copies with them to the 
actual game run. 

Pill out a Current Status Form for each role being played and 
place several copies on the apropriate tables just before play begins 
or have an assistant pass these forms out to the apropriate interest 
groups while you are making your introductory remarks. Acreage 
figures and points for each interest group are given in the Interest 
Group Points Allocation Table (Table V) presented at the end of the 
Operator's Instructions section. 

A single exteriened operator can probably handle a game involving 
only one municipality. If inexperienced, an accountant assistant 
should be used for even a small game run. If two or more 
jurisdictions are being used in the same game, two or even three 
accountant assistants should be used to assist the game operator. 

JOBBING. PLAY - Only a very brief 5-10 minute introduction to the 
game should be provided prior to beginning the first round. Players 
usually have many questions to ask prior to play but answering them 
before the game often creates more confusion than help. Host 
questions are much better answered during and immediately after the 
first round of play. The introduction should consist of guickly 
pointing out the locations cf the various interest groups and 
governments, the Steps of Play, the Storm Damage Table, the Levels of 
Flood Protection, the maps and the Current Status Form accompanying 
each of the role descriptions. Players should be asked to locate 
their ward and their land developments on the land use map and to note 
the corresponding acreage figures given on the Current Status form. 

Players should be informed that the number of points they are 
about to receive are based upon the number of acres of land they own 
AS thei r ward or tow nshi p less a percentage equal to the amount of 
storm damage received in each of the last five years. The amount of 
land owned may be increased by the players following the procedures 
outlined in the Development Step of Play. 

Prior to the first step of play, local officials must be elected 
if you have not already appointed them. Allow plaers a few minutes to 
discuss this among themselves and then call for the election. Remind 
them that the position is only held for two rounds and that they will 
have a chance to change their choices at the end of the next round. 
Seme forcefulness may be called for here in order to get the election 
carried out quickly. 

Immediately fcllcwing the election and the movement of the elected 
players to the tables provided for their respective goernments, 
announce the beginning of the game with the arrival of the hurricane 
season. Explain the meaning and use of the dice and roll them the 
first time. Then refer players to the Storm Damage Table and show 



43 

them how the severity of the storm and the associated damage levels 
are deternined ty the nuibers rolled by the dice. Boll the dice four 
more times to represent the remaining four years and announce the 
total impact of storms over the previous five years in terms of the 
total amunt of damage accumulated. This varies by vard or tovnsip bat 
pointing out one or two such cases and summing the percentages is 
usually enough tc make players understand how the procedure works. 

Players should then be instructed to fill out their Current 
Status Forms and go to the accountant to receive their initial PAGAN 
Points, thus initiating the second step of play. while this is going 
on, the operator sould circulate among individual tables to help 
players to determine their total damages and complete their Current 
Status Forms. Seme confuson can be expected here during the first 
round but by the second round this step should be quite 
straightfoward. While individual teams are obtaining their points, 
turn to the FfHA officials and warn them that they should be 
encouraging insured teams to make insurance claims for damages 
sustained. Players should be informed that they may be eligible for 
insurance and that they should check the rules under the second step 
of play as well as the FEMA officials to determine their eligibility. 

Gradually most players will have worked themselves through the 
second step of the round. Pcints will have been collected and 
insurance forms filled out and possibly approved. FEMA officials will 
need some PAGAN Points to meet the claims filed. The operator should 
provide these carefully in order to make the FEHA officials a little 
cautious in approving claims. In general, the operator should provide 
just enough funds to meet all legitimate claims but should give the 
clear impression that funds will not be provided for poorly handled or 
spurious claims. A careful review of the claims filed in the first 
round is usually sufficient tc make FEMA officials behave responsibly 
in later rounds. 

While all this is happening, local government should be meeting 
and appointing its own officers as suggested in their role 
descriptions. Urge them to appoint the tax collector right away so 
that you can help him/her begin to collect taxes at the first round 
rate of 20* as soon as individual teams have collected their points 
from the accountant. This gets the third step of play under way and 
completed while steps 1 and 2 are still underway for some of the 
players 

The initiation of step 4 may reguire a little more deliberate and 
separate discussion, although a few teams may have already moved into 
this step while you have been helping others through the earlier 
steps. At this point, the Business Teams in particular should be 
advised as to how they may undertake development, purchasing land from 
the operator and putting together enough funds to make up a "balanced" 
development package. It is likely that several Business Teams may 
have to ccmbine resources in order to gain enough points for both land 
purchase and ccntruction. It may be that only part of the land 
purchases may be accomplished in the first round and no development 
will occur. 



44 

The operator is cautioned to exercise some care in allowing 

Busines Teams to buy land. Development as an option in the game is 
desireable and necessary for realism in competition with flood 
proction issues. Some players may become totally engrossed in 
development, however, and prevent the entire community from 
considering flocd protection programs. Some competition for attention 
and resources is desireable but the operator can and should limit such 
efforts by refusing to sell enough land or making the prices for land 
high enough to inhibit too much development. It may take two or three 
rounds before any developer or combination of developers will have 
enough funds available to put a complete development package together. 

while all this is going on, many players including local 
government should be considering the possibility of enacting higher 
levels of flocd protection, i.e., undertaking step 5. The operator 
should be ready to help explain the meaning of the various levels and 
to show how the amount of protection provided decreases the amount of 
damage shown in the Storm Damage Table. Local Government officials 
should be cautioned to make sure they have enough funds available to 
pay for the level of protection enacted and that they are aware of any 
referendums which may be required. 

Finally, the elected spokesperson for local government should be 
coached to prepare a statement and agenda for step 6. Announcements 
must be made, referenda held, and perhaps a brief public hearing 
allowed for. Following completion of the public hearing the operator 
should step in tc answer questions. After some discussion of the 
events in round one, the operator should point out that the players 
now know most of the rules and that the next round can and should 
proceed much more quickly. The operator then pulls out the 
probability dice thereby announcing the start of the next round and 
the arrival of the hurricane season. 

The second and third rounds should proceed much more quickly and 
with less and less need for the intervention of the operator. Players 
should be encouraged to get intc side discussions on the relative 
merits of various levels of flood protection and the ways in which it 
effects the community. As the third round draws to a close, it is 
probably time tc consider breaking off the actual play of the game and 
leading the participants into a more general discussion of what has 
happened during the game. 

DEBRIEFING - Individual style dictates the manner in which the 
debriefing is tc be held but several steps of discussion often help to 
lead the players out of the game and back into issues to be addressed 
in the real world. 

Some time is needed in the beginning of every debriefing to allow 
players to let cff steam. Ask one or two of the players to describe 
what they were trying to accomplish and how well they succeeded. If 
several jurisdictions are being played, asking for a report from each 
and drawing comparisons among them may be helpful. 



- 



- 



») 



45 

After a short time, however, players should be directed away froa 
happenings in the game towards broader questions regarding the 
significance of what happened to their interest groups. Did their 
flood protection program work? What kinds of problems were 
encountered in trying to get higher levels of protection passed? Here 
these problems realistic? Vihich groups worked for flood protection 
programs and which ones were opposed? Why did they take these stands? 

Fairly guickly the discussion will take on its own character and 
lead players away from the game towards much broader discussions of 
flood protection issues and philosophies. At some point along here 
the game and the debriefing ends and the conference picks up again. 
In closing, thark the players for their participation. Then go buy 
yourself and your assistarts a couple of good stiff drinks. 



i> 



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46 



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PAGAN 

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> 



APPENDIX F 



SAMPLE EVALUATION 



Appendix F 



> 



Institute Participant 



Please take a few minutes before leaving to fill 
out this questionnaire. Most of the questionnaire has 
been designed to be rapidly answered in check list format. 
Therefore, please don't be discouraged by its apparent 
lengthiness . 

The final page you may tear off and take with you for 
return in the attached self-addressed stamped envelope, if 
you feel you'd like to take more time writing in comments. 
(If you want to complete the last page now as well, we'd be 
delighted. ) 

Thank you very much for your participation and help and 
have a pleasant trip home. 



* 



9 



-2- 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT TRAINING INSTITUTE 
INSTITUTE EVALUATION 



' 



1. The Regional Training Institute enabled me to: (please check the appro- 
priate box) 



Strongly 
Agree 



Agree 



Uncert. 



Disagree 



Strongly 
Disagree 



become better 
informed about 
the NFIP 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



acquire more infor- 
mation regarding 
alternative flood 
hazard management 
strategies 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



develop a better 
understanding of 
the nature of /__/ 

flood hazards 

develop a better 

understanding of the 

relationship between 

flood hazard manage- /__/ 

ment and natural 

resource protection 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



< 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



establish contact 
with leaders of 
other commnities 
experiencing 
similar problems 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



f. establish contact 

with individuals who 
could provide me with 
technical assistance 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



develop a better 
understanding of 
the importance of 
public participation 
in community flood 
hazard decision- 
making 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



/ / 



" 



-3- 



Strongly Strongly 

Agree Agree Uncert. Disagree Disagree 

develop a better 

understanding of 

the techniques and /_/ / / / / / / / / 
tools to accomplish 
meaningful public 
participation 

develop a better 
understanding of 

the environmental, 

economic, social / / /_/ / / / / /_/ 
and political 
tradeoffs of 
various manage- 
ment strategies 



2. Which three institute activities do you feel were most valuable to you? 



3. Which three institute activities were least valuable to you? 

1 

2 



4. In general, how would you rate the following 

Excellent Good Fair Poor Comments 

a. program structure 

(format, length, /_/ /_/ /_/ /_/ 

timing, variety) 

b. program content 

(breadth and depth /_/ /_/ /_/ /_/ 

of materials covered) 

c. mix of participants // // // // 



-4- 



Excellent 


Good 


Fair 


Poor 


Comments 


n 


o 


n 


n 




o 


LJ 


o 


o 




n 


n 


n 


n 





d. speakers and panelists 

e. information x 

f. overall quality 



5. Rate the Institute on the amount of time which was provided to meet your 
individual needs and how appropriately the time was used 



Much more 


More 


Just 


Less 


Waste 


time 


time 


enough 


time 


of 


required 


required 


time 


required 


time 



Informal 
exchanges 


/_/ 


Breaks 
between 


n 


sessions 




Questions 
& answer 


~/ 


sessions 




Exercise/ 
relaxation/ 
free periods 


o 


Socializing 


n 


Making 
contacts 


n 


Reviewing 
materials/ 
preparing 
for upcoming 
sessions 


LJ 


Small group 
discussions 


n 


Plenary 
sessions 


n 


Institute 
overall 


LJ 



/_/ 

n 
n 

n 

n 
n 



/ / 



/_/ 

LJ 

LJ 

LJ 
LJ 



/ / 



/_/ 

LJ 

LJ 

LJ 
LJ 

n 



/ / 



/_/ 

LJ 

LJ 

LJ 
LJ 

n 



/ / 



LJ 


LJ 


LJ 


/_/ 


LJ 


LJ 


LJ 


LJ 


LJ 


n 


n 


'i 



-5- 



This portion of the evaluation questionnaire may be returned in the attached 
self addressed envelope if you would prefer to take more time. But please 
mail it back. 



Name 



(optional) 



To assist you in writing your comments, a list of the various institute 
elements is presented below. 



Day One 

- Pre-Institute tutorial 

- Flooding & flood hazard 
management (film/ round table) 

- Nature of Flooding and Role 
of Ecological Resources 
(workshops) 

- Identifying natural and 
flood hazard data sources 
(workshops) 

- state watershed meetings 
Day Two 

- Ideal flood hazard mitigation 
(roundtable) 

- NFIP (roundtable) 

- Role of local & state governments 
(roundtable) 



- Role of public participation 
(speech) 

- Effective public participation 
(case examples/small group 

discussions) 

- Identifying opportunities 
and strategies (workshops) 

- Second state watershed meetings 
Day Three 

- Designing a community 
program (simulation) 

- Third state watershed meetings 

- Report and critique of 
state plans 

- Closing remarks 



6. Which elements of the institute did you find most helpful and why ? 



7. Which elements of the institute did you find least helpful and why ? 



-6- 



8. Do you believe involvement of groups and individuals like yourself can 
make a difference in the quality of a community flood hazard management 
program? 



9. What important positive results , if any, do you feel will result from this 
institute? 



10. We would appreciate your ideas about ways in which possible future institutes 
could be designed to be more effective. 



(C 



ff 



APPENDIX G 



MODEL STUDENT MANUAL: RIVERINE 



% 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 
AND 
NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION 
MODEL RIVERINE STUDENT MANUAL* 



* 



Prepared by 

The Conservation Foundation 

Washington, D.C. 

For 
The Federal Emergency Management Agency 



This manual is based on the model training program developed 
by The Conservation Foundation. It should not be produced 
as is — but should be revised for each Institute to reflect 
any changes made to CF's model. 



• 



BACKGROUND 



This training program on Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection was developed by The Conservation Foundation 
for The Federal Emergency Management Agency. The program has been 
designed for local officials and citizen leaders as a means to 
increase their knowledge of: 

o the basic requirements of the National Flood 
Insurance Program; 

o the ways in which ecological and hazard 
mitigation requirements come together in 
establishing principles for physical management 
of the flood-prone areas; 

o economic and social coincidences of interest 
and conflicts with flood management goals; and 

o the various other federal, state, and local 
programs that come together on the floodplain 
and that could potentially lead toward more 
effective implementation of a community flood 
management program and natural resource protection 
program. 

In addition, the program is intended to focus the attention 
of community leaders on means to disseminate the information 
provided in the training program throughout their community. 

Those of you who are participating in the training institute 
for which this workbook has been prepared come from communities 
who face flood problems. You have been invited to participate 
in this program because you hold a leadership position in your 
community and are in a position to influence community flood 
hazard mitigation decisions. 

It is our hope that this institute will provide you with 
an increased awareness of flood hazards, alternative management 
approaches, and methods for increasing public involvement in 
these key community resource decisions. 



-2- 



f 



INSTITUTE SPONSORS 

FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY 

FEMA is a new federal agency (created in March 31, 1979) 
responsible for the coordination of federal hazard mitigation 
efforts. The agency's specific responsibilities include over- 
seeing key emergency programs in dam safety, emergency warning 
systems and severe weather warnings, as well as disaster relief 
and community flood hazard mitigation through the National Flood 
Insurance Program. The central office, Training and Education 
Division of FEMA has provided the funding for this institute 
as part of a program of increased technical assistance to 
communities. 

THE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION 

Through research, citizen training and communication with 
opinion leaders in the United States and abroad, The Conservation 
Foundation encourages wise management of the earth's resources — 
its land, water, energy, air. A nonprofit organization, The 
Conservation Foundation designed and directed the training 
program of which this Institute is a part. ^_^ 

Q 

REGIONAL COORDINATOR 



€ 



-3- 



HOW TO USE THE INSTITUTE WORKBOOK 



This Workbook is designed to be the principal companion of 
each participant attending the Community Flood Hazard Mitigation 
Training Institute. It contains the detailed information needed 
to conduct each part of the Institute program. The Program in 
Brief acts as a table of contents for the remainder of the 
book. The remainder of the workbook is organized by program 
element, and each program element is followed by whatever 
discussion questions, exercises and case example material may 
be necessary to work through that part of the training program. 

Other materials prepared for your use by The Conservation 
Foundation include: "Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide" and "Community Action Guide 
Summary . " The Training Manual contains seven separate chapters 
that outline in some detail the essential components of a com- 
munity flood hazard mitigation and resource protection program 
highlighting the legal, environmental, social, and political 
factors that affect these decisions. The manual discusses fur- 
ther federal flood hazard mitigation initiatives. Particular 
attention is given to the NFIP and community responsibilities 
under that program. 

The chapters in the Training Manual are organized to both 
be read as a book and to address single essential questions 
that could arise during a community's flood hazard mitigation 
planning process. If you examine the table of contents for 
each chapter, you may find areas you would like to read while 
at the training institute. The manual is designed for yor use 
when you return home, however. We hope that it will assist you 
in understanding the nature of the complex decisions that must 
be made to achieve flood hazard mitigation and allow you to raise 
the questions necessary to affect your community's choice of 
mitigation approaches. 

The Community Action Guide Summary was mailed to you before 
the insititute and is designed for your use before and during the 
Institute and in conducting public involvement activities when 
you return home. It summarizes the larger guidebook, outlines 
the goals of effective public participation, and appropriate 
public participation mechanisms. We hope you will take the 
opportunity to read through this booklet while at the Institute, 
as it should be particularly helpful to you in outlining follow-up 
activities . 



£ 



Q 



€ 



-5- 



PROGRAM IN BRIEF 



DAY ONE 



Page 



11:00 - 1:00 



REGISTRATION 

Briefing for Discussion Leaders 

Location: 



1:00 - 1:30 



WELCOME AND INTRODUCTION 
Speakers : 
Location : 



1:30 - 2:15 



2:30 - 4:00 



INTRODUCTION OF PARTICIPANTS 
Discussion Leader: 
Location: 



FLOODING AND FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 
IN RIVERINE AREAS: AN OVERVIEW 
Panel Members: 
Location: 



4:00 - 4:45 



ESTABLISHING THE GOALS OF COMMUNITY 
FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

Discussion Leader: 
Location: 



5:00 - 6:00 



SOCIAL HOUR 
Location : 



-6- 



DAY ONE (continued) Page 



6:00 - 7:30 DINNER 

Location 



DAY TWO 



7:30 - 9:00 THE NATURE OF FLOODING IN COASTAL 

COMMUNITIES AND THE SPECIAL ROLE 
OF COASTAL ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES 
IN FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION 

Discussion Leaders: 



Locations : 



8:30 - 8:45 FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT: THREE STORIES 

Location: 



8:45 - 9:30 DESIGNING A FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

PROGRAM: IDENTIFYING GOALS OPPOR- 
TUNITIES AND STRATEGIES 

Lo cation: 

f 

9:30 - 10:45 THE FEDERAL AND STATE FRAMEWORK FOR 

COMMUNITY FLOOD HAZARD DECISION-MAKING 

Speaker : 

Panel Members : 

Location : 

11:00 - 12:15 THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM: 

WHAT IT DOES AND DOESN'T DO 

Speaker: 

Panel Members : 

Location : 



f 



-7- 



DAY TWO (continued) 



Page 



12:15 - 1:30 



LUNCH 



1:30 - 2:30 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT: ISSUES 
AND PROGRAMS 

Discussion Leaders: 



Location: 



2:45 - 3:45 



LOCAL STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD HAZARD 
MITIGATION: CASE EXAMPLES 

Discussion Leaders: 

Locations : 



4:00 - 5:00 



6:30 - 7:00 



THE ROLE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN 
COMMUNITY FLOOD HAZARD DECISION-MAKING 

Speaker : 

Location : 

DINNER 
Location : 



7:30 - 9:00 



RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GROUP ACTION 

Discussion Leaders: 

Location: 



DAY THREE 



8:30 - 9:30 



ISSUES IN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 
Discussion Leaders: 
Location : 



-8- 



DAY THREE (continued) Page 



10:00 - 12:00 DESIGNING A FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

PROGRAM IN RIVERINE COMMUNITIES 

Discussion Leaders: 

Locations : 



f 



12:00 - 1:30 LUNCH 

Location : 

1:30 - 3:00 FINAL SMALL GROUP DISCUSSIONS 

Discussion Leaders: 
Location: 



3:30 - 4:30 CONCLUSION 

Speaker : f >, 

Location: 



f 



* 



-9- 

MODEL RIVERINE STUDENT MANUAL 

WORKSHOP ON FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL 
RESOURCE PROTECTION: THE RIVERINE SETTING 



DAY ONE 

11:00 - 1:00 p.m. REGISTRATION 

1:00 p.m. WELCOME 
Purpose : 



• 



NOTES: 



» 



• To establish the major objectives of 
the Conference. 

• To introduce key staff and resource 
people. 

To orient group to sequence of workshop 
session, time schedules, facilities, 
and administrative announcements. 

Activity: 

• Plenary session speaker. 



-10- 



lr 30 - 2:15 INTRODUCTION OF PARTICIPANTS 

Purpose ; 

• To introduce community participants 
and their communities to one another 

• To establish the function of the 
working group at the conference. 

Activity ; 

• Small group discussion sessions 
within plenary room. 

NOTES : 



( 



Q 



€ 



-11- 



2:30 - 4:30 p.m. FLOODING AND FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT IN 

RIVERINE AREAS: AN OVERVIEW 

Purpose : 

• Create participant understanding of 
inherent complexities of riverine flood 
hazard management. 

• To give an historical perspective to 
riverine flood hazard management. 

• To address changing directins in coastal 
flood hazard management in response to 

the perceived weaknesses of the traditional 
approach . 

Activities : 



• Film 

• Reaction Panel Discussion 

• Audience Questions and Answers 
Review Questions 

1. What are the special problems of protecting 
the riverine floodplain? (Dynamic nature of 
riverine floodplain, fragility of riverine 
ecosystem. ) 

2. What is the relationship of watershed and 
drainage management to riverine flooding 
problems? 

3. What are some of the economic and social 
factors which contribute to the develop- 
ment of floodplains? 

4. What are the weaknesses of traditional 
approaches to riverine flood hazard 
management? 



-12- 



5. What are the changing directions in our f 
current approach to riverine flood hazard 
management? 



References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapters I and II. 



NOTES 



Q 



£ 



* 



-13- 



4:00 - 4:45 p.m. ESTABLISHING THE GOALS OF COMMUNITY FLOOD 

HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

Purpose : 

• To assist participants in establishing 
the target goals for which they will 
develop strategies. 

• To introduce participants to each other 
by helping them appreciate the different 
perspectives with which they approach 
flood hazard management.. 

Activities: 



» 



• Exercise on Goals (Exercise A attached) 

• Group Discussion 
Review Questions 

1. What are the most important goals to 
consider in developing a community 
flood hazard management program? 

2. How do various interest groups differ 
in their assessment of goals? 

3. How can or should other community 
goals be integrated with flood hazard 
management goals? 

References : 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: Community Action Guide , 
Chapter III. 

NOTES: 



» 



-14- 



Exercise A 
Goals for Community Flood Hazard Management 

Of the goals listed below, which do you feel 
are the four most important to accomplish in 
developing a community flood hazard management 
program? 

Rank/Goals 

1 Minimize fiscal impact of floods. 

2 Reduce erosion and sedimentations. 

3 Reduce property loss. 

4 Preserve natural areas. 

5 Protect safety of population. 

6 Reduce flood damage to public property. 

7 Distribute management costs fairly. 

8 Preserve open space and recreation. 

9 Maintain good water quality. 

10 Encourage economic development. 



Which of the following categories of 
interest groups do you most closely 
identify with? 

1 Local officials. 

2 State officials. 

3 Floodplain resident. 

4 Local businessman (economic interests). 

5 Environmentalists. 

6 Civic group member (Red Cross, church group) 



( 



-15- 



4:30 p.m. BREAK 

5:00 p.m. SOCIAL HOUR 

6:00 p.m. DINNER 

7:30 - 9:00 p.m. THE NATURE OF FLOODING IN RIVERINE COMMUNITIES 

AND THE SPECIAL ROLE OF RIVERINE ECOLOGICAL 
RESOURCES IN FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION 

Purpose : 

• To assist participants in identifying 
and understanding the causes of flooding 
and the nature of flood hazards in their 
community. 

• To help participants understand the 
functioning of important riverine eco- 
systems for hazard mitigation purposes. 

• To familiarize participants with various 
uses of natural resource data and maps 

as community planning and decision-making 
tools . 

Activities : 



• Six to eight concurrent small group 
sessions which discuss the special 
ecological characteristics of riverine 
systems. 

• Land Use Suitability Analysis — Mapping 
Exercise 

Review Questions 

1. What are the special ecological areas 
commonly found within river corridors? 

2. Where, within the river corridor, do they 
commonly occur? In what associations? 

3. What role do each of these resources 
play in flood hazard mitigation? 



-16- 



4. How sensitive are these resources to 
the activities of man? 

5. How can these resources be protected? 

What management policies should be applied? 

6. What is a meant by land suitability analysis? 

7. How does such an analysis help identify 
flood hazard mitigation/resource protec- 
tion opportunities? 

8. What role does resource mapping play in 
this analysis? 

9. What type of resource and maps exist or 
may be available for my community? From 
what sources? 

10. What environmental factors or values are 
most important in my community? 

11. What is suitable map base on which to 
represent these factors? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapter II. 



NOTES : 



-17- 



* 



IDENTIFYING NATURAL RESOURCE AND FLOOD HAZARD DATA 
SOURCES FOR DECISION-MAKING 



• 



WORKSHOP MATERIALS 



I 



«- 



-19- 



BASE MAPS 



MAP SCALE 



There are three categories of base maps: 
planimetric, topographic, and ortho- 
photo. 

A planimetric map shows roads, structures, 
political boundaries, and waterways, etc. 
in two dimensions. It illustrates hori- 
zontal positioning, not the height of 
hills or valleys. 

A photogrammetric planimetric map is a 
planimetric map which has been prepared 
from aerial photographs and has been 
corrected so that horizontal measure- 
ments taken from the map accurately 
reflect the distance on the ground 
within a certain tolerance. 

A topographic map shows the type of 
information illustrated on a planimetric 
map plus it has contour lines to show 
hills and valleys of the land, drainage 
patterns and the steepness of slopes. 

A photogrammetric topographic map is a 
topographic map which has been prepared 
from aerial photographs and has been 
corrected so that both horizontal and 
vertical measurements taken from the 
map accurately reflect the distances 
and elevations on the ground within a 
certain tolerance. 

An orthophoto map is a map composed of 
a corrected aerial photograph on which 
features such as road names, place 
names, property boundaries, and political 
boundaries have been added. All the 
features which appear on an aerial 
photograph also appear on an ortho- 
photo map. 



Map scale defines the relation- 
ship between the measurements of 
the features as shown on the map 
and as they exist on the Earth's 
surface. Scale is generally 
stated as a ratio or fraction — 




1:24,000 scale, 
1 inch = 2,000 

feet. 
Area shown, 
1 square mile 



1:62.500 scale, 
1 inch = about 

1 mile. 
Area shown, 
6% square miles 



1:250,000 scale. 
1 inch = about 
4 miles. 
b7 Area shown, 
107 square miles 



Barbara Maire et. al, Wetlands and 
Floodplains on Paper (Lincoln, Mass . : 
Massachusetts Audubon Society, 
undated) 



2. U.S.G.S., Topographic Maps 
(Washington, D.C.: Government 
Printing Office, 1972) 



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21 
FLOODPLAIN DELINEATION ON AN ORTHOPHOTO MAP 




o 



-2 3- 



TOPOGRAPHIC MAP SYMBOLS 



*) 



^VARIATIONS WILL BE FOUND ON OLDER MAPS 



Primary highway, hard surface 

Secondary highway, hard surface 

Lightduty road, hard or improved surface 

Unimproved road 

Road under construction, almement known 

Proposed road 

Dual highway, dividing strip 25 feet or less 

Dual highway, dividing t , , lg 2 5 feet 

Trail 



» 



Railroad single track and multiple track 

Ra.lroads in juxtaposition 

Narrow gage: single track and multiple track 

Railroad m street and carlme 

Bridge road and railroad 

Drawbridge: road and railroad 

Footbridge 

Tunnel: road and railroad 

Overpass and underpass 

Small masonry or concrete dam 

Dam with lock 

Dam with road 

Canal with lock 



Buildings (dwell. ng. place of employment, etc ) 

School, church, and cemetery 

Buildings (barn, warehouse. 

Power transmission hne with located metal tower. 

Telephone line, pipeline, etc. (labeled as to type) 

Wells other than water (labeled as to type) 
Tanks: oil. water, etc (labeled only ,f water) 
Located or landmark obiect: windmill 
Open pit, mine, or quarry: prospect 
Shaft and tunnel entrance 



— *-<>-+_ 






Boundaries National 
State 

County, parish, mumcipio 
Civil township, precinct, town, barrio 
Incorporated city, village, town, hamlet 
Reservation. National or State 
Small park, cemetery, airport, etc. 
Land grant 
Township or range line. United States land survey 
Township or range line, approximate location 
Section hne. United States land survey . 
Section hne. approximate location 

not United States land survey 
Section line, not United States land survey 
Found corner: section and dosing 
Boundary monument: land grant and other 
e or field line 



.1 



mmm 



» 



Horizontal and vertical control station: 
Tablet, spirit level elevation 

Other recoverable mark, spirit level elevation A , 

Horizontal control station: tablet, vertical angle elevation 

Any recoverable mark.vertical angle or checked elevation 
Vertical control station: tablet, spirit level elevat,on 

Other recoverable mark, spirit level elevation 
Spot elevation 
Water elevation 



Index contour 

Supplementary contour 

Fill 

Levee 

Mine dump 

! >gs 
Shifting sand or dunes 
Sand 

Perennial streams 
s ted aqueduct 
Water well and spring 
Small rapids 
Large rapids 
Intermittent lake. 
Foreshore flat 
Sounding, depth curve 
Exposed v. 



Intermediate contour 

Depression contours 

Cut 

Levee with road 

Wash 

failings pond 
Intricate surface 
Gravel beach 

Intermittent streams. 

Aqueduct tunnel 

Glacier 

Small falls 
Large falls 
Dry lake bed 
Rock or coral reef 
Piling or dolphin 
Sunken wreck 






Rock, bare or awash; dangerous to navigation 



X 736.9 



Marsh (swamp) 

Wooded marsh 

Woods or brushwood 

Vineyard 
Land subject to 
controlled inundation 




I I I I I I I I I 



-2 4-1 



5 MILES 



MILE SCALE 1:62 500 



UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



TOPOGRAPHIC 

MAP INFORMATION AND SYMBOLS 

MARCH 1978 



QUADRANGLE MAPS AND SERIES 
Quadrangle maps cover four-sided areas bounded by parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Quadrangle size is given in 

minutes or degrees. 
Map series are groups of maps that conform to established specifications for size, scale, content, and other elements. 
Map scale is the relationship between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground 
Map scale is expressed as a numerical ratio and shown graphically by bar scales marked in feet, miles, and kilometers. 

NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS 



Series 


Scale 


1 inch represents 


1 centimeter 
represents 


Standard 

quadrangle size 

(latitude-longitude) 


Quadrangle 

area 

(square miles) 


7'^-minule 

7VS.X 15-minule 

Puerto Rico 7V>-minute 

15-minule 

Alaska 1:63.360 

Intermediate 

U. S. 1:250.000 

U. S. 1:1,000.000 

Antarctica 1 250,000 . 


1:24,000 

1:25,000 

1:20.000 

1:62,500 

1:63,360 

1:100.000 

1:250.000 

1:1.000.000 

1:250.000 

1:500,000 


2,000 feet 
about 2,083 feet 
about 1 ,667 feet 
nearly 1 mrle 
1 mile 

nearly 1 6 miles 
nearly 4 miles 
nearly 16 miles 
nearly 4 miles 
nearly S miles 


240 meters 
250 meters 
200 meters 
625 meters 
nearly 634 meters 

1 kilometer 
2.5 kilometers 
10 kilometers 

2 5 kilometers 
5 kilomeiers 


VfiX-Vh mm 
7V : x 15 min. 
7V2*7'/2 mm. 
15* 15 min. 
15X20 to 36 min 
30X60 mm 
l°x 2° or 3° 
4°X6° 

I°X3°to 15° 
2°x l'h° 


49 to 70 

98 to 140 

71 

197 to 282 

207 to 281 

1568 to 2240 

4.580 to 8,669 

73.734 to 102.759 

4.089 to 8 336 


Antarctica 1 500.000 . . 


28.174 to 30 462 







CONTOUR LINES SHOW LAND SHAPES AND ELEVATION 
The shape of the land, portrayed by contours, is the distinctive characteristic of topographic maps. 
Contours are imaginary lines following the ground surface at a constant elevation above or below sea level 
Contour interval is the elevation difference represented by adjacent contour lines on maps. 
Contour intervals depend on ground slope and map scale Small contour intervals are used for Hat areas; larger intervals are used 

for mountainous terrain. 
Supplementary dotted contours, at less than the regular interval, are used in selected flat areas. 
Index contours are heavier than others and most have elevation figures. 

Relief shading, an overprint giving a three-dimensional impression, is used on selected maps. 
Orthophotomaps, which depict terrain and other map features by color-enhanced photographic images, are available for 

selected areas. 

COLORS DISTINGUISH KINDS OF MAP FEATURES 
Black is used for manmade or cultural features, such as roads, buildings, names, and boundaries. 
Blue is used for water or hydrographic features, such as lakes, rivers, canals, glaciers, and swamps. 
Brown is used for relief or hypsographic features — land shapes portrayed by contour lines. 
Green is used for woodland cover, with patterns to show scrub, vineyards, or orchards. 

Red emphasizes important roads and is used to show public land subdivision lines, land grants, and fence and field lines 
Red tint indicates urban areas, in which only landmark buildings are shown 
Purple is used to show office revision from aerial photographs. The changes are not field checked. 

INDEXES SHOW PUBLISHED TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS 
Indexes for each State, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, and Antarctica 

show available published maps. Index maps show quadrangle location, name, and survey date. Listed also are special maps 
and sheets, with prices, map dealers, Federal distribution centers, and map reference libraries, and instructions for ordering 
maps. Indexes and a booklet describing topographic maps are available free on request. 

HOW MAPS CAN BE OBTAINED 

Mail orders for maps of areas east of the Mississippi River, including Minnesota, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United 
States, and Antarctica should be addressed to the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, 1200 South Eads Street, 
Arlington, Virginia 22202. Maps of areas west of the Mississippi River, including Alaska, Hawaii, Louisiana, American 
Samoa, and Guam should be ordered from the Branch of Distribution , U . S . Geological Survey , Box 25286, Federal Center, 
Denver. Colorado 80225. A single order combining both eastern and western maps may be placed with either office. 
Residents of Alaska may order Alaska maps or an index for Alaska from the Distribution Section, U. S. Geological Survey, 
Federal Building-Box 12, 101 Twelfth Avenue, Fairbanks. Alaska 99701. Order by map name. State, and series. On an 
order amounting to $300 or more at the list price, a 30-percent discount is allowed. No other discount is applicable. 
Prepayment is required and must accompany each order. Payment may be made by money order or check payable to the 
U. S. Geological Survey. Your ZIP code is required. 

Sales counters are maintained in the following U. S. Geological Survey offices, where maps of the area may be purchased in 
person: 1200 South Eads Street, Arlington, Va.; Room 1028, General Services Administration Building, 19th & F Streets 
NW, Washington, D. C; 1400 Independence Road, Rolla, Mo.; 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, Calif.; Room 7638, 
Federal Building. 300»North Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles, Calif.; Room 504. Custom House, 555 Battery Street, San 
Francisco, Calif.; Building 41, Federal Center, Denver, Colo.; Room 1012. Federal Building, 1961 Stout Street, Denver 
Colo.; Room 1C45, Federal Building, I 100 Commerce Street, Dallas, Texas; Room 8105, Federal Building, 125 South 
State Street, Salt Lake City, Utah; Room 1C402, National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive. Reston, Va.; Room 678. 
U. S. Court House, West 920 Riverside Avenue, Spokane, Wash.; Room 108, Skyline Building, 508 Second Avenue. 
Anchorage, Alaska: and Federal Building, 101 Twelfth Avenue, Fairbanks, Alaska. 

Commercial dealers sell U. S. Geological Survey maps at their own prices. Names and addresses of dealers are listed in each 
State index. ,n,er,or-geologica. survey reston .«o.«.»- ,,7 8 



v< 



009 291 31VOS XOOd 

000 SI 000 01 0009 



*) 



-25- 



CONTOUR LINES 



A contour line is an imaginery line drawn on the ground which 
connects points of the same altitude or elevation. 

The contour interval is the vertical distance (difference in 
elevation! separating contour lines. While contour intervals between 
maps may vary, on any single map the interval is constant. The 
horizontal spacing of the contour lines, therefore, varies with 
land slope. In general, the closer the contour lines the steeper 
the slope. Wide spacing between lines indicates more gentle slopes. 
When contour lines cross streams the contour is bent into a V, 
the V points in the upstream direction. 



COMPARISON OF CONTOUR INTERVALS 





10' CONTOUR INTERVAL. 




opes 




2' CONTOUR INTERVAL. 



Barbara Maire et. al, Wetlands and Floodplains on Paper 
(Lincoln, Mass.: Massachusetts Audubon Society, undated) 



-26- 



THE SOIL SURVEY v ^, 

Man is dependent on soils. Soils provide the habitat 
for plants and crops; the foundations for buildings and roads; 
and receptacles for domestic, municipal, industrial and 
animal wastes. Soil management should be a fundamental 
planning concern and the soil survey is an essential planning 
tool. The soil survey, conducted by the Soil Conservation 
Service, provides the basic information needed for planning 
including: a map depicting different soil types and a 
description of the properties and limitations of these soils. 

Of particular interest for land use planning are the 
soil's "engineering properties" and "engineering interpreta- 
tions." These interpretations indicate the suitability of 
areas for different uses. For example, the suitability of 
areas for homebuilding sites involves an evaluation of the 
flood hazards, height of the water table, slope of the land, 
shrink-swell potential of the soil and depth of the soil to 
hard rock. 1 

The suitability of a site for septic tanks is rated 
according to the permeability of the soil (the ease with 
which water penetrates the soil) , the land slope, filtering 
capacity, level of the water table, and potential for flooding. ^ 
Additional suitability interpretations include use for highways, 
ponds or reservoirs, and recreation. * . 

Soils maps, themselves, are very useful for floodplain 
delineation. Soils which are deposited by running water (called 
alluvial soils) or soils which are frequently covered by water 
differ in texture, color, or structure from those which 
develop under drier conditions. Such soils will, therefore, 
have classifications different from non-flood-prone soils. 

Attached is a chart depicting the soil suitability 
interpretations and a brief description of the major soil 
types found on the map sheet to be used in this exercise. 
Those soils which have developed under wet conditions 
or were deposited by running water can be identified 
from these descriptions. By drawinq boundaries around these 
soil tvpes it is possible to make a rough delineation of 
the flood hazard area. 



1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 
Soil Survey For Wake County, North Carolina . (Washington, 
D.C.: GPO, 1970) 

2. Ibid. 



-27- 



SOIL ASSOCIATION 



Creedmore-White Store Association 

Gently sloping to hilly, deep and moderately deep, moderately 
well drained soild that have a very firm clayey subsoil; 
derived from sandstone, shale, and mudstone. 

Mayodan-Granville-Creedmoor Association 

Gently sloping to moderately steep, deep or moderately deep, 
well drained and moderately well drained soils that have a 
subsoil of friable sandy clay loam to very firm clay; derived 
from sandstone, shale, and mudstone. 

Herndon-Georgeville Association 

Gently sloping to moderately steep, deep, well-drained soils 
that have a subsoil of friable silty clay loam to clay; derived 
from phyllite (Carolina slates) . 

Appling-Durham Association 

Gently sloping to sloping, deep, well-drained soils that have 
a subsoil of friable sandy clay loam to firm clay; derived 
mostly from granite, gneiss, and schist. 

Cecil-Appling Association 

Gently sloping to steep, deep, well-drained soils that have a 
subsoil of red, friable to firm clay loam to clay; derived mostly 
from gneiss and schist. 

Cecil Association 

Gently sloping to steep, deep, well-drained soils that have a 
subsoil of firm red clay; derived mostly from gneiss and schist. 

Cecil-Madison Association 

Gently sloping to steep, deep, well-drained soils that have 
a subsoil of red, friable to firm clay loam to clay; derived 
mostly from gneiss and schist. 

Appling Association 

Gently sloping to moderately steep, deep, well-drained soils 
that have a subsoil of firm clay loam to clay; derived mostly 
from granite, gneiss, and schist. 

Wagram-Norfolk Association 

Nearly level to sloping, very deep, somewhat excessively drained 
and well drained soils that have a subsoil of friable sandy loam 
to sandy clay loam; formed in Coastal Plain sediments. 

Appling- Louisburg-Wedowee Association 

Gently sloping to steep, deep and moderately deep, well 
drained and somewhat excessively drained soild that have a sub- 
soil of very friable coarse sandy loam to firm clay; derived 
mostly from granite, gneiss, and schist. 



-28- 



KEY 



Q 



**p 

symbol 

ATA 
AgB 

AgB2 

AgC 

AgC2 

ApP 
ApB2 

ApC 
ApC2 

ApD 
AsB 

AsB2 

AsC 

AsC2 

Au 

0/> 

Bu 

CeB 

CeB2 

CeC 

CeC2 

CeD 
CeF 

CgB 

CgB2 

CgC 

CgC2 

C1B3 

C1C3 

C1E3 

Cm 

Cn 

Co 

Cp 

CrB 

CrB2 

CrC 



Mapping unit 

Altavista fine sandy loan, 
Appling gravelly sandy loar. , 

slopes 
Appling gravelly sandv loam. 

slopes, eroded 
Appling gravelly sandy loam, 

slopes 
Appling gravelly sandy loam, 

slopes, eroded 
Appling sandy loar-., 2 
Appling sandy loan, 2 

eroded 
Appling sandy loam, 6 
Appling sandy loam, 6 

eroded 
Appling sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Appling fine sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Appling fine sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Appling fine sandy loam, 6 
Appling fine sandy loam, 6 

eroded 
Augusta fine sandy loam 
Borrow area 
Buncombe soils 
Cecil sandy loam, 
Cecil sandy loam, 
Cecil sandy loam, 
Cecil sandy loam, 
Cecil sandy loam, 



to U percent slopes- 
2 to 6 percent 

2 to t> Dercent 

6 to 10 percent 

6 to 10 percent 



to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 

to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



to 6 percent slopes, 
to 10 percent 
to 10 percent 



2 to 6 percent slopes 
2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded 
6 to 10 percent slopes 
6 to 10 percent slopes, eroded 
10 to 15 percent slopes 
Cecil sandy loam, 15 to 1*5 percent slopes 
Cecil gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes- 
Cecil gravelly sandy loam, 

eroded 
Cecil gravelly sandy loam, 

slopes 
Cecil gravelly sandy loam, 

slopes, eroded 
Cecil clay loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 
Cecil 'clay loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 
Cecil clay loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 
Chewacla soils 
Colfax sandy loam 
Congaree fine sandy loam 
Congaree silt loam 

Creedmoor sandy loam., 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Creedraoor sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Creedmoor sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes 



Map 
symbol 

CrC2 

CrE 

CtB 

etc 

DuB 

DuB2 

DuC 

DuC2 

EnB 
EnB2 

EnC 

EnC2 

EnD2 

FaB 
FaS2 

FaC2 

GeB 
GeB2 

GeC 
GeC2 

GeD2 

Gc 

GrB 
GrB2 

GrC 
GrC2 

GrD 

Gu 

HeB 

HeB2 

HeC 
HeC2 

HeD 

HrB 

HrB2 

HrC 

HrC2 

HrD2 

HrE 

LdB2 

LdC2 

LdD2 

LoB 

LoC 



Mapping unit 

Creedmoor sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Creedmoor sandy loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes 
Creedmoor silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Creedmoor silt loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, eroded 
to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 

to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 



to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 



to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



Durham loamy sand, 
Durham loamy sand, 
Durham loamy sand, 
Durham loamy sand , 

eroded 
Enon fine sandy loam, 
Enon fine sandy loam, 

eroded 
Enon fine sandy loam, 
Enon fine sandy loan., 

eroded 
Enon fine sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Facevllle sandy loam, 
Faceville sandy loam, 

eroded 
Faceville sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Georgeville silt loam,, 
Georgeville silt loam, 

eroded 
Georgeville silt loam, 
Georgeville silt loan, 

eroded 
Georgeville silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Goldsboro sandy loam 
Granville sandy loam, 
Granville sandy loam, 

eroded 
Granville sandy loam, 
Granville sandy loam, 

eroded 
Granville sandy loam, 
Gullied land 

Helena sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Helena sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Helena sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes 
Helena sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Helena sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Herndon silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Herndon silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded 
Herndon silt loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes 
Herndon silt loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Herndon silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Herndon silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes 
Lloyd loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded 
Lloyd loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, eroded 
Lloyd loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, eroded 
Louisburg loamy sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Louisburg loamy sand, 6 to 10 percent slopes 



to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 

to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



10 to 15 percent slopes 



-29- 



» 



Map 
.ymbol 

*S 

-vB 
mB2 

aC 

<y 

la 
ldB2 

IdC2 

idD2 

UE2 

le 

lfB 
>f£2 

4fC 
4fC2 

1TD2 

4fE 
<«B 

4gB2 

«gC 

4gC2 

<yB 
«yB2 

<yc 

4yC2 

«yD 
«oA 
«oB 
»oB2 

JoC 
HoC2 

>rB 
DtB2 

0rC2 

BiC 



KEY 



Mapping uni^ 

Lcuisburg loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Louisburg-Wedowee complex, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
Louisburg-Wedowee complex, 2 to 6 percent 

slopes, eroded 
Louisburg-Wedowee complex, 6 to 10 percent 

slopes 
Louisburg-Wedowee complex, 6 to 10 percent 

slopes, eroded 
Lynchburg sandy loam 
Made land 
Madison sandy loan, 

eroded 
Madison sandy loam, 

eroded 
Madison sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 

eroded 
Madison sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 

eroded 



to 6 percent slopes, 
to 10 percent slopes, 



to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 

to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



Mantachie soils 
Mayodan sandy loam, 2 
Mayodan sandy loar., 2 

eroded 
Mayodan sandy loam, 6 
Mayodar. sandy loan, 6 

eroded 
Mayodan sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Mayodan sandy loar., 15 to 25 percent slopes 
Mayodan gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent 

slopes 
Mayodan gravelly sandy loam, 

slopes, eroded 
Mayodan gravelly sandy loam, 

slopes 
Mayodan gravelly sandy loam, 

slopes, eroded 
Mayodan silt loam, thin, 2 
Mayodan silt loam, thin, 2 

eroded 
Mayodan silt loam, thin, 6 
Mayodan silt loam, thin, 6 

eroded 
Mayodan silt loam, thin, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Norfolk loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes 
to 6 percent slopes, 



to 6 percent 
6 to 10 percent 
6 to 10 percent 



to 6 percent sftpes 
to 6 percent slopes, 

to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes. 



Map 

symbol Mapping unit 

PkF Pinkston sandy loam, 10 to 1»5 percent slopes 

Ps PlusBoer sand 

Pa Pains fine sandy loam 

Po Roanoke fine sandy loam 

Sw Swamp 

VaB Vance sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 

VaB2 Vance sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded 

VaC2 Vance sandy loam, 6 to 10 percent slopes, eroded 

VaA Wagram loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

VaB Wagram loamy sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes 

VaC Wagram loamy sand, 6 to 10 percent slopes 

WgA Wagram-Troup sands, to U percent slopes 

Wh wahee fine sandy loam 

WkC Wake soils, 2 to 10 percent slopes 

WkE Wake soils, 10 to 25 percent slopes 

WmB Wedowee sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 

WmB2 Wedowee sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 

WmC Wedowee sandy loam, 6 

WnC2 Wedowee sandy loam, 6 

eroded 

WmD2 Wedowee sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

eroded 

WmE Wedowee sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes 

Wn Wehadkee silt loam 

Wc Wehadkee and Bibb soils 

WsB White Store sandy loam, 2 

WsB2 White Store sandy loar., 2 

eroded 

WsC White Store sandy loam, 6 

W&C2 White Store sandy loam, 6 

eroded 

WsE White Store sandy loan, 10 to 20 percent slopes 

WtB White Store silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 

WvD3 White Store clay loam, 2 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

WwC Wilkes soils, 2 to 10 percent slopes 

WwE Wilkes soils, 10 to 20 percent slopes 

WwF Wilkes soils, 20 to U'p percent slopes 

WxE Wilkes stony soils, 15 to 25 percent slopes 

Wy Worsham sandy loam 



to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



Norfolk loamy sand, 
Norfolk loamy sand, 

eroded 
Norfolk loamy sand, 6 
Norfolk loamv sand. 6 

eroded 
Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to b percent slopes 
Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes, 

eroded 
Orangeburg loamy sand, 6 to 10 percent slopes. 

eroded 
Pinkston sandy loam, to 10 percent slopes 



to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



percent slopes 
percent slopes, 



to 10 percent slopes 
to 10 percent slopes, 



Adapted from: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation 
Survey for Wake County, North Carolina, November 1970. 



-30- 




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-34- 



DAY TWO 

8:30 a.m. FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT: THREE STORIES 
Purposes : 

• To create a mood of excitement regarding 
the opportunities to develop flood hazard 
management strategies to meet a variety 
of goals. 

• To introduce some of the ways in which 
the National Flood Insurance Program 
provides assistance to the community. 

Activity: 

• CF slide presentation. 

NOTES : 



« I 



-35- 



8:45 a.m. DESIGNING A FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 

IDENTIFYING GOALS, OPPORTUNITIES AND STRATEGIES 

Purpose ; 

• To reinforce the varying opportunities 
for flood hazard management presented 
by the slide show. 

• To relate these opportunities to the 
pre- and post-flood stages of flood 
hazard management. 

• To highlight the importance of local 
initiative in taking advantage of various 
state and federal assistance. 

• To relate various opportunities and 
strategies described in slide show 
to goals described in preceding days 
session and still taped to wall of 
plenary session room. 

Activity; 

• Small group discussions within plenary 
session. 

• Completion of Exercise B. 
Review Questions 

1. What are the variety of goals that the 
communities in the slide show tried to 
achieve? 

2. What were the obstacles that those 
communities had to overcome? How did 
they overcome these obstacles? 

3. What factors should be considered in 
developing a community flood hazard 
management program? 

4. What approaches best address problems 
of existing development within the 
flood hazard area? 

5. What approaches are best to control 
new development? 



NOTES: 



-36- 



6. What kinds of federal/state/local 
assistance are available to assist 
communities? 

7. What are the differing opportunities 
available to communities regarding 
their developed land versus their 
undeveloped land? What are the 
differing opportunities available 
before or between floods, or after 

a major flood? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: Community Action Guide , 
Chapter III. 



t, 



-37- 



EXERCISE B 



1. What were the goals of the flood hazard management programs 
adopted by the three communities in the slide show? 



Goals 



Montgomery County Baltimore County Sanibel Island 



2. 



How do these goals relate to the general list of goals 
developed in the previous session? 



What opportunities did each of the communities explore in 
developing their flood hazard management programs and to 
what stage (pre-flood or post-flood) of flood hazard 
Management? 



Were the programs directed? 





Montgomery County 


Baltimore County 


Sanibel Island 


Oppor- 
tuni- 
ties 








Flood 
Hazard 
Manage- 
ment 
stage 
address- 
ed 









-38- 



EXERCISE B (continued) 

3. What specific strategies did each community adopt to 
implement their flood hazard management plan? 

To what extent were federal and state agencies involved? 

What additional assistance might have been employed 
in each of the community situations? 



Strate- 
gies 



Federal 
and 
State 
In- 
volve- 
ment 

Addi- 
tional 
Assist- 
ance 



Montgomery County 



Baltimore County Sanibel Island 



< 



-39- 



9:30 - 10:45 a.m. THE FEDERAL AND STATE FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY 

FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING 

Purpose : 

• To outline the structure and functions 
of various Federal and State programs 
that affect community flood hazard 
management: 

— The Floodplains and Wetlands 
Executive Order 

— NFIP 

— State Natural Resource Management 

• To relate these various activities to 
the goals of community flood hazard 
management previously identified by 
participants . 

Activities : 



• Speech 

• Roundtable 

• Questions and Answers 
Review Questions 

1. What are the respective responsibilities 
of the Federal and State governments in 
flood hazard management. 

2. How well are various programs coordinated 

at the Federal level? How might coordination 
be improved? 

3. What new initiatives are being implemented 
to improve federal coordination? 

4. What are some of the approaches that 
creative state governments have used to 
meet their challenge in mitigating flood 
hazards and protecting natural resources? 



-40- 



5. How do most state governments related 
their role in flood hazard management 
to that of the local community? 

6. How is the role of the State likely to 
be affected as the result of new federal 
initiatives? 

References : 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapters IV, V and VIII. 



NOTES: 



i 



1 



-41- 



10:45 a.m. BREAK 



11:00 a.m. THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM: 
WHAT IT DOES — WHAT IT DOESN'T DO 

Purpose : 

• To bring participants to a common level 
of understanding concerning the specific 
minimum requirements of the NFIP. 

• To familiarize participants with the 
tools of the NFIP. 

• To examine the extent to which the NFIP 
will help to meet the range of community 
flood hazard management goals. 

Activities : 

• Speech 

• Reaction Panel 

• Audience Questions and Answers 
Review Questions 

1. What are the two phases of the NFIP? 
How does a community enter the NFIP? 

2. What are the basic regulatory concepts 
and tools of community participation 
in the NFIP? 

3. What are the minimum requirements of 
participation in the Regular program of 
the NFIP? What function do they serve? 

(a) What is meant by the Base Flood? 
100-Year Flood? 

(b) What is a Flood Hazard Boundary Map, 
Flood Insurance Study, FIRM Map, 
Floodway/Flood Boundary Map? 

(c) How are Flood Profiles interpreted? 



-42- 



4. What new inititatives are being considered \ 
for the NFIP Program (1362, constructive 
total loss, Flood Plains Executive Order)? 
How will these initiatives likely affect 
development of community flood hazard 
management programs? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: Community Action Guide, 
Chapter IV. 



NOTES: 



i 



-44- 



I 



Reading a Profile 

Flood profiles, contained in the Flood Insurance Study, 
typically show cross section elevation of the stream bed and 
the 10-year, 50-year, 100-year, and 500-year flood. 

Scales: On the example opposite, each line on the 
vertical axis equals 1/2 foot elevation above sea level. 
On the horizontal axis each line equals .02 miles (approxi- 
mately 106 feet) of distance above the mouth of the stream. 

To locate a site on the horizontal axis: obtain the 
distance on the ground between the site and a cross section 
point ( <A> — <A> )• For example, Point X is midway between 
cross sections AP and AQ. 

To determine the flood water elevation at that point: 
locate the point on the flood line you're interested in. 
(Point X is plotted on the 100-year flood line.) Read the 
vertical axis to obtain the water elevation. The 100-year 
flood elevation at Point X is 594.1 feet (above mean sea 

level) . To determine by how much a structure should be ^ 

elevated to be above the base flood, subtract the ground 1 

elevation of the site from the flood elevation at the site. 






4 



-46- 



Reading a Flood Boundary and 
Floodway Map 



A Flood Boundary and Floodway 
Map identifies the boundaries of the 
floodway and the 100-year, and 500- 
year flood. The map also indicates 
the location_of stream_cross 

sections ( <A> <£> ) • 

With references to the Flood Profile 
specific flood elevations may be 
determined at any site. 

To locate a site on the map: 
Obtain the ground distance between 
the site and two or more points 
identified on the map (i.e., center- 
line of a street, bridge or reference 
mark) . Convert the ground distances 
to map distances and plot the site 
on the map. Example: Point X 
is 200 feet west of the intersection 
of Lavender and Elm Streets and 200 
feet southeast of the intersection 
of Rosessler and Elm Streets. 
Point X is not within the floodway. 



KEY TO SYMBOLS 

FLOOD BOUNDARY AND 
FLOODWAY DATA 



500 Yr Flood Boundary 



100 Yr Flood 
Boundary 




FLOODWAY 
FRINGE 



500 Yr Flood Boundary 



Approximate 100 Yr 
Flood Boundary 



Cross Section Line 



Elevation Reference Mark 



River Mile 



® ® 



RM7. 



Ml. 5 



Note: Boundaries of the floodways were computed at cross sections 
and interpolated between cross sections. The floodways were based on 
hydraulic considerations without regard to economic, legal, or political 
factors. 



DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 
Federal Insurance Administration 

FLOOD BOUNDARY AND FLOODWAY MAP 
MAP INDEX 

CITY OF FLOODVILLE, Ml 

(FLOOD CO.) 
COMMUNITY NO. 314159 



* 



> 



-48- 



Reading a Flood Insurance Rate Map 



The Flood Insurance Rate Map 
(FIRM) indicates the risk zones 
(for insurance purposes) within 
the flood hazard area, and map 
representations of 100-year flood 
elevation. Use the flood profile 
for specific site elevations. 

Point X is within insurance 
rate zone A5. 



KEY TO SYMBOLS 



ZONEB 



ZONE DESIGNATIONS* WITH 
DATE OF IDENTIFICATION 
ie.. 12/2/74 



Base Flood Elevation Line 
with elevation in feet 

Base Flood Elevation 
where uniform within zone 

Elevation Reference Mark 

River Mile 




ZONEB 



573- 



(EL987'MSL) 
RM7 x 
• M1.5 



•EXPLANATION OF ZONE DESIGNATIONS 

A flood insurance map displays the zone designations for a community 
according to areas of designated flood hazards. The zone designations 
used by F I A are: 

Zone Explanation 

A Areas of 100-year flood; base flood elevations and 

flood hazard factors not determined. 

AO Areas of 100-year shallow flooding; flood depth 1 to 
3 feet; product of flood depth (feet) and velocity 
(feet per second) less than 15. 

A1 - A30 Areas of 100-year flood; base flood elevations and 
flood hazard factors determined. 

A69 Areas of 100-year flood to be protected by a flood 
protection system under construction; base flood 
elevations and flood hazard factors not determined. 

B Area between limits of 100-year flood and 500-year 

flood; areas of 100-year shallow flooding where depths 
less than 1 foot. 

C Areas outside 500-year flood. 

D Areas of undetermined, but possible, flood hazards. 

V Areas of 100-year coastal flood with velocity (wave 

action); base flood elevations and flood hazard factors 

not determined. 

VO Areas of 100-year shallow flooding with velocity; 

flood depth 1 to 3 feet; product of depth (feet) and 
velocity (feet per second) more than 15. 

V1 V30 Areas of 100-year coastal flood with velocity (wave 
action); base flood elevations and flood hazard 
factors determined. 



CONSULT NFIA SERVICING COMPANY OR LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENT OR BROKER TO DETERMINE IF PROPERTIES IN THIS 
COMMUNITY ARE ELIGIBLE FOR FLOOD INSURANCE. 



INITIAL IDENTIFICATION DATE: 

FEBRUARY 1, 1975 



DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 
Federal Insurance Administration 

FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP M - 01 -23 
FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP I • 01 -23 

MAP INDEX 

CITY OF FLOODVILLE, Ml 

(FLOOD CO.] 
COMMUNITY NO. 314159 



ft 1 



i) 



'J 



-50- 



12:15 p.m. LUNCH 

1:30 p.m. FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT: ISSUES AND PROGRAMS 
Purpose : 

• To allow participants to explore in more 
detail the various issue and programs 
described in the morning sessions. 

Activity: 

• Concurrent small group sessions in the 
following areas: 

— building standards; 

— NFIP regulations; 

— 1362; 

— flood hazard mapping; 

Review Questions 

A. Building Standards 

1. What specific provisions should be 
included in local building codes to 
insure that residents of new structures 
elevated above the 100-year flood do 
not inhabit basements which are below 
100-year level? 

2. What problems might building inspectors 
anticipate in enforcing standards? 

3. How do building requirements of the NFIP 
relate to the acturially based insurance 
rates used by FEMA? 

B. NFIP Regulations 

1. What are the minimum requirements of 
the NFIP (Regular Phase) in terms of 
elevations, construction, and land use? 

2. What programs, if any, exist for cooperation 
betwee upstream and downstream communities? 

3. To what extent are fragile riverine eco- 
systems protected under the NFIP regulations? 



r 



-51- 



C. Section 1362 (Post Disaster Acquisition/ 
Relocation under NFIP) 

1. What is Section 1362? What are its major 
provisions? 

2. How is Section 1362 being implemented 
currently? How much money has been 
appropriated? 

3. How is eligibility for 1362 funds determined? 
What procedures must communities follow to 
acquire 1362 funds? 

4. What restrictions are placed on the use of 
1362 funds? 

D. Flood Hazard Mapping 

1. What role do maps play in the NFIP? 

2. What is the status of FIA's community 
mapping process? 

3. What is the data base of the community map? 
What are the sources of possible error in 
flood hazard boundary mapping? What kinds 
of changing conditions might affect the 
communities of flood hazard boundary? 

4. What is the process of amending maps to 
reflect changing conditions? 

5. What is the status of the new FIA map 
locator service? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapters IV, V and VII. 



NOTES 



-52- 



2:30 p.m. BREAK V 

2:45 - 3:45 p.m. LOCAL STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION: 

CASE EXAMPLES 

Purpose : 

• To allow participants to examine in 
detail the way a particular community 
utilizes a strategy (or set of strategies) 
to accomplish flood hazard mitigation 
goals . 

• To focus attention on the stages of 
flood hazard management (pre and post) 
to which the strategy was applied. 

^ 

• To highlight the role of various federal, 
and state programs (NFIP, WQM) in accom- 
plishing the strategy. 

• To relate the strategies to the goals 
of flood hazard mitigation identified 
previously. ^ 

Activity: ' 

• Concurrent small group sessions on 
community case examples which address 
a variety of flood hazard management 
strategies. For example: 

— relocation; 

— recreation/acquisition; 

— storm water management; 

— zoning; 

— critical areas protection; 

— development with sensitivity 
to ecosystems. 

Review Questions 

1. What are the major flooding problems in 
the community? 

2. What are the estimated costs to the 
community of recurrent floods? 



r 



3 



J 



NOTES 



*j 



-53- 



3. What opportunities did the community 
identify to begin to address their 
flooding problems? In the pre-flood 
situation? In the post-flood situation? 

4. What specific flood hazard management 
strategies were proposed? Which ones 
were rejected and why? Which ones were 
adopted? 

5. Who were the actors involved in the 
decision-making process? How were 
they involved? 

6. What community, state and federal 
resources were required to implement 
the particular strategy? How were these 
resources obtained? 

7. What lessons have been learned by community 
leaders in the process? What things might 
they approach differently if they were to 
start over again? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapters III and V 



-54- 



4:00 - 5:00 p.m. THE ROLE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATIN IN COMMUNITY 

FLOOD HAZARD DECISION MAKING (PLENARY) 

Purpose : 

• To establish the importance of involving 
various publics in developing a community 
flood hazard management program. 

— Building a constituency for a 
comprehensive program. 

— Ensuring equity. 

— Building a constituency for 
implementation. 

• To establish some performance standards 
for effective public participation. 

• To expose participants to the range of 
techniques that are available for public 
involvement. 

Activities: 



c 



• Speech 

• Diverse Public Perspectives 
(see Exercise C attached) 

• Roundtable Discussion 

• Audience Questions and Answers 
Review Questions 

1. Who are the key actors both within and 
outside of the community who should be 
involved in the development of a community 
flood hazard management program? What 
range of perspectives are they likely to 
represent and why is it important to 
include them? 

2. What are some of the key decision points 
in the development of a flood hazard 
management program where the public should 
be involved. What specific kinds of 
information/input can the various publics 
provide at each of these decision points? 



r 



3 



> 



NOTES 



'j 



-55- 



3. What role can or should the public play 
during implementation of the flood hazard 
management program? 

4. To what extent in the past has the public 
been involved in developing a community 
flood hazard management program? What 
methods were used? What has been the 
result of this level of involvement? 

5. Does the NFIP have any specific require- 
ments or guidance for public involvement? 

6. What are some of the essential elements 
of an effective community public involve- 
ment effort? What are some of the tech- 
niques which may be most useful in 
achieving quality public participation? 

7. What are some potential sources of 
assistance to communities in developing 

a meaningful public participation effort? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: Community Action Guide, 
Chapter VI. 



56- 



EXERCISE C 



INTRODUCTION OF PARTICIPANTS 



Participants for the Flood Hazard Institute were chosen to 
represent a diversity of opinions and backgrounds. The purpose 
of this segment of the program is to give everyone a better 
understanding of the attitudes and perspectives shared by 
fellow attendees, resource people, and Institute staff. 

DIRECTIONS FOR EXERCISE: Indicate your opinion on each 
question by marking the horizontal line with an w x" above 
the appropriate number. Then indicate how strongly you care 
about this issue by circling a letter from A (very important 
issue) to E (unimportant issue) on the vertical line. You 
will have ten minutes to mark your responses, and then we 
will sample opinion in the group. 

1) How much weight should be given to public opinion 
in the development of a community flood hazard 
management program? 



A ( 






The decisions 
involve complex 
technical issues 
and should be 
made by experts 



Equal weight should 
be given to public 
opinion and expert 
conclusions . 



The important 
decisions in 
developing a 
flood hazard 
management 
program are not 
that technical, 
and the public, 
who has to live 
with the results, 
should have the 
primary say. 



very 

impor- * 
tant 
issue) 



B 



C ( 



D ( 



moder- 
ately 
impor- 
tant) 

unim- 
portant 
issue) 



I 



-57- 

EXERCISE C (continued) 

2) Granted that most people would like to see both 

environmental improvement and low taxes and economic 
development, how would you vote in a clear-cut choice 
between the economy and the environment in your town? 






The economic stability 
of a community is the 
most important consi- 
deration. After all 
if people don't have 
jobs and money to 
spend they won't 
care about their 
environment. 



Equal weight 
given to both 



Maintaining the 
community's 
environmental 
quality is most 
important . Poor 
environmental 
quality produces 
all sorts of 
hidden community 
costs which too 
often aren't 
considered . 



A (very 
impor- 
tant 
issue) 

B 



(moder- 
ately 
impor- 
tant) 



3) Should residents who knowingly choose to live in flood 
hazard areas be assessed some sort of tax to cover the 
community costs (emergency police, fire, rescue services, 
public utility repairs, warning and evacuation procedures) 
incurred as the result of a flood disaster? 



(unim- 
portant 
issue) 



No, these are 
costs rightly 
borne by the 
community as a 
whole. Besides, 
it would be 
impossible to 
establish an 
equitable tax. 



Possibly in situations 
where the flood hazard 
is well defined and 
the resident who has a 
choice between a non- 
hazard location chooses 
the hazardous location 
because of the personal 
benefits (aesthetics, 
convenience) derived 
from the hazardous 
location. 



Yes, these residents 
reap the benefits 
of such a location, 
so they should also 
bear the costs. 



-58- 

5:30 - 6:30 p.m. SOCIAL HOUR 

6:30 - 7:30 p.m. DINNER 

7:30 p.m. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GROUP ACTION 
Purpose : 

• To continue the working group identified 
the first evening and give that group 
opportunities to develop ideas for 
follow-up activities after the conference. 

Activity: 

• Small group sessions 
Review Questions 

1. What are the major flooding problems 
in your community? What are the most 
important first steps to be taken to 
resolve these problems? 

2. What role does your state play in 
encouraging community flood hazard 
management? How might the state role 
be enhanced? 

3. Given the flood hazard management 
opportunities which exist in your 
community, what are likely to be the 
most effective strategies available 
to realize these opportunities? 

4. Who are the key people in your community, 
region, state who should be involved in 
flood hazard management decision-making? 
Are they now involved? 

5. What kinds of public involvement mechanisms 
may be utilized to involve members of the 
various publics in your community in the 
development of a flood hazard management 
program? 



r 



5 



-59- 



6. What are the first steps to be taken 
when you return home to ensure that a 
public involvement program to develop 
a flood hazard management program 
actually materializes? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide, 
Chapters III and VI. 



NOTES 



> 



5 



-60- 



DAY THREE 

8:30 - 9:30 a.m. ISSUES IN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 

Purpose : 

• To allow participant to focus on the 
issues and tools that influence the 
development of a successful public 
involvement program. 

Activities : 



• Concurrent small group workshops on 
public participation issues and tools. 
These workshops might cover such topics 
as: 

— Goal setting 

— Coalition building 

— Bargaining and negotiation 

— Communication tools 

— Motivating the public 

Review Questions | 

A. Goal Setting 

1. Who in the community should be involved 

in the setting of goals for a flood hazard 
management program? How can or should 
broader community goals be reflected? 

2. How do you identify community goals? 
What techniques (questionnaires, local 
workshps, referendum) are most useful? 
How can you ensure that the goals you 
identify in fact reflect those of the 
entire community? 

3. What do you do in situations when some 
goals seem to be in direct conflict? 
What are some effective methods for 
achieving compromise? 

B. Coalition Building 

1. How can building a coalition help the 

passage and implementation of a community 

flood hazard management program? / 



-61-- 



2. What interests should comprise your coalition. 
How may these interests be identified? 

3. How does one identify the common interests 
which may bind a coalition? 

4. What kinds of organizational decision-making 
will help keep a coalition together? 

5. What resources, skills and outreach 
ability do the various interest groups 
which might comprise a coalition have 
which might be utilized in developing 

a comprehensive flood hazard management 
program? 

C. Bargaining and Negotiation 

1. When is formal bargaining or negotiation 
useful? 

2. How do you establish those points which 
are not negotiable? Those that are? 

3. How do you identify tradeoffs that various 
groups may be willing to make to come to 
agreement? 

4. How do you approach an opposing group on 
the subject of bargaining? 

5. When is it useful to have a third party 
assist in the bargaining process? 

6. What type of technical expertise might 

be required during a negotiation process? 

7. If a third party negotiator is used, 
what skills should he/she have? 

D. Communication Skills 

1. What are some of the most effective means 
to reach the general public? (news media, 
public television) What basic message 
should be relayed to different publics? 

2. How should materials be presented to the 
general lay audience? How can you trans- 
late complicated technical analysis into 
simple English? 



-62- 



3. How can you be sure your message is being 
received and clearly understood? What kinds 
of feedback mechanisms are appropriate? 

E. Motivating the Public 

1. How do you overcome initial public apathy 
or unawareness? What techniques could you 
use to "sell" your program to the public? 

2. What are some of the causes of public apathy? 
How do you overcome them? 

3. What are some examples of techniques which 
have worked in other communities? 

4. How do you keep the public involved and 
interested? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: Community Action Guide , 
Chapter VI. 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Appendices . 



NOTES: 



-63- 



9:30 - 10:00 a.m. BREAK AND SWITCH 



10:00 - 12:00 noon DESIGNING A FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

PROGRAM IN RIVERINE COMMUNITIES 

Purpose : 

• To examine in a realistic setting the 
factors tht affect the opportunities 
for flood hazard management in riverine 
communities. 

• To examine the basic regulatory frame- 
work likely to result from community 
participation in the NFIP, and other 
Federal and State programs. 

• To examine the range of strategies and 
tools that might be linked together to 
develop a comprehensive flood hazard 
management program according to the 
appropriate flood hazard management 
stage. 

• To identify the economic and social 
interests that may be affected by alter- 
native strategies. 

• To explore the range of public partici- 
pation techniques which would be useful 
when selecting and implementing a compre- 
hensive community flood hazard management 
program. 

• To establish the tradeoffs that must be 
made by a community in designing a flood 
hazard management program. 

Activities : 



• Participants will divide into six to eight 
groups, each of which will utilize a single 
hypothetical case example (included in the 
workbook) as a starting point for discussion, 

• Each case study contains information on 
the following factors that affect and/or 
constrain opportunities for flood hazard 
management. 



-64- 



-- physical characteristics; 

— population; 

— flooding problems; 

— economic and social considerations; 

— political context; 

-- additional institutional considerations; 

Community maps on present land ues and 
flood hazard areas are included. Par- 
ticipants will draw on the case study 
material and their own experiences to 
address range of questions. 



Review Questions ; 

1. Who are the interests with a stake 
in flood hazard management? 

2. What is the nature of their stake? 

3. What needs of various interests will have 
to be met in order to obtain their support 
in meeting flood hazard management goals? 

Local government /** 

Low income * 

Business 

Banker 

Real estate developer 

Salesman 

Industry/Land 

Water dependent/Water based industry 
Civic Leader 
Environmentalist 

4. What kinds of tradeoffs (economic/social/ 
environmental/political) might various 
interests be willing to make? 

5. What kinds of strategies can be adopted 
to reflect these tradeoffs and to respond 
to the flooding problems of this community? 
In the pre-flood period? In the post- 
flood period? 

6. What are the likely impacts of various 
strategies on various interest groups? 
On community as a whole? 



5 



-65- 



References : 



Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide, 
Chapters III, VII, and VIII. 



NOTES 



) 



5 



-67- 



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-73- 



Exercise D 



Use this chart to record the flood hazard management opportunities 
identified in the workshop discussion of the case example. 



Potential Opportunities for Flood Hazard Management 





Pre-Flood Situation 


Post-Flood Situation 


Within 100-Year 
Floodplain 






Structures 
(Existing 
and 
Future) 

Undeveloped 
Land 


Outside Floodplain 
but within 
community 






Outside Community 
but within 
watershed 







-74- 



Exercise E 



Use this chart to record the results of the workshop discussion 
relating to possible strategies identified in the case example. 
Refer to chart in selecting the most appropriate strategies. 



Flood stage where most 
applicable 



Post- 
Flood 



Affected 
Interests 



Trade-offs 



Pre- 
Flood 



Strategy (tool) 



During 
Flood 



-75- 



ROWLETT CREEK * 

I. Regional Context/Physical Characteristics of Watershed 

Rowlett" Creek rises west of the city of McKinney and flows 
southeast to Lake Ray Hubbard on the East Fork Trinity River. 
The general land surface slope of the watershed is moderate or 
rolling. Stream slopes are steep in the upper portion of the 
basin and channels are deep cut into limestone with large channel 
capacities. Channel size and slope decrease on the main stem of 
Rowlett Creek in the lower half of the basin and the floodplains 
are relatively wide. 

The drainage area of Rowlett Creek is approximately 136 
square miles and includes all or portions of 10 municipalities 
and two counties. Approximately 8,100 acres of 9% of the total 
land area in the watershed lies within the 100-year floodplain. 

The majority of the land area (70%) is presently used for 
crops and grazing. Although the area is still predominantly 
rural , it lies adjacent to one of the fastest growing metro- 
politan areas in the county. Urbanization in this watershed 
is proceeding rapidly and is expected to continue in the future. 
In particular, the cities of Richardson, Garland, and Piano 
have experienced phenomenal growth in residential , commercial 
and light industrial development in recent years. 

II. Piano 

Piano, with a 1977 population of 51,000 is one of the 
largest cities in the Rowlett Creek watershed. Its population 
has increased nearly 220% since 1970. This rapid population 
increase has resulted in a conversion of over 6,000 acres of 
prime agricultural land to residential, commerical and industrial 
purposes. Although a significant portion of the town is still 
devoted to agricultural purposes, increased urbanization is 
expected to significantly alter the community land-use patterns 
in the next 20 years (see attached land-use map for more 
details) . 

Because so much of the land area is devoted to grazing and 
crop production, forest land is extremely limited. The majority 
of trees are located in or directly adjacent to area creeks and 
drainage floodplains. These narrow strips of bottomland hardwoods 
constitute an area of great ecologic diversity providing an ideal 
habitat for a variety of plant and animal s^pecies. The majority 
of the community's limited wetlands are located within this bottom- 
land hardwood forest area. The edge zones between the bottonland 
hardwoods and cropland or grazing land are well defined and 
represent another ecologically diverse area in the community. 

The case study community resembles an actual community in some 
respects. Facts" have been changed, however, to make the case 
study more useful in the Institutes. The study community should 
accordingly be considered fictitious. 



-76- 

As the result of intense development pressures, many of 
these bottomland hardwood forests are currently being altered 
through clearing/grading practices which seriously threaten the 
ecologic value of these areas. 

III . Flooding Problems 

The surface in Piano is gently rolling to almost level. 
The town is transected by a number of narrow, well incised 
streams the largest being Rowlett Creek, Cottonwood Creek and 
Spring Creek. Rowlett and Cottonwood Creeks with their head- 
waters located approximately 10 miles north of Piano can be 
classified as having U-shaped stream valleys with relatively 
broad floodplains. Spring Creek, which originates within the 
confines of Piano, however, has a narrow floodplain more typi- 
cal of a V-shaped stream valley. 

Piano has experienced few major flooding problems in the 
past due primarily to the fact that the older portion of the 
city is located on the high ground between Rowlett and Spring 
Creeks. However, in recent years, significant new development 
has occurred in the vicinity of Spring Creek and Rowlett Creek, 
often encroaching on the floodplain. If this pattern continues, 
Piano could experience serious flooding problems in the future. 
In addition, the recent rapid watershed development in communi- 
ties upstream from Piano is expected to continue and could 
significantly increase the future flood hazard situation in 
Piano. To date, no major structural alterations have been 
made along any of the streams in the watershed, although 
several have been proposed. 

IV. Economic/Social Considerations 

Although Piano has experienced tremendous urbanization in 
recent years, a great deal of undeveloped land, primarily agri- 
culture land, still remains. While some of this undeveloped 
land lies within the 100-year floodplain, the majority lies 
outside the designated flood hazard area. 

The economic base in Piano, as in the rest of the water- 
shed, is agricultural although the town is rapidly being trans- 
formed into a bedroom community serving a nearby expanding 
metropolitan area. Commercial development has increased 
tremendously in response to the growth of residential develop- 
ment. Industrial development is limited in Piano but is 
expected to increase significantly if rapid growth in the 
area continues. 

Most of the recent development which has occurred within 
the flood hazard area consists of single-family residences, 
mobile homes, and commercial activities. It is estimated 
that under existing conditions, a 10-year flood event would 
produce nearly $400,000 in damages and a 100-year flood would 



-77- 

produce over $1.5 million in damages. Continued rapid growth 
within the Rowlett Creek watershed and particularly within Piano 
is expected to increase these damage estimates significantly, 
unless strict development controls are implemented. 

The existing sewage treatment facility located at the 
confluence of Rowlett and Cottonwood Creek, presently serves only 
the downtown area. However, city officials are considering 
extending sewer service to the area of Rowlett Creek due north of 
the treatment plant as this are contains a number of single- 
family residences with failing septic systems. 

V. Political Context 

Piano is only one of ten communities sharing the Rowlett 
Creek watershed. Situated as it is in the center of the water- 
shed, Piano's flooding situation is likely to be impacted by 
development in upstream communities. In addition, development 
activities within Piano may in fact contribute to flooding 
problems downstream. Although the merits of intergovernmental 
cooperation within the watershed are obvious, as yet there is 
no formal mechanism to achieve such cooperation. 

The city of Piano is governed by a mayor who strongly 
favors continued growth. Development controls are not popular 
among many community residents, particularly the business 
interests who have realized a significant profit from the 
recent boom. The community has adopted standard zoning 
and subdivision ordinances. These have been amended to 
incorporate the minimum requirements of the NFIP including 
delineation of floodway district and a floodplain district, 
requirements for elevating new structures within the floodplain 
to the 100-year flood levels and limitations on new develop- 
ment within the defined floodway. However, the ordinances 
are not well enforced. Since the bottomland hardwood forests 
are the most attractive areas for residential development, 
city officials have been reluctant to impose serious con- 
straints on building in these areas. The community has not yet 
experienced any significant flooding and, therefore, is 
unconvinced of the need for a comprehensive flood hazard 
mitigation program. 

VI. Additional Institutional Considerations 

The state has recently adopted a floodplain law which 
establishes a 0.5 foot rise floodway and essentialy prohibits 
new development within the floodway. Local governments are 
required to review proposed new development projects within 
the 100-year floodplain to ensure that they will not produce 
an increase in flood heights that exceeds 0.5 feet. 



-78- 



Th e area-wide 208 plans prepared for the two counties 
involved identify urban storm water runoff and agricultural 
runoff as the two major sources of water pollution in the 
region. The plans recommend that local governments implement 
non-structural measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of 
future development s . Suggested implementation measures 
include requirements for on-site stormwater retention 
facilities for all new developments, and local sediment 
control ordinances. 



s 



-79- 




LAKE RAY HUBBARD 



ROW LETT CREEK BASIN 
VICINITY MAP 



-81- 



© 



2) 



!) 




-82- 



3:30 - 4:30 p.m. CONCLUSION — COMMUNITY FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT: 

A CHALLENGE TO WORK TOGETHER 

Purpose : 

o To give participants an opportunity to 
exchange information on planned follow-up 
activities . 

o To help participants achieve a sense of 
what was accomplished by the program. 

o To relate planned follow-up activities 
back to goals identified early in the 
conference . 

Activity: 

o Series of short reports by small group 
leaders; 

o Newsprint listing accomplishments of 
small groups posted around room; 

o Discussion of goals and accomplishments 
led by group facilitator. 



NOTES: 



-83- 

12:30 - 1:30 p.m. LUNCH 

2:30 - 3:00 p.m. FINAL SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION 
NOTES: 



* 



-85- 



GLOSSARY 



ACTUARIAL RATES [1] - Insurance rates determined on the 
basis of a statistical calculation of the probability 
that a certain event will occur. Actuarial rates are also 
called "risk premium rates." They are established by FIA 
pursuant to individual community flood insurance studies 
and investigations that are undertaken to provide flood 
insurance in accordance with the National Flood Insurance 
Act and with accepted actuarial principles, including 
provisions for operating costs and allowances. 



AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD [1] - The land in the floodplain 
within a community subject to a 1 percent or greater chance 
of flooding in any given year. 



BARRIER ISLANDS [5] - Elongate seafront islands of sand 
formed by wave action. 



BASE FLOOD (REGULATORY FLOOD) - The selected flood frequency 
for regulatory purposes. The NFIP has adopted the 100-year 
flood as the base flood to indicate the minimum level of 
flooding to be used by a community in its floodplain 
management regulations. 



BERM - The horizontal portion of the backshore beach formed 
by sediments deposited by waves. 



BOG [6] - A wetland usually developing in a depression or 
lake with poor drainage. 



BOTTOMLAND HARDWOODS - Tree species that occur on water- 
saturated or regularly inundated soils. Classified as 
wetlands, these areas content both trees and woody shrubs 



BULKHEAD [5] - A vertical wall of wood, steel, or concrete, 
built parallel to the shoreline and designed to deflect 
waves and control erosion. 



CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER (CEO) [1] - The official of the 
community who is charged with the authority to implement 
and administer laws, ordinances, and regulations for that 
community. 



-86- 



COASTAL HIGH HAZARD AREA (CHHA) [1] - "Coastal high hazard 
area" means the area subject to high velocity waters, 
including, but not limited to, hurricane wave wash or 
tsunamis. The area is designated on a FIRM as Zone Vl-30. 



COMMUNITY [1] - Any State or area or political subdivision 
thereof, or any Indian tribe or authorized tribal organiza- 
tion, which has authority to adopt and enforce floodplain 
management regulations for the areas within its juris- 
diction. 



EMERGENCY PROGRAM [1] - The program as implemented on an 
emergency basis in accordance with NFIP. It is an interim 
program to provide a first layer of subsidized insurance 
before the detailed risk studies from which actuarial 
rates are computed have been completed. 



ENCROACHMENT [4] - Any fill, structure, building, use, 
accessory use, or development in the floodway. 



ENCROACHMENT/FLOODWAY LINES [4] - The limits of obstruction 
to flood flows. These lines are on both sides of and 
generally parallel to the river or stream. The lines are 
established by assuming that the area landward (outside) 
of the lines will ultimately be developed in such a way 
that it will not be available to convey flood flows. 



EROSION [1] - The process of the gradual wearing away of 
land masses. 



ESTUARY [5] - A confined coastal water body with an open 
connection to the sea and a measurable quantity of salt 
in its waters. 



FIRST LAYER COVERAGE [1] - The maximum amount of structural 
and contents insurance coverage available under the NFIP 
Emergency Program. 

FLOOD [1] /FLOODING [1] - A general and temporary condition of 
partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas 
from the overflow of inland and/or tidal waters, and/or 
unusual and rapid accumulation of runoff of surface waters 
from any source. 



-87- 



FLOOD CONTROL WORKS - See FLOOD PROTECTION SYSTEMS. 



FLOOD DISCHARGE [3] - The total quantity of water flowing 
in a stream and adjoining overflow areas during times of 
flood. It is measured by the amount of water passing a 
point along a stream within a specified period of time 
and is usually measured in cubic feet of water per 
second (cf s) . 



FLOOD FREQUENCY [3] - The frequency with which a flood of 
a given discharge has the probability of recurring. For 
example, a 100-year frequency flood refers to a flood 
discharge of a magnitude likely to occur on the average 
of once every 100 years or, more properly, has a 1 per- 
cent chance of being exceeded in any year. Although 
calculation of possible recurrence is often based upon 
historical records, there is no guarantee that a 100-year 
flood will occur at all within the 100-year period or 
that it will not recur several times. 



FLOOD HAZARD [2] - The potential for inundation and involves 
the risk of life., health, property, and natural flood- 
plain values. 



FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP (FHBM) [1] - An official map of a 
community, issued through the NFIP, where the boundaries 
of the flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and related erosion 
areas having special hazards have been designated as 
Zone A, M, and/or E. 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT - Encompasses all local, State, and 
Federal activities taken before, during, and after a flood 
to reduce flood losses or in response to a flood disaster. 



FLOOD INSURANCE [1] - The insurance coverage provided under 
the National Flood Insurance Program. 



FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY (FIS) (FLOOD ELEVATION STUDY) [1] - An 
examination, evaluation, and determination of flood hazards 
and, if appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations, 
or an examination, evaluation, and determination of mudslide 
(i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion hazards. 



-88- 



FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM) [1] - An official map of a 
community on which the FEMA has delineated both the special 
hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the 
community. 



FLOOD PROTECTION SYSTEMS (STRUCTURAL CONTROLS) [1] - Those 
physical structural works for which funds have been 
authorized, appropriated, and expended and which have 
been constructed specifically to modify flooding to 
reduce the extent of the area within a community subject 
to a "special flood hazard" and the extent of the depths 
of associated flooding. Such a system typically includes 
hurricane tidal barriers, dams, reservoirs, levees, or 
dikes. These specialized flood modifying works are 
those constructed in conformance with sound engineering 
standards. 



FLOOD-RELATED EROSION [1] - The collapse or subsidence 
of land along the shore of a lake or other body of 
water as a result of undermining caused by waves or 
currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels 
or suddenly caused by an unusually high water level in 
a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe 
storm, or by an unanticipated force of nature, such 
as a flash flood or an abnormal tidal surge, or by some 
similarly unusual and unforeseeable event which results 
in flooding. 



FLOODPLAIN/FLOOD-PRONE AREA - Any land area susceptible 
to being inundated by water from any source (see the 
definition of "flooding"). 



FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT [1] - The operation of an overall 

program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing 
flood damage, including but not limited to emergency 
preparedness plans, flood control works, and floodplain 
management regulations. 



FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS [1] - Zoning ordinances, 
subdivision regulations, building codes, health regula- 
tions, special purpose ordinances (covering, for example, 
floodplains, grading, and erosion control) and other appli- 
cations of police power. The term describes such State or 
local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide 
standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and 
reduction. 



-89- 



FLOODPLAIN PRESERVATION [2] - The prevention of modification 
of the natural floodplain environment or maintenance of the 
floodplain environment in a condition as close as possible 
to its natural state using all practicable means. 



FLOODPLAIN RESTORATION [2] - The re-establishment of a setting 
or environment in which the natural functions of the 
floodplain can again operate. 



FLOODPLAIN VALUES [2] - Those natural and beneficial attri- 
butes associated with the relatively undisturbed state of 
the floodplain, including values primarily associated with 
water, living, and cultural resources. 



FLOOD PROOFING [1] - Any combination of structural and 

nonstructural additions, changes, or adjustments to struc- 
tures that reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate 
or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, 
structures and their contents. 



FLOODWAY - That portion of the floodplain consisting of the 
stream channel and overbank areas needed to carry and 
discharge flood flows. The floodway is intended to carry 
the deep and fast moving water. 

FREEBOARD - A factor of safety usually expressed in feet 
above a flood level for purposes of floodplain management. 
"Freeboard" tends to compensate for the many unknown factors 
that could contribute to flood heights greater than the height 
calculated for a selected size flood and floodway conditions, 
such as wave action, bridge openings, and the hydrological 
effect of urbanization of the watershed. 



GROIN - A dam for sand. A groin is a structure built at 
right angles to a beach to interrupt longshore sand 
movement and trap sand in order to stabilize or widen 
the beach. 



100-YEAR FLOODPLAIN - The land area adjoining a river, stream, 
lake, or ocean which is inundated by the 100-year flood. The 
100-year flood is the regulatory (base) flood under the NFIP. 



-90- 



HYDRAULICS - The science dealing with the mechanical properties 
of liquids which describes the specific pattern and rate of 
water movement in the environment. 



HYDROLOGY - The science of the earth's waters which describes 
the occurrence, circulation, distribution, chemical, and 
physical properties of water and its reaction with the 
environment. 



LITTORAL [5] - Of or pertaining to the shore, especially of 
the sea; coastal. 



LITTORAL DRIFT [5] - The movement of sand by littoral (long- 
shore) currents in a direction parallel to the beach 
along the shore. 



MARSH [6] - A wetland dominated by herbaceous or nonwoody 
plants, often developing in shallow ponds or depressions, 
river margins, tidal areas, and estuaries. 



MANGROVE SWAMP (STAND) [5] - An assemblage of subtropical 
trees of the genus Rhezaphora forming dense thickets which 
extend into coastal waters. 



NONSTRUCTURAL [2] - Any action taken to reduce or prevent 
flood losses in a floodplain other than the construction 
of storage dams, retention dams, diversions, channel 
improvements, and levees. All those adjustments in 
floodplain occupancy not specifically intended to modify 
flood behavior. Such adjustments include such devices 
as public acquisition of land, relocation of facilities, 
flood proofing, warning systems, and land use regulation. 



PRACTICABLE [2] - Capable of being done within existing con- 
straints. The test of what is pracicable depends upon the 
situation and includes consideration of the pertinent 
factors, such as environment, cost, or technology. 



PRESERVE [2] - To prevent modification to the natural 
floodplain environment or to maintain it as closely as 
possible to its natural state. 



-91- 



REGULAR PROGRAM - The program authorized by the NFIP under 
which risk premium rates are required for the fTrs\ pfrt of 
available coverage (also known as "first layer" coveraae) 
for all new construction and substantial improvements 9 

premium rates, whichever are lower B Ma HiL; „< /» ? 
construction, risk premium rates are atway™ u !ref fVthe 
second layer coverage and such coverage is offlred onlv 

communlt^ "" C ° mPleted the P1 °° d ^»«- "^ ^the 



S Y ,?° DPLAIK [3] " The area ^joining a river, 
flood ' rn ^° r ° Cean WhiGh iS inu "dated by a regulatory 
of » « ? 5 lve rine areas, the floodplain usually consists 

referrec to a^a f!o"r Y a " d "^^y flood frLge £"! 
flo f o e dp r rfin t0 ma a y condor fJKft r'gU^al freas 'he 

LTha^^r^^L-af^^ ^^^ a " a and * regulftory 1 " 

REGULATORY FLOODWAY r31 - A nnrH^n ~* tu 

flood would occupy consist^'oraltrelm^nnerand ' 6 ' 

se V !e r cte n d k ?f£S S? a 1C h Ul ' ted ?°! be "P-bWf^veyiS^the 
ini™»« d ? discharge without flood heights or velocities 

nol^ac^-h^?- ££-. oSKife'S^tS^ 

"floodway" is sometimes understood by engineers) Rather 
o o of sufficient widt^anf h" 1 *""™ £"«> calculated 
veyance cKSS.\? p 1 Vk ^Voo" ^a^rVf °o°m C ° n " 

substantially increasing verities ov ef what they would 
have been without assumed confinement. In this Calculation 



-92- 



( REGULATORY) FLOOD FRINGE (also called the floodway fringe) - 
The portion of the regulatory floodplain beyond the limits 
of the regulatory floodway. It is subject to less frequent 
and lower velocity flooding and does not play a major role 
in passing flood flows. 

RESTORE [2] - To re-establish a setting or environment in which 
the natural functions of the floodplain can again operate. 

REVETMENT [5] - Armors the slope face of a dune or bluff 
with one or more layers of rock (riprap) or concrete. 

RIFFLES - Stream channel bottoms are not uniform. They 
change in repeating patterns between shallow parts called 
riffles and deeper pools. 



RIPRAP - Rock walls. 



RISK PREMIUM RATES - See ACTUARIAL RATES. 



SEAWALL [5] - A solid barricade built at the water's edge 
to protect the shore and to prevent inland flooding. 



SECOND LAYER COVERAGE - An additional amount of insurance 
coverage made available when a community officially enters 
the Regular Program of the NFIP. 



SEDIMENT LOAD - The amount of suspended sediment carried by 
the stream. The stream's sediment load varies with water 
velocity and sediment size. 



SNAGGING - Removal of submerged or partially submerged tree 
stumps or branches. 



STILL WATER STORM HEIGHT - The projected height or elevation 
of flood waters generated by coastal storms of various 
magnitudes calculated under ideal still water conditions 
where no wind generated waves or storm surges are present. 



-93- 



STATE COORDINATING AGENCY [1] - The agency of a State govern- 
ment or other office designated by a State governor or by 
State statute at the request of the NFIP Administrator to 
assist in the implementation of the National Flood Insurance 
Program in that State. 

STRUCTURE [1] - For floodplain management purposes; a structure 
is a walled and roofed building, including mobile homes, and 
a gas or liquid storage tank that is principally above ground. 
"Structure" for insurance coverage purposes means a walled and 
roofed building, other than a gas or liquid storage tank, that 
is principally above ground and affixed to a permanent site, 
including mobile homes on foundations. For the latter purpose, 
the term includes buildings under construction, alteration, or 
repair, but does not include building materials or supplies 
intended for use in such construction, alteration, or repair, 
unless such materials or supplies are within an enclosed 
building on the premises. 



STRUCTURAL - See FLOOD CONTROL WORKS 



SUBSIDIZED RATES [1] - The rates established by the NFIP 
Administrator involving in the aggregate a subsidization 
by the Federal Government. 



SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT [1] - Any repair, reconstruction, 
or improvement of a structure, the cost of which equals 
or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure 
either, (a) before the improvement or repair is started, 
or (b) if the structure has been damaged, and is being 
restored, before the damage occurred. For the purposes 
of this definition, "substantial improvement" is considered 
to occur when the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, 
floor, or other structural part of the building commences, 
whether or not that alteration affects the external dimen- 
sions of the structure. The term does not, however, include 
either (1) any project for improving a structure to comply 
with existing State or local health, sanitary, or safety 
code specifications that are solely necessary to assure 
safe living conditions or (2) any alteration of a structure 
listed on the National Register of Historic Places or 
a State Inventory of Historic Places. 

SWALE [5] - A low-lying area frequently moist or marshy; 
an intermittent drainageway; a slough. 



-94- 



SWAMPS [6] - A wetland dominated by woody plants, shrubs, and 
trees such as maples, gums, and Cyprus. 

TSUNAMI [5] - A great sea wave produced by submarine earth 
movement or volcanic eruption. 

VARIANCE [1] - A grant of relief by a community from the terms 
of a floodplain management regulation. 

WATER SURFACE ELEVATION [1] - The projected heights in relation 
to Mean Sea Level reached by floods of various magnitudes 
and frequencies in the floodplains of coastal or riverine 
areas. 

WATERSHED [4] - A region or area contributing untimately to 
the water supply of a particular watercourse or water body. 

WETLANDS [2] - Those areas that an inundated by surface or 
ground water with a frequency sufficient to support and, 
under normal circumstances, does or would support a preva- 
lence of vegetative or aquatic life that requires saturated 
or seasonally saturated soil conditions for growth and repro- 
duction. Wetlands generally include bottomland hardwoods, 
swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas such as sloughs, 
potholes, wet meadows, river overflows, mud flats, and 
natural ponds. 



C 



* 



-95- 



COMMON ABBREVIATIONS 

DR&R - Office of Disaster Response and Recovery of FEMA 

FEMA - Federal Emergency Management Agency 

FHBM - Flood Hazard Boundary Map 

FIA - Federal Insurance Administration of FEMA 

FIS - Flood Insurance Study 

FIRM - Flood Insurance Rate Map 

NFIP - National Flood Insurance Program 

REFERENCES 



As defined in the regulations for the National Flood 
Insurance Program, 41 FR 46962, 1976. 

A defined in the U.S. Water Resources Council guidelines 
for implementing Executive Order No. 11988, 43 FR 6030 
(1978). 

From J. Kusler and T. Lee, "Regulations for Flood Plains," 
American Society of Planning Officials, Planning Advisory 
Service Report No. 277 (1972). 

From Wisconsin Administrative Code, Chapter NR 16 
(July 1977) . 

From John Clark, Coastal Ecosystems Management : 

A Technical Manual for the Conservation of Coastal 

Zone Resources (New York: John Wiley and Sons Interscience, 

1977). 

As defined in Elinor Lander Horwitz, Our Nation's Wetlands 
(Washington, D.C. : Government Printing Office, 1978). 



! 



( 



APPENDIX H 



MODEL STUDENT MANUAL: COASTAL 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

AND 

NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION 

MODEL COASTAL STUDENT MANUAL* 



Prepared by 

The Conservation Foundation 

Washington, D.C. 

For 
The Federal Emergency Management Agency 



This manual is based on the model training program developed 
by The Conservation Foundation. It should not be reproduced 
as is — but should be revised for each Institute to reflect any 
changes made to CF's model program. 



BACKGROUND 



This training program on Flood Hazard Management and Natural 
Resource Protection was developed by The Conservation Foundation 
for The Federal Emergency Management Agency. The program has been 
designed for local officials and citizen leaders as a means to 
increase their knowledge of: 

• the basic requirements of the National Flood 
Insurance Program; 

• the ways in which ecological and hazard 
mitigation requirements come together in 
establishing principles for physical management 
of the flood-prone areas; 

• economic and social coincidences of interest 
and conflicts with flood management goals; and 

• the various other federal, state, and local 
programs that come together on the floodplain 
and that could potentially lead toward more 
effective implementation of a community flood 
management program and natural resource protection 
program. 

In addition, the program is intended to focus the attention 
of community leaders on means to disseminate the information 
provided in the training program throughout their community. 

Those of you who are participating in the training institute 
for which this workbook has been prepared come from communities 
who face flood problems. You have been invited to participate 
in this program because you hold a leadership position in your 
community and are in a position to influence community flood 
hazard mitigation decisions. 

It is our hope that this institute will provide you with 
an increased awareness of flood hazards, alternative management 
approaches, and methods for increasing public involvement in 
these key community resource decisions. 



-2- 



INSTITUTE SPONSORS 



FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY 

FEMA is a new federal agency (created in March 31, 1979) 
responsible for the coordination of federal hazard mitigation 
efforts. The agency's specific responsibilities include over- 
seeing key emergency programs in dam safety, emergency warning 
systems and severe weather warnings, as well as disaster relief 
and community flood hazard mitigation through the National Flood 
Insurance Program. The central office, Training and Education 
Division of FEMA has provided the funding for this institute 
as part of a program of increased technical assistance to 
communities. 



THE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION 

Through research, citizen training and communication with 
opinion leaders in the United States and abroad, The Conservation 
Foundation encourages wise management of the earth's resources — 
its land, water, energy, air. A nonprofit organization, The 
Conservation Foundation designed and directed the training 
program of which this Institute is a part. 



REGIONAL COORDINATOR 



k ) 



-3- 



HOW TO USE THE INSTITUTE WORKBOOK 



This Workbook is designed to be the principal companion of 
each participant attending the Community Flood Hazard Mitigation 
Training Institute. It contains the detailed information needed 
to conduct each part of the Institute program. The Program in 
brief also acts as a table of contents for the remainder of 
the book. The remainder of the workbook is organized by program 
element, and each program element is followed by whatever 
discussion questions, exercises and case example material may 
be necessary to work through that part of the training program. 

Other materials prepared for your use by The Conservation 
Foundation include: "Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: Community Action Guide" and "Community Action Guide 
Summary. " The Training Manual contains seven separate chapters 
that outline in some detail the essential components of a com- 
munity flood hazard mitigation and resource protection program 
highlighting the legal, environmental, social, and political 
factors that affect these decisions. The manual discusses fur- 
ther federal flood hazard mitigation initiatives. Particular 
attention is given to the NFIP and community responsibilities 
under that program. 

The chapters in the Training Manual are organized to both 
be read as a book and to address single essential questions 
that could arise during a community's flood hazard mitigation 
planning process. If you examine the table of contents for 
each chapter, you may find areas you would like to read while 
at the training institute. The manual is designed for yor use 
when you return home, however. We hope that it will assist you 
in understanding the nature of the complex decisions that must 
be made to achieve flood hazard mitigation and allow you to raise 
the questions necessary to affect your community's choice of 
mitigation approaches. 

The Community Action Guide Summary was mailed to you before 
the insititute and is designed for your use before and during the 
Institute and in conducting public involvement activities when 
you return home. It summarizes the larger guidebook, outlines 
the goals of effective public participation, and appropriate 
public participation mechanisms- We hope you will take the 
opportunity to read through this booklet while at the Institute, 
as it should be particularly helpful to you in outlining follow-up 
act ivities . 



-5- 



PROGRAM IN BRIEF 



DAY ONE 



Page 



11:00 - 1:00 



REGISTRATION 

Briefing for Discussion Leaders 

Location: 



1:00 - 1:30 



1:30 - 2:15 



WELCOME AND INTRODUCTION 

Speakers : 

Location : 

INTRODUCTION OF PARTICIPANTS 

Discussion Leaders: 

Location: 



2:30 - 4:00 



FLOODING AND FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 
ON COASTAL AREAS: AN OVERVIEW 

Panel Members: 



Location: 



4:00 - 4:45 



ESTABLISHING THE GOALS OF COMMUNITY 
FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

Discussion Leader: 
Location: 



5:00 - 6:00 



SOCIAL HOUR 
Location : 



6:00 - 7:30 



DINNER 
Location : 



-6- 



DAY ONE (continued) 



7:30 - 9:30 THE NATURE OF FLOODING IN COASTAL 

COMMUNITIES AND THE SPECIAL ROLE 
OF COASTAL ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES 
IN FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION 

Discussion Leaders: 



DAY TWO 



8:30 - 8:45 



Page (\ 



Locations : 



Location : 



8:45 - 9:30 DESIGNING A FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

PROGRAM: IDENTIFYING GOALS OPPORTUNITIES 
AND STRATEGIES 

Location: 



9:30 - 10:45 THE FEDERAL AND STATE FRAMEWORK FOR 

COMMUNITY FLOOD HAZARD DECISION-MAKING 

Speaker : 

Panel Members: 

Location : 

11:00 - 12:15 THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM: 

WHAT IT DOES AND DOESN'T DO 

Speaker : 

Panel Members 

Location: 



< 



12:15 - 1:30 LUNCH 



DAY TWO (continued) 
1:30 - 2:30 



2:45 - 3:45 



-7- 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND 
PROGRAMS 



Page 



Discussion Leaders: 



Location: 



LOCAL STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD HAZARD 
MITIGATION: CASE EXAMPLES 

Discussion Leaders: 



Locations : 



4:00 - 5:00 



THE ROLE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN 
COMMNITY FLOOD HAZARD DECISION-MAKING 

Speaker : 

Location : 



6:30 - 7:30 



DINNER 
Location : 



7:30 - 9:00 



RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GROUP ACTION 
Discussion Leaders: 
Locations : 



DAY THREE 



8:30 - 9:30 



ISSUES IN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 
Discussion Leaders: 
Location : 



10:00 - 12:00 



DESIGNING A FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 
PROGRAM IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES 

Discussion Leaders: 

Locations : 



-8- 
DAY THREE (continued) Page 

12:00 - 1:30 LUNCH 

Location : 



1:30 - 3:00 FINAL SMALL GROUP DISCUSSIONS 

Discussion Leaders: 
Location : 

3:30 - 4:30 CONCLUSION 

Speaker : 
Location: 



m 



-9- 



MODEL COASTAL STUDENT MANUAL 

WORKSHOP ON FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL 
RESOURCE PROTECTION: THE COASTAL SETTING 



DAY ONE 

11:00 - 1:00 p.m. REGISTRATION 

1:00 p.m. WELCOME 
Purpose : 



• To establish the major objectives of 
the Conference. 

• To introduce key staff and resource 
people. 

• To orient group to sequence of workshop 
session, time schedules, facilities, 
and administrative announcements. 

Activity: 

9 Plenary session speaker. 



NOTES: 



* 



-10- 



1:30 - 2:15 INTRODUCTION OF PARTICIPANTS 

Purpose : 

• To introduce community participants 
and their communities to one another 

• To establish the function of the 
working group at the conference. 



Activity : 

• Small group discussion sessions 
within the plenary room. 



NOTES: 



-11- 



2:30 - 4:00 p.m. FLOODING AND FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT IN 

COASTAL AREAS: AN OVERVIEW 

Purpose : 

• Create participant understanding of 
inherent complexities of coastal flood 
hazard management. 

• To give an historical perspective to 
coastal flood hazard management. 

• To address changing directins in coastal 
flood hazard management in response to 

the perceived weaknesses of the traditional 
approach . 

Activities : 

• Film 

• Reaction Panel Discussion 

• Audience Questions and Answers 
Review Questions 

1. What are the special problems of protecting 
the coastal floodplain? (Dynamic nature of 
coastal floodplain, fragility of coastal 
ecosystem. ) 

2. What is the relationship of watershed and 
drainage management to coastal flooding 
problems? 

3. What kinds of difficulties are incurred 
in predicting the landfall and wind force 
of hurricanes? 

4. In what manner do the special attractions 
of the beach contribute to social and 
economic difficulties in the management 
of coastal flood hazards? 



-12- 



5. What are the weaknesses of traditional ^m 
approaches to coastal flood hazard 

management? 

6. What are the changing directions in our 
current approach to coastal flood hazard 
management? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapters I and II. 



NOTES: 



• 



i - 



-13- 



'4 4:00-4:45 p.m. ESTABLISHING THE GOALS OF COMMUNITY FLOOD 

HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

Purpose : 

• To assist participants in establishing 
the target goals for which they will 
develop strategies. 

• To introduce participants to each other 
by helping them appreciate the different 
perspectives with which they approach 
flood hazard management. 

Activities : 



»') 



NOTES: 



' 



• Exercise on Goals (Exercise A attached) 

• Group Discussion 
Review Questions 

1. What are the most important goals to 
consider in developing a community 
flood hazard management program? 

2. How do various interest groups differ 
in their assessment of goals? 

3. How can or should other community 
goals be integrated with flood hazard 
management goals? 

References : 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: Community Action Guide , 
Chapter III. 



-14- 



Exercise A 
Goals for Community Flood Hazard Management 

Of the goals listed below, which do you feel 
are the four most important to accomplish in 
developing a community flood hazard management 
program? 

Rank/Goals 

1 Minimize fiscal impact of floods. 

2 Reduce erosion and sedimentations. 

3 Reduce property loss. 

4 Preserve natural areas. 

5 Protect safety of population. 

6 Reduce flood damage to public property. 

7 Distribute management costs fairly. 

8 Preserve open space and recreation. 

9 Maintain good water quality. 

10 Encourage economic development. 



Which of the following categories of 
interest groups do you most closely 
identify with? 

1 Local officials. 

2 State officials. 

3 Floodplain resident. 

4 Local businessman (economic interests). 

5 Environmentalists. 

6 Civic group member (Red Cross, church group) 



-J.D- 



4:30 p.m. BREAK 

5:00 p.m. SOCIAL HOUR 

6:00 p.m. DINNER 



7:30 - 9:00 p.m. THE NATURE OF FLOODING IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES 

AND THE SPECIAL ROLE OF COASTAL ECOLOGICAL 
RESOURCES IN FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION 

Purpose : 

• To assist participants in identifying 
and understanding the causes of flooding 
and the nature of flood hazards in their 
community. 

• To help participants understand the 
functioning of important coastal eco- 
systems for hazard mitigation purposes. 

• To familiarize participants with various 
uses of natural resource data and maps 

as community planning and decision-making 
tools. 

Activities : 



• Six to eight concurrent small group 
sessions which discuss the special 
ecological characteristics of: 

a) Beaches and oceans 

b) Estuaries and bay areas 

c) Tidal rivers 

• Land Use Suitability Analysis — Mapping 
Exercise 

Review Questions 

1. What are the key coastal ecological 
resource types? 

2. Where do they commonly occur? (In what 
associations? ) 



-16- 



3. How sensitive are these resources to 
the activities of man? 

4. What role do each of these resources 
play in flood hazard mitigation? 

5. How can these resources be protected? 

What management policies should be applied? 

6. What is a suitable community base map? 
(scale and availability) 

7. What environmental factors or values 
are of particular importance to the 
community? (i.e., septic tank siting, 
hazard mitigation, etc. ) What is the 
purpose or goal for the mapping project? 

8. What technique, medium or materials are 
most appropriate to use in representing 
this information? How much will it cost? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapter II. 



NOTES: 



-17- 



**' 



IDENTIFYING NATURAL RESOURCE AND FLOOD HAZARD DATA 
SOURCES FOR DECISION-MAKING 



WORKSHOP MATERIALS 



» 



v* 



-19- 



BASE MAPS 



MAP SCALE 



« 



There are three categories of base maps: 
planimetric, topographic, and ortho- 
photo. 

A planimetric map shows roads, structures, 
political boundaries, and waterways, etc. 
in two dimensions. It illustrates hori- 
zontal positioning, not the height of 
hills or valleys. 

A photogrammetric planimetric map is a 
planimetric map which has been prepared 
from aerial photographs and has been 
corrected so that horizontal measure- 
ments taken from the map accurately 
reflect the distance on the ground 
within a certain tolerance. 

A topographic map shows the type of 
information illustrated on a planimetric 
map plus it has contour lines to show 
hills and valleys of the land, drainage 
patterns and the steepness of slopes. 

A photogrammetric topographic map is a 
topographic map which has been prepared 
from aerial photographs and has been 
corrected so that both horizontal and 
vertical measurements taken from the 
map accurately reflect the distances 
and elevations on the ground within a 
certain tolerance. 

An orthophoto map is a map composed of 
a corrected aerial photograph on which 
features such as road names, place 
names, property boundaries, and political 
boundaries have been added. All the 
features which appear on an aerial 
photograph also appear on an ortho- 
photo map. 



Map scale defines the relation- 
ship between the measurements of 
the features as shown on the map 
and as they exist on the Earth's 
surface. Scale is generally 
stated as a ratio or fraction — 




1:24,000 scale, 
1 inch = 2,000 

feet. 
Area shown, 
1 square mile 



1:62,500 scale, 
1 inch = about 

1 mile. 
Area shown, 
6% square miles 



1:250,000 scale, 
1 inch = about 

4 miles. 
Area shown, 
107 square miles 



1. Barbara Maire et. al, Wetlands and 
Floodplains on Paper (Lincoln, Mass 
Massachusetts Audubon Society, 
undated) 



2. U.S.G.S., Topographic Maps 
(Washington, D.C.: Government 
Printing Office, 1972) 



-20- 



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21 

FLOODPLAIN DELINEATION ON AN ORTHOPHOTO MAP 



I 




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•> 



-2 3- 
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP SYMBOLS 

VARIATIONS WILL BE FOUND ON OLDER MAPS 



tihway, hard surface 
Secondary highway, hard surface 
Light-duty road, hard or improved surface 
Unimproved road 

Road under construction, alinement known 
Proposed road 

Dual highway, dividing strip 25 feet or less. 
Dual highway, dividing strip exceeding 25 feet 
Trail 



Railroad single track and multiple track 

Railroads in juxtaposition 

Narrow gage, single track and multipi> 

Railroad in street and carhne 

Bridge, road and railroad 

Drawbridge, road and railroad 

Footbridge 

Tunnel: road and railroad 

rpass and underpass 
Small masonry or concrete dam 
Dam with lock 
Dam with road 
Canal with lock 



Buildings (dwelling, place of employment, etc.) 

School, church, and cemetery 

Buildings (barn, warehouse, etc.) 

Power transmission line with located metal tower 

Telephone line, pipeline, etc, (labeled as to type) 

Wells other than water (labeled as to type) 

Tanks: oil, water, etc. (labeled only if water) 

Located or landmark object, windmill 

Open pit. mine, or quarry, prospect 

Shaft and tunnel entrance 



O , .1 



Horizontal and vertical control station: 

Tablet, spirit level elevation 

Other recoverable mark, spirit level elevation 455 

Horizontal control station: tablet, vertical angle elevation vABr/A9s/s 

Any recoverable mark, vertical angle or checked elevation 
Vertical control station, tablet, spirit level elevation BMX957 

Other recoverable mark, spirit level elevation X954 

Spot elevation x 7369 

Water elevation 670 



Boundaries: National 

State 

County, parish, municipio 

Civil township, precinct, town, barrio 

Incorporated city, village, town, hamlet 

Reservation. National or State 

Small park, cemetery, airport, etc. 

Land grant 
Township or range line, United States land survey 
Township or range line, approximate location 
Section line. United States land survey 
Section line, approximate iocation 
Township line, not United States land survey 
Section line, not United States land survey 
Found corner, section and closing 
Boundary monument: land grant and other 
Fence or field line 



Index contour 

Supplementary contour 

Fill 

Levee 

Mine dump 

Tailings 

Shifting sand ordunesL 

Sand area 



Intermediate contour 

Depression contours 

Cut 

Levee with road 

Wash 

Tailings pond 
Intricate surface . 
Gravel beach 


















Perennial streams 
Elevated aqueduct 
Water well and spring 
Small rapids 
Large rapids 
Intermittent lake 
Foreshore flat 
Sounding, depth curve 
Exposed wreck . 



Intermittent streams 
Aqueduct tunnel . 
Glacier 
Small falls 
Large falls 
Dry lake bed 
Rock or coral reef 
Piling or dolphin 
Sunken wreck 



Rock, bare or awash: dangerous to navigation 



Marsh (swamp) 
Wooded marsh 
Woods or brushwood 

Vineyard 

Land subject to 
controlled inundation 



Submerged marsh 

Mangrove . 

Orchard 

Scrub 

Urban area 



I I 



-24- 



MILE SCALE 1:62 500 



UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



TOPOGRAPHIC 

MAP INFORMATION AND SYMBOLS 

MARCH 1978 



QUADRANGLE MAPS AND SERIES 

Quadrangle maps cover four-sided areas bounded by parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Quadrangle size is given in 

minutes or degrees. 
Map series are groups of maps that conform to established specifications for size, scale, content, and other elements. 
Map scale is the relationship between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground 
Map scale is expressed as a numerical ratio and shown graphically by bar scales marked in feet, miles, and kilometers. 

NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS 



Series 


Scale 


1 inch represents 


1 centimeter 
represents 


Standard 

quadrangle size 

(latitude-longitude) 


Quadrangle 

area 

(square miles) 




1:24,000 

1:25,000 

1:20,000 

1:62,500 

1:63,360 

1:100,000 

1 :250,000 

1:1,000,000 

1:250,000 

1:500,000 


2,000 feet 
about 2,083 feet 
about 1 ,667 feet 
nearly 1 mile 
1 mile 

nearly 1.6 miles 
nearly 4 miles 
nearly 16 miles 
nearly 4 miles 
nearly 8 miles 


240 meters 
250 meters 
200 meters 
625 meters 
nearly 634 meters 
1 kilometer 
2.5 kilometers 
10 kilometers 
2.5 kilometers 
5 kilometers 


7Vi x Vh mm. 
7V4X 15 mm. 
7V4X714 mm. 
15* 15 min. 
15X20 to 36 min. 
30x 60 min. 
l°X2°or 3° 
4°X6° 

1°X3° to 15° 
2°x 7Vi° 


49 to 70 

98 to 140 

71 

197 to 282 

207 to 281 

1568 to 2240 

4,580 to 8,669 

73,734 to 102,759 

4,089 to 8.336 

28,174 to 30,462 




Puerto Rico 7'A-minute 


Alaska 1:63.360 




U. S 1:250,000 


U. S. 1:1,000,000 . . 


Antarctica 1:250,000 . 


Antarctica 1:500,000 





CONTOUR LINES SHOW LAND SHAPES AND ELEVATION 
The shape of the land, portrayed by contours, is the distinctive characteristic of topographic maps. 
Contours are imaginary lines following the ground surface at a constant elevation above or below sea level. 
Contour interval is the elevation difference represented by adjacent contour lines on maps. 
Contour intervals depend on ground slope and map scale Small contour intervals are used for flat areas; larger intervals are used 

for mountainous terrain. 
Supplementary dotted contours, at less than the regular interval, are used in selected flat areas. 
Index contours are heavier than others and most have elevation figures. 
Relief shading, an overprint giving a three-dimensional impression, is used on selected maps. 
Orthophotomaps, which depict terrain and other map features by color-enhanced photographic images, are available for 

selected areas. 

COLORS DISTINGUISH KINDS OF MAP FEATURES 

Black is used for manmade or cultural features, such as roads, buildings, names, and boundaries. 

Blue is used for water or hydrographic features, such as lakes, rivers, canals, glaciers, and swamps. 

Brown is used for relief or hypsographic features — land shapes portrayed by contour lines. 

Green is used for woodland cover, with patterns to show scrub, vineyards, or orchards. 

Red emphasizes important roads and is used to show public land subdivision lines, land grants, and fence and field lines. 

Red tint indicates urban areas, in which only landmark buildings are shown 

Purple is used to show office revision from aerial photographs. The changes are not field checked. 

INDEXES SHOW PUBLISHED TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS 

Indexes for each State, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, and Antarctica 

show available published maps. Index maps show quadrangle location, name, and survey date. Listed also are special maps 
and sheets, with prices, map dealers, Federal distribution centers, and map reference libraries, and instructions for ordering 
maps. Indexes and a booklet describing topographic maps are available free on request. 

HOW MAPS CAN BE OBTAINED 

Mail orders for maps of areas east of the Mississippi River, including Minnesota, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United 
States, and Antarctica should be addressed to the Branch of Distribution, U.S. Geological Survey, 1200 South Eads Street, 
Arlington, Virginia 22202. Maps of areas west of the Mississippi River, including Alaska, Hawaii, Louisiana, American 
Samoa, and Guam should be ordered from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, 
Denver, Colorado 80225. A single order combining both eastern and western maps may be placed with either office. 
Residents of Alaska may order Alaska maps or an index for Alaska from the Distribution Section, U.S. Geological Survey, 
Federal Building-Box 12, 101 Twelfth Avenue, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701. Order by map name, State, and series. On an 
order amounting to $300 or more at the list price, a 30-percent discount is allowed. No other discount is applicable. 
Prepayment is required and must accompany each order. Payment may be made by money order or check payable to the 
U. S. Geological Survey. Your ZIP code is required. 

Sales counters are maintained in the following U. S. Geological Survey offices, where maps of the area may be purchased in 
person: 1200 South Eads Street, Arlington, Va.; Room 1028, General Services Administration Building, 19th & F Streets 
NW, Washington, D. C; 1400 Independence Road, Rolla, Mo.; 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, Calif.; Room 7638, 
Federal Building, 300 North Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles, Calif.; Room 504, Custom House, 555 Battery Street, San 
Francisco, Calif.; Building 41, Federal Center, Denver, Colo.; Room 1012, Federal Building, 1961 Stout Street, Denver 
Colo.; Room 1C45, Federal Building, 1 100 Commerce Street, Dallas, Texas; Room 8105, Federal Building, 125 South 
State Street, Salt Lake City, Utah; Room 1C402, National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, Va.; Room 678, 
U. S. Court House, West 920 Riverside Avenue, Spokane, Wash.; Room 108, Skyline Building, 508 Second Avenue, 
Anchorage, Alaska; and Federal Building, 101 Twelfth Avenue, Fairbanks, Alaska. 

Commercial dealers sell U. S. Geological Survey maps at their own prices. Names and addresses of dealers are listed in each 



* 



State index. 



-GEOLOGiCA 



009 Z9- X 31VDS lOOd 

000 51 00001 ooos 



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



-25- 



* 



CONTOUR LINES 

A contour line is an imaginery line drawn on the ground which 
connects points of the same altitude or elevation. 

The contour interval is the vertical distance (difference in 
elevation! separating contour lines. While contour intervals between 
maps may vary, on any single map the interval is constant. The 
horizontal spacing of the contour lines, therefore, varies with 
land slope. In general, the closer the contour lines the steeper 
the slope. Wide spacing between lines indicates more gentle slopes. 
When contour lines cross streams the contour is bent into a V, 
the V points in the upstream direction. 



COMPARISON OF CONTOUR INTERVALS 



% 





10' CONTOUR INTERVAL. 




opes 




2' CONTOUR INTERVAL. 



1. Barbara Maire et. al, Wetlands and Floodplains on Paper 
(Lincoln, Mass.: Massachusetts Audubon Society, undated) 



•) 



-26- 



THE SOIL SURVEY 

Man is dependent on soils. Soils provide the habitat 
for plants and crops; the foundations for buildings and roads; 
and receptacles for domestic, municipal, industrial and 
animal wastes. Soil management should be a fundamental 
planning concern and the soil survey is an essential planning 
tool. The soil survey, conducted by the Soil Conservation 
Service, provides the basic information needed for planning 
including: a map depicting different soil types and a 
description of the properties and limitations of these soils. 

Of particular interest for land use planning are the 
soil's "engineering properties" and "engineering interpreta- 
tions." These interpretations indicate the suitability of 
areas for different uses. For example, the suitability of 
areas for homebuilding sites involves an evaluation of the 
flood hazards, height of the water table, slope of the land, 
shrink-swell potential of the soil and depth of the soil to 
hard rock. 1 

The suitability of a site for septic tanks is rated 
according to the permeability of the soil (the ease with 
which water penetrates the soil) , the land slope, filtering 
capacity, level of the water table, and potential for flooding. 2 
Additional suitability interpretations include use for highways, 
ponds or reservoirs, and recreation. 

Soils maps, themselves, are very useful for floodplain 
delineation. Soils which are deposited by running water (called 
alluvial soils) or soils which are frequently covered by water 
differ in texture, color, or structure from those which 
develop under drier conditions. Such soils will, therefore, 
have classifications different from non-flood-prone soils. 

Attached is a chart depicting the soil suitability 
interpretations and a brief description of the major soil 
types found on the map sheet to be used in this exercise. 
Those soils which have developed under wet conditions 
or were deposited by running water can be identified 
from these descriptions. By drawing boundaries around these 
soil tvpes it is possible to make a rough delineation of 
the flood hazard area. 



1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 
Soil Survey For Wake County, North Carolina . (Washington, 
D.C.: GPO, 1970) 

2. Ibid. 



-27- 



KEY 



ZONING 



45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


71 


99 



Residenti al 

Commercial 

Heavy Industrial 

Light Industry 

Forest Agriculture 

Conservation/Preservation 

Historic Building District 

Mobi 1 e Home 

Dest i nat i on Park 

Planned Development 

Port/GAPC 

Unclassified and/or Water 



DEVELOPMENT- 
110 "Residential 
120 Retail/Wholesale 
130 Industrial 
140 Extractive 
150 Transportation 
160 Institutional 
190 Open and Other 

Urban 
200 Agriculture 



*) 



SOILS: 

10 Leon 

12 Eunola 

13 Bladen 

18 Cape Fear 

20 Centenary 

27 Rutlege 

28 Echaw 

34 Johnston 

50 Lynn-Haven 

54 Chipley 

55 Witherbee 

57 Grifton (Ogeechee) 

59 Wahee 

61 Yemassee 

251 Wakulla 

602 Lakeland (Wando) 

500 Open Water 

99 Unclassified 



■^ 



WETLA 
400" 
440 

500 
510 
610 
620 
621 
623 
624 
630 



720 



KDS : 

Fore 
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Bru 
Open 
Impo 
Fore 
Unfo 
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Brae 
Fres 
Aban 
631 
632 
633 
634 
Beac 



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Area/ 

ater 

dment s 

ed Wetlands 

sted Wetlands 

arsh 

sh Water Marsh 

Water Marsh 

ned Rice 

ow Salt Marsh 

i gh Sale Marsh 

rackish Marsh 

reshwater Marsh 



* 



-28- 

SOILS: GEORGETOWN SOUTH, S.C. 

Leon (10) 

Poorly drained sandy soils with slopes less than 5%. 

Eulonia (12) 

Deep moderately well drained soils on the lower coastal plain. 
Slopes less than 2%. 

Bladen (13) 

Poorly drained soils occurring on broad nearly level flats 
of the coastal plains. 

Cape Fear (18) 

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils on stream terraces and 
low uplands of the coastal plain. Flooding of brief duration is 
frequent from January to May. 

Centenary (20) 

Sandy, moderately well drained, rapidly permeable soils of the 
coastal plain. Slopes are less than 2%. 

Rutlege (27) 

Deep, very poorly drained soils of upland flats and in depressions. 
Slopes are less than 2%. Flooding of brief duration is frequent. 

Echaw (28) « 

Moderately well drained, permeable soils on level eroded ridges 
and flats of the lower coastal plain. 

Johnston (34) 

Very poorly drained soils on nearly level flood plains of the 
coastal plain. Flooding, sometimes of long duration, is common. 

Lynn Haven (50) 

Poorly drained sandy soils with slopes of less than 2%. 

Witherbee (55) 

Sandy, somewhat poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils on 
nearly level broad ridges and flats of the lower coastal plain. 
Slopes of less than 2%. 

Grifton (57) 

Poorly drained soils on the middle and lower coastal plain 
uplands and stream terraces. Slopes are generallv less than 2%. 

Wahee (59) 

Poorly drained, slowly permeable, soils of the coastal plains. 
Slope range to 4%. Flooding, of brief duration, is common on 
some of these soils. 



I 



9) 



-29- 



Yemassee (61) 

Poorly drained, nearly level soils on the lower coastal plain. 
Some rare flooding. 

Wakulla (251) x 

Nearly level to sloping, well drained soils on upland and 
stream terraces of the coastal plain. Slopes range from 0-10%. 

Lakeland (602) 

Very well drained nearly level to steep soils on coastal plain 
uplands. Slopes range from to 30%. 



-30- 



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-33- 
DAY TWO 
4 8:30 a.m. FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT: THREE STORIES 

Purposes : 

• To create a mood of excitement regarding 
the opportunities to develop flood hazard 
management strategies to meet a variety 
of goals. 

• To introduce some of the ways in which 
the National Flood Insurance Program 
provides assistance to the community. 

Activity: 

• CF slide presentation. 

NOTES : 



€) 



-34- 



8:45 a.m. DESIGNING A FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 

IDENTIFYING GOALS, OPPORTUNITIES AND STRATEGIES 

Purpose : 

• To reinforce the varying opportunities 
for flood hazard management presented 
by the slide show. 

• To relate these opportunities to the 
pre- and post-flood stages of flood 
hazard management. 

• To highlight the importance of local 
initiative in taking advantage of various 
state and federal assistance. 

• To relate various opportunities and 
strategies described in slide show 
to goals described in preceding days 
session and still taped to wall of 
plenary session room. 

Activity : 

• Small group discussions within plenary 
session. 

• Completion of Exercise B. 
Review Questions 

1. What are the variety of goals that the 
communities in the slide show tried to 
achieve? 

2. What were the obstacles that those 
communities had to overcome? How did 
they overcome these obstacles? 

3. What factors should be considered in 
developing a community flood hazard 
management program? 

4. What approaches best address problems 
of existing development within the 
flood hazard area? 

5. What approaches are best to control 
new development? 



'* 



NOTES 



i) 



I 



-35- 



6. What kinds of federal/state/local 
assistance are available to assist 
communities? 

7. What are the differing opportunities 
available to communities regarding 
their developed land versus their 
undeveloped land? What are the 
differing opportunities available 
before or between floods, or after 

a major flood? 

References : 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: Community Action Guide, 
Chapter III. 



-36- 



EXERCISE B 



1. What were the goals of the flood hazard management programs 
adopted by the three communities in the slide show? 



Goals 



Montgomery County Baltimore County Sanibel Island 




How do these goals relate to the general list of goals 
developed in the previous session? 



2. What opportunities did each of the communities explore in 
developing their flood hazard management programs and to 
what stage (pre-flood or post-flood) of flood hazard 
Management? 

Were the programs directed? 





Montgomery County 


Baltimore County 


Sanibel Island 


Oppor- 
tuni- 
ties 








Flood 
Hazard 
Manage- 
ment 
stage 
address- 
ed 









-37- 



I 



EXERCISE B (continued) 

3. What specific strategies did each community adopt to 
implement their flood hazard management plan? 

To what extent were federal and state agencies involved? 

What additional assistance might have been employed 
in each of the community situations? 



Montgomery County Baltimore County Sanibel Island 






Strate- 
gies 



Federal 
and 
State 
In- 
volve- 
ment 

Addi- 
tional 
Assist- 
ance 







/ 















-38- 



9:30 - 10:45 a.m. THE FEDERAL AND STATE FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY 

FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING 

Purpose : 

• To outline the structure and functions 
of various Federal and State programs 
that affect community flood hazard 
management: 

— The Floodplains and Wetlands 
Executive Order 

— NFIP 

-- Coastal Zone Management 

— State Natural Resource Management 

• To relate these various activities to 
the goals of community flood hazard 
management previously identified by 
participants. 

Activities : 

• Speech 

• Round table 

• Questions and Answers 
Review Questions 

1. What are the respective responsibilities 
of the Federal and State governments in 
flood hazard management. 

2. How well are various programs coordinated 

at the Federal level? How might coordination 
be improved? 

3. What new initiatives are being implemented 
to improve federal coordination? 

4. What are some of the approaches that 
creative state governments have used to 
meet their challenge in mitigating flood 
hazards and protecting natural resources? 



-39- 

5. How do most state governments related 
C\ their role in flood hazard management 

\ to that of the local community? 

6. How is the role of the State likely to 
be affected as the result of new federal 
initiatives? 

References : 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapters IV, V and VIII. 

NOTES: 



t) 



». 



-40- 



10:45 a.m. BREAK 



11:00 a.m. THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM: 
WHAT IT DOES — WHAT IT DOESN'T DO 

Purpose : 

• To bring participants to a common level 
of understanding concerning the specific 
minimum requirements of the NFIP. 

• To familiarize participants with the 
tools of the NFIP. 

• To examine the extent to which the NFIP 
will help to meet the range of community 
flood hazard management goals. 

Activities : 



• Speech 

• Roundtable Discussion 

• Audience Questions and Answers 
Review Questions 

1. What are the two phases of the NFIP? 
How does a community enter the NFIP? 

2. What are the basic regulatory concepts 
and tools of community participation 
in the NFIP? 

3. What are the minimum requirements of 
participation in the Regular program of 
the NFIP? What function do they serve? 

(a) What is meant by the Base Flood? 
100-Year Flood? 

(b) What is a Flood Hazard Boundary Map, 
Flood Insurance Study, FIRM Map, 
Floodway/Flood Boundary Map? 

(c) How are Flood Profiles interpreted? 



-41- 



4. What new inititatives are being considered 
v for the NFIP Program (1362, constructive 

total loss, Flood Plains Executive Order)? 
How will these initiatives likely affect 
development of community flood hazard 
management programs? 

5. What provisions does the NFIP Program 
incorporate to protect certain coastal 
ecological resources (sand dunes, mangrove 
swamps, barrier islands)? 

References : 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapter IV. 

NOTES: 



I 



ft 



-42 



Reading a Profile 

Flood profiles, contained in the Flood Insurance Study, 
typically show cross section elevation of the stream bed and 
the 10-year, 50-year, 100-year, and 500-year flood. 

Scales: On the example opposite, each line on the 
vertical axis equals 1/2 foot elevation above sea level. 
On the horizontal axis each line equals .02 miles (approxi- 
mately 106 feet) of distance above the mouth of the stream. 

To locate a site on the horizontal axis: obtain the 
distance on the ground between the site and a cross section 

point ( <A> — <A> ) For example, Point X is midway between 
cross sections AP and AQ . 

To determine the flood water elevation at that point: 
locate the point on the flood line you're interested in. 
(Point X is plotted on the 100-year flood line.) Read the 
vertical axis to obtain the water elevation. The 100-year 
flood elevation at Point X is 594.1 feet (above mean sea 
level) . To determine by how much a structure should be 
elevated to be above the base flood, subtract the ground 
elevation of the site from the flood elevation at the site. 



- 



. 







i 







-44- 



Reading a Flood Boundary and 
Floodway Map 



A Flood Boundary and Floodway 
Map identifies the boundaries of the 
floodway and the 100-year, and 500- 
year flood. The map also indicates 
the location_of stream_cross 

sections ( <A> <^> ) • 

With references to the Flood Profile 
specific flood elevations may be 
determined at any site. 

To locate a site on the map: 
Obtain the ground distance between 
the site and two or more points 
identified on the map (i.e., center- 
line of a street, bridge or reference 
mark) . Convert the ground distances 
to map distances and plot the site 
on the map. Example: Point X 
is 200 feet west of the intersection 
of Lavender and Elm Streets and 200 
feet southeast of the intersection 
of Rosessler and Elm Streets. 
Point X is not within the floodway. 



KEY TO SYMBOLS 

FLOOD BOUNDARY AND 
FLOODWAY DATA 



500 Yr Flood Boundary 



100 Yr Flood 
Boundary 



500 Yr Flood Boundary 



Approximate 100 Yr 
Flood Boundary 



Cross Section Line 



Elevation Reference Mark 



River Mile 




<°> <D> 



RM7. 



M1.5 



Note: Boundaries of the floodways were computed at cross sections 
and interpolated between cross sections. The floodways were based on 
hydraulic considerations without regard to economic, legal, or political 
factors. 



DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 
Federal Insurance Administration 

FLOOD BOUNDARY AND FLOODWAY MAP 

MAP INDEX 

CITY OF FLOODVILLE, Ml 



FLOOD CO. 



COMMUNITY NO. 314159 






* 



) 



» 



-46- 



Reading a Flood Insurance Rate Map 



The Flood Insurance Rate Map 
(FIRM) indicates the risk zones 
(for insurance purposes) within 
the flood hazard area, and map 
representations of 100-year flood 
elevation. Use the flood profile 
for specific site elevations. 

Point X is within insurance 
rate zone A5. 



KEY TO SYMBOLS 



ZONEB 



ZONE DESIGNATIONS" WITH 
DATE OF IDENTIFICATION 
ie„ 12/2/74 



Base Flood Elevation Line 
with elevation in feet 

Base Flood Elevation 
where uniform within zone 

Elevation Reference Mark 

River Mile 



ZONCA5 

DATE 



ZONEB 



~57J- 



(EL987'MSL) 
RM7 x 
• M1.5 



'EXPLANATION OF ZONE DESIGNATIONS 

A flood insurance map displays the zone designations for a community 
according to areas of designated flood hazards. The zone designations 
used by F I A are: 

Zone Explanation 

A Areas of 100-year flood; base flood elevations and 

flood hazard factors not determined. 

AO Areas of 100-year shallow flooding; flood depth 1 to 

3 feet; product of flood depth (feet) and velocity 
(feet per second) less than 15. 

A1 - A30 Areas of 100-year flood; base flood elevations and 
flood hazard factors determined. 

A69 Areas of 100-year flood to be protected by a flood 
protection system under construction; base flood 
elevations and flood hazard factors not determined. 

B Area between limits of 100-year flood and 500-year 

flood, areas of 100-year shallow flooding where depths 
less than 1 foot. 

C Areas outside 500-year flood. 

D Areas of undetermined, but possible, flood hazards. 

V Areas of 100-year coastal flood with velocity (wave 

action); base flood elevations and flood hazard factors 

not determined. 

VO Areas of 100-year shallow flooding with velocity; 
flood depth 1 to 3 feet; product of depth (feet) and 
velocity (feet per second) more than 15. 

V1 - V30 Areas of 100-year coastal flood with velocity (wave 
action); base flood elevations and flood hazard 
factors determined. 



CONSULT NFIA SERVICING COMPANY OR LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENT OR BROKER TO DETERMINE IF PROPERTIES IN THIS 
COMMUNITY ARE ELIGIBLE FOR FLOOD INSURANCE. 



INITIAL IDENTIFICATION DATE: 
FEBRUARY 1, 1975 



DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 
Federal Insurance Administration 

FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP H ■ 01 -23 
FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP I • 01 -23 

MAP INDEX 

CITY OF FL00DVILLE, Ml 

(FLOOD CO.) 
COMMUNITY NO. 314159 



-49- 



12:15 p.m. LUNCH 

1:30 FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT: ISSUES AND PROGRAMS 
Purpose : 

• To allow participants to explore in more 
detail the various issue and programs 
described in the morning sessions. 

Activity: 

• Concurrent small group sessions in the 
following areas: 

— building standards; 

— NFIP regulations; 

— 1362; 

-- flood hazard mapping; 

— Coastal Zone Management 

Review Questions 

A. Building Standards 

1. What requirements of the NFIP relate to 
buildings? Do these requirements only 
deal with the impact of floods or do 
they also address other special needs 
of building in hurricane prone areas. 

2. What specific provisions should be included 
in local building codes to insure that 
elevated new structures are built to 
withstand hurricane force winds? storm 
driven waves? 

3. What lessons can be learned from experience 
in communities recently hit by hurricanes 
(Gulf Shores, Alabama, Dauphin Island, 
Mississippi )? 

4. What problems might building inspectors 
anticipate in enforcing standards? 

5. How do building requirements of the NFIP 
relate to the acturially based insurance 
rates used by FEMA in coastal high hazard 
areas? 



-50- 



B. NFIP Regulations 

1. What are the minimum requirements of the 
NFIP (Regular Phase) in terms of elevations, 
construction, and land use? 

2. What specific requirements does the NFIP 
pose for new construction in the high 
velocity zone? 

3. On what basis have elevation requirements 
been established in the past? How will 
wave heights be factored into the formula 
for establishing actuarial rates for new 
construct ion? 

4. To what extent are barrier islands, dunes, 
and other fragile coastal ecosystems pro- 
tected under the NFIP regulations? 

C. Section 1362 (Post Disaster Acquisition/ 
Relocation under NFIP) 

1. What is Section 1362? What are its major 
provisions? 

2. How is Section 1362 being implemented 
currently? How much money has been 
appropriated? 

3. How is eligibility for 1362 funds determined? 
What procedures must communities follow to 
acquire 1362 funds? 

4. What restrictions are placed on the use of 
1362 funds? 

D. Flood Hazard Mapping 

1. What role do maps play in the NFIP? 

2. What is the status of FIA's community 
mapping process? 

3. What is the data base of the community map? 
What are the sources of possible error in 
flood hazard boundary mapping? What kinds 
of changing conditions might affect the 
communities of flood hazard boundary? 



-51- 



4. What is the process of amending maps to 
reflect changing conditions? 

5. How are existing maps going to be amended 
to reflect wave height data? How long will 
the process take? What should communities 
do in the interim before their maps are 
amended to regulate new development in 
high velocity zones? 

6. What is the status of the new FIA map 
locator service? 

E. Coastal Zone Management 

1. What's being done at the Federal level 
to coordinate coastal zone management 
and flood hazard mitigation? 

2. How might an approved state coastal zone 
management plan be useful to a community in 
achieving flood hazard mitigation goals? 

3. What types of assistance are available 

to communities from the state CZM office? 

References : 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide, 
Chapters IV, V and VII. 



NOTES: 



-52- 



2:30 p.m. BREAK 

2:45 - 3:45 p.m. LOCAL STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION: 

CASE EXAMPLES 

Purpose : 

• To allow participants to examine in 
detail the way a particular community 
utilizes a strategy (or set of strategies) 
to accomplish flood hazard mitigation 
goals . 

• To focus attention on the stages of 
flood hazard management (pre and post) 
to which the strategy was applied. 

• To highlight the role of various federal, 
and state programs (NFIP, CZM, WQM) in 
accomplishing the strategy. 

• To relate the strategies to the goals 
of flood hazard mitigation identified 
previously. 

Activity : 

• Concurrent small group sessions on 
community case examples which address 
a variety of flood hazard management 
strategies. For example: 

— relocation; 

-- recreation/acquisition; 

— storm water management; 
-- zoning; 

— critical areas protection; 

— development with sensitivity 
to ecosystems. 

Review Questions 

1. What are the major flooding problems in 
the community? 

2. What are the estimated costs to the 
community of recurrent floods? 



NOTES : 



-53- 



3. What opportunities did the community 
identify to begin to address their 
flooding problems? In the pre-flood 
situation? In the post-flood situation? 

4. What specific flood hazard management 
strategies were proposed? Which ones 
were rejected and why? Which ones were 
adopted? 

5. Who were the actors involved in the 
decision-making process? How were 
they involved? 

6. What community, state and federal 
resources were required to implement 
the particular strategy? How were these 
resources obtained? 

7. What lessons have been learned by community 
leaders in the process? What things might 
they approach differently if they were to 
start over again? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapters III and V. 



-19- 



-54- 



4:00 - 5:00 p.m. THE ROLE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATIN IN COMMUNITY 

FLOOD HAZARD DECISION MAKING (PLENARY) 

Purpose : 

• To establish the importance of involving 
various publics in developing a community 
flood hazard management program. 

— Building a constituency for a 
comprehensive progrm. 

— Ensuring equity. 

— Building a constituency for 
implementation. 

• To establish some performance standards 
for effective public participation. 

• To expose participants to the range of 
techniques that are available for public 
involvement. 

» 
Activities: 



• Speech 

• Diverse Public Perspectives 
(see Exercise C attached) 

• Roundtable Discussion 

• Audience Questions and Answers 
Review Questions 

1. Who are the key actors both within and 
outside of the community who should be 
involved in the development of a community 
flood hazard management program? What 
range of perspectives are they likely to 
represent and why is it important to 
include them? 

2. What are some of the key decision points 
in the development of a flood hazard 
management program where the public should 
be involved. What specific kinds of 
information/input can the various publics 
provide at each of these decision points? 






I 



i> 



NOTES 



t> 



-55- 



3. What role can or should the public play 
during implementation of the flood hazard 
management program? 

4. To what extent in the past has the public 
been involved in developing a community 
flood hazard management program? What 
methods were used? What has been the 
result of this level of involvement? 

5. Does the NFIP have any specific require- 
ments or guidance for public involvement? 

6. What are some of the essential elements 
of an effective community public involve- 
ment effort? What are some of the tech- 
niques which may be most useful in 
achieving quality public participation? 

7. What are some potential sources of 
assistance to communities in developing 

a meaningful public participation effort? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapter VI. 



-56- 



EXERCISE C 



INTRODUCTION OF PARTICIPANTS 



Participants for the Flood Hazard Institute were chosen to 
represent a diversity of opinions and backgrounds. The purpose 
of this segment of the program is to give everyone a better 
understanding of the attitudes and perspectives shared by 
fellow attendees, resource people, and Institute staff. 

DIRECTIONS FOR EXERCISE: Indicate your opinion on each 
question by marking the horizontal line with an "x" above 
the appropriate number. Then indicate how strongly you care 
about this issue by circling a letter from A (very important 
issue) to E (unimportant issue) on the vertical line. You 
will have ten minutes to mark your responses, and then we 
will sample opinion in the group. 

1) How much weight should be given to public opinion 
in the development of a community flood hazard 
management program? 



A ( 






The decisions 
involve complex 
technical issues 
and should be 
made by experts 



Equal weight should 
be given to public 
opinion and expert 
conclusions . 



The important 
decisions in 
developing a 
flood hazard 
management 
program are not 
that technical, 
and the public, 
who has to live 
with the results, 
should have the 
primary say. 



very 
impor- 
tant 
issue ) 



B 



C ( 



D ( 



moder- 
ately 
impor- 
tant) 

unim- 
portant 
issue ) 






-57- 
EXERCISE C (continued) 

2) Granted that most people would like to see both 

environmental improvement and low taxes and economic 
development , how would you vote in a clear-cut choice 
between the economy and the environment in your town? 






The economic stability 
of a community is the 
most important consi- 
deration. After all 
if people don't have 
jobs and money to 
spend they won't 
care about their 
environment. 



Equal weight 
given to both 



(very 
impor- 
tant 
issue) 



Maintaining the 
community's B 
environmental 
quality is most 
important. Poor C (moder- 
environmental ately 
quality produces impor- 
all sorts of tant) 
hidden community 
costs which too D 
often aren't 
considered . 

E (unim- 
portant 
issue) 

3) Should residents who knowingly choose to live in flood 
hazard areas be assessed some sort of tax to cover the 
community costs (emergency police, fire, rescue services, 
public utility repairs, warning and evacuation procedures) 
incurred as the result of a flood disaster? 






No, these are 
costs rightly 
borne by the 
community as a 
whole. Besides, 
it would be 
impossible to 
establish an 
equitable tax. 



Possibly in situations 
where the flood hazard 
is well defined and 
the resident who has a 
choice between a non- 
hazard location chooses 
the hazardous location 
because of the personal 
benefits (aesthetics, 
convenience) derived 
from the hazardous 
location. 



Yes, these residents 
reap the benefits 
of such a location, 
so they should also 
bear the costs. 



-58- 



5:30 - 6:30 p.m. SOCIAL HOUR 

6:30 - 7:30 p.m. DINNER 

7:30 p.m. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GROUP ACTION 
Purpose : 

• To continue the working group identified 
the first evening and give that group 
opportunities to develop ideas for 
follow-up activities after the conference. 

Activity : 

• Small group sessions 
Review Questions 

1. What are the major flooding problems 
in your community? What are the most 
important first steps to be taken to 
resolve these problems? 

2. What role does your state play in 
encouraging community flood hazard 
management? How might the state role 
be enhanced? 

3. Given the flood hazard management 
opportunities which exist in your 
community, what are likely to be the 
most effective strategies available 
to realize these opportunities? 

4. Who are the key people in your community, 
region, state who should be involved in 
flood hazard management decision-making? 
Are they now involved? 

5. What kinds of public involvement mechanisms 
may be utilized to involve members of the 
various publics in your community in the 
development of a flood hazard management 
program? 



t 



€> 



-59- 



6. What are the first steps to be taken 
when you return home to ensure that a 
public involvement program to develop 
a flood hazard management program 
actually materializes? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection: Community Action Guide , 
Chapters III and VI. 



NOTES 



J 







-60- 



DAY THREE 

8:30 - 9:30 a.m. ISSUES IN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 

Purpose : 

• To allow participant to focus on the 
issues and tools that influence the 
development of a successful public 
involvement program. 

Activities : 

• Concurrent small group workshops on 
public participation issues and tools. 
These workshops might cover such topics 
as: 

— goal setting 

— Coalition building 

— Bargaining and negotiation 

— Communication tools 

— motivating the public 

Review Questions 

A. Goal Setting 

1. Who in the community should be involved 

in the setting of goals for a flood hazard 
management program? How can or should 
broader community goals be reflected? 

2. How do you identify community goals? 
What techniques (questionnaires, local 
workshps, referendum) are most useful? 
How can you ensure that the goals you 
identify in fact reflect those of the 
entire community? 

3. What do you do in situations when some 
goals seem to be in direct conflict? 
What are some effective methods for 
achieving compromise? 

B. Coalition Building 

1. How can building e coalition help the 

passage and implementation of a community 
flood hazard management program? 






-61- 



2. What interests should comprise your coalition 
How may these interests be identified? 

3. How does one identify the common interests 
which may bind a coalition? 

4. What kinds of organizational decision-making 
will help keep a coalition together? 

5. What resources, skills and outreach 
ability do the various interest groups 
which might comprise a coalition have 
which might be utilized in developing 

a comprehensive flood hazard management 
program? 

C. Bargaining and Negotiation 

1. When is formal bargaining or negotiation 
useful? 

2. How do you establish those points which 
are not negotiable? Those that are? 

3. How do you identify tradeoffs that various 
groups may be willing to make to come to 
agreement? 

4. How do you approach an opposing group on 
the subject of bargaining? 

5. When is it useful to have a third party 
assist in the bargaining process? 

6. What type of technical expertise might 

be required during a negotiation process? 

7. If a third party negotiator is used, 
what skills should he/she have? 

D. Communication Skills 

1. What are some of the most effective means 
to reach the general public? (news media, 
public television) What basic message 
should be relayed to different publics? 

2. How should materials be presented to the 
general lay audience? How can you trans- 
late complicated technical analysis into 
simple English? 



-62- 



3. How can you be sure your message is being 
received and clearly understood? What kinds 
of feedback mechanisms are appropriate? 

E. Motivating the Public 

1. How do you overcome initial public apathy 
or unawareness? What techniques could you 
use to "sell" your program to the public? 

2. What are some of the causes of public apathy? 
How do you overcome them? 

3. What are some examples of techniques which 
have worked in other communities? 

4. How do you keep the public involved and 
interested? 

References ; 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Chapter VI. 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Protection; Community Action Guide , 
Appendices . 



NOTES; 



-63- 



9:30 - 10:00 a.m. BREAK AND SWITCH 



10:00 - 12:00 noon DESIGNING A FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

PROGRAM IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES 

Purpose : 

• To examine in a realistic setting the 
factors tht affect the opportunities 
for flood hazard management in coastal 
communities. 

• To examine the basic regulatory frame- 
work likely to result from community 
participation in the NFIP, and other 
Federal and State programs. 

• To examine the range of strategies and 
tools that might be linked together to 
develop a comprehensive flood hazard 
management program according to the 
appropriate flood hazard management 
stage. 

• To identify the economic and social 
interests that may be affected by alter- 
native strategies. 

• To explore the range of public partici- 
pation techniques which would be useful 
when selecting and implementing a compre- 
hensive community flood hazard management 
program. 

• To establish the tradeoffs that must be 
made by a community in designing a flood 
hazard management program. 

Activities : 



Participants will divide into six to eight 
groups, each of which will utilize a single 
hypothetical case example (included in the 
workbook) as a starting point for discussion 

Each case study contains information on 
the following factors that affect and/or 
constrain opportunities for flood hazard 
management. 



> 



-64- 



— physical characteristics; 

— population; 

— flooding problems; 

— economic and social considerations; 

— political context; 

— additional institutional considerations; 

Community maps on present land ues and 
flood hazard areas are included. Par- 
ticipants will draw on the case study 
material and their own experiences to 
address range of questions. 

Review Questions ; 

1. Who are the interests with a stake 
in flood hazard management? 

2. What is the nature of their stake? 

3. What needs of various interests will have 
to be met in order to obtain their support 
in meeting flood hazard management goals? 

Local government 
Low income 
Business 

Banker 

Real estate developer 

Salesman 

Industry/Land 

Water dependent/Water based industry 
Civic Leader 
Environmentalist 

4. What kinds of tradeoffs (economic/social/ 
environmental/political) might various 
interests be willing to make? 

5. What kinds of strategies can be adopted 
to reflect these tradeoffs and to respond 
to the flooding problems of this community? 
In the pre-flood period? In the post- 
flood period? 

6. What are the likely impacts of various 
strategies on various interest groups? 
On community as a whole? 



l> 



-65- 



Ref erences : 

Flood Hazard Management and Natural Resource 
Prot ection: Community Action Guide , 
Chapters III, VII, and VIII. 



NOTES 



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-30- 



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-73- 



Exercise D 



Use this chart to record the flood hazard management opportunities 
identified in the workshop discussion of the case example. 



Potential Opportunities for Flood Hazard Management 





Pre-Flood Situation 


Post-Flood Situation 


Within 100-Year 
Floodplain 






Structures 
(Existing 
and 
Future ) 

Undeveloped 
Land 


Outside Floodplain 
but within 
community 






Outside Community 
but within 
watershed 







-74- 



Exercise E 



Use this chart to record the results of the workshop discussion 
relating to possible strategies identified in the case example. 
Refer to chart in selecting the most appropriate strategies. 



Flood stage where most 
applicable 



Affected 
Interests 



Trade-offs 



Pre- 
Flood 



Strategy (tool) 



During 
Flood 



Post- 
Flood 



-75- 



HAMPTON COUNTi'/CITY OF OAKTON * 

Hampton is a coastal county located on a peninsula between 
the Atlantic Ocean and the Coral River (see attached maps). 
Oakton, which is located in the center of the county, is the 
largest city and county seat. Although the county contains 
other small towns, they will not be discussed in any detail 
in this case example. 

I . Physical Characteristics 

Hampton County 

Located in the lower part of the coastal plain physio- 
graphic province, the topography of the county is typified 
by sandy ridges, sandy loam plateaus, and swampy areas of 
Carolina bays. Land elevations vary from sea level upward to 
75 feet. Streambeds are gently sloping, with the lower reaches 
of most streams being under the influence of lunar tides. 

The 27 miles of oceanfront is comprised of a narrow band 
of barrier islands and beaches, most of which are backed by 
the intercoastal waterway. A large portion (2/3) of these 
islands and beaches is currently developed at low or medium 
densities with seasonal and year-round homes. However, a 
major section of low-lying islands (Wilton Island) comprised 
primarily of low salt marsh is as yet undeveloped. 

Approximately 19% of the county's total land area is 
developed for urban or industrial uses; the remaining area 
is comprised of agriculture and forestry, water and wetlands, 
and vacant land. The majority of the county is unincorporated. 

The climate in the county ranges from hot and humid in 
the summer to cool in the winter. Rain occurs throughout the 
year but is heaviest in the summer and early fall. 

Oakton 

Oakton encompasses approximately 22 square miles and lies 
along the east bank of Coaral River, 26 miles upstream from its 
mouth and 8 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. It is the county 
seat and a major port along the Atlantic coast. 

Numerous creeks transect the city, the most significant 
being Scott Creek which meanders through the northern portion 
of town, and James Creek running from southeast to northwest 
emtying into Scott Creek. Barney Creek transects the southwest 
portion of the town eventually emptying into Coral River. Much 
of the floodplain along the Scott Creek and Barney Creek is 
classified as riverine wooded swamp and contains a significant 
amount of primary and secondary wetlands. Along the Coral River, 
the floodplains -consist primarily of brackish marsh typical 
of a tidal river system. 



The case study community resembles an actual community in some 
respects. Facts have been changed, however, to make the case 
study more useful in the Institutes. The study community should 
accordingly be considered fictitious. 



-76- 



Much of the city lies above the 100-year flood elevation 
on a bluff rising above Coral River. But some significant 
development does exist in the lowlands adjacent to the river 
and its tributaries, particularly Scott Creek, James Creek and 
Barney Creeks This development includes park facilities, warves , 
warehouses, storage tanks, commercial establishments and resi- 
dences. 

Little developable land remains in the area surrounding 
the central business district. Consequently, in recent years 
the areas around Barney and Scott Creeks have become increasingly 
attractive for development. 

II . Population 

The county population in 1970 was 80,000, with over 50 
percent living in Oakton. Although Oakton's population 
increased only slightly since then, the county's population 
grew steadily at the rate of 2-3% per year. During the summer, 
tourists flock to the county's relatively unspoiled beaches, 
tremendously increasing the population of the coastal areas. 
Many summer residents are now converting beach homes to year 
round residences. This trend could represent a serious problem, 
given the low level of existing public services presently 
provided by the county in this area. 

Because of the county's extensive and attractive coast 
and its solid industrial base, growth pressures are expected 
to continue. Many residents are beginning to express concerns 
about threats to their quiet rural lifestyle, environmental 
damage, and rising taxes resulting from unsound development. 

III. Principal Flooding Problems 

Hampton 

Storm tides generated in the Atlantic Ocean by hurricanes 
and other severe wind storms are the dominant source of flooding 
in Hampton Couty. During extreme tides most of the barrier 
beach islands are overtopped to such a depth that ocean waves 
pass directly into the sounds, impinging on the mainland shores 
and entering the estuaries of the coastal streams. Heavy storms 
can also generate tides which move up the Coral River and into 
its tributaries. 

Observed high water marks and tide gauge records show that 
ocean tides higher than 5 feet have occurred six times since 
1954. The last major hurricane in 1952 destroyed over 600 ocean- 
front homes and damaged another 300. Most of the homes have 
been replaced and many new ones have been built since then. 
Conseqently, observers expected that damages from the next 
hurricane will be quite costly. 



-77- 



In addition to flooding from storm tides, extreme rainfalls 
can generate flooding in the county's numerous smaller rivers 
and streams. However, due to the estuarine nature of the Coral 
and North Coral Rivers , flood flows from these upstream tribu- 
taries have a negligible effect on river stages in Hampton County. 

Currently there are no flood protection projects within 
the unincorporated portion of the county. Along the coast, 
numerous beach nourishment projects are underway in an effort 
to counter the natural erosive effects which have been aggravated 
by construction of artificial inlets. 

Oakton 

Storm tides are also the dominant flood source in Oakton. 
Generated in the Atlantic Ocean by hurricanes and other severe 
windstorms, these tides move up the Coral River and into its 
tributaries. The highest tide of record occurred during Hurri- 
cane Hazel when the Coral River reached approximately 7 feet 
at the foot of Cook Street. (Cook Street runs parallel and 
just north of Route 40. ) Storm surges also caused flooding 
along Barney Creek and Scott Creek and lower portions of James 
Creek. 

During extreme rainfalls, most of the creeks in Oakton are 
also subject to flooding from stream overflow. A severe thunder- 
storm in 1969 produced $500,000 worth of damages. Coral River, 
however, due to its estuarine nature is negligibly effected 
by upstream flows. 

Local drainage and flood control projects involving stream 
channelization have been constructed along portions of James 
Creek, otherwise there are no flood control projects in the 
city. If development within the 100-year floodplain continues 
at its current rate, flood damages resulting from the next 
major hurricane can be expected to exceed $2 million. 

IV. Economic/Social Considerations 

Hampton 

The population of the county is growing rapidly, many of 
the new residents attracted by water-related amenities which 
the county has to offer. Lands located adjacent to water have 
become the most attractive for residential development. Along 
the coast, development on the barrier islands and inland water- 
way has increased rapidly over the last 25 years. A sizeable 
portion of these areas still remains relatively undeveloped, 
but pressure to construct residential/recreational homes is 
strong. Inland, most of the new residential development is again 
occurring adjacent to shorelines. 



-78- 



Industrial development, particularly in the area around 
Oakton has increased tremendously in recent years and is partly 
responsible for the county's rapid growth. Tourism and second 
home development along the coast are other factors contributing 
significantly to the county's economic base. 

The county has recently completed a land use analysis which 
identifies areas suitable for development. Suitability is 
based on a number of environmental factors, such as septic tank 
suitability, load supporting capability of soils, and unique 
values such as prime agricultural lands, wetlands, floodplain 
water recharge areas, etc. According to this analysis, over 
one half of the county is not suitable for any development 
whereas the rest should be developed with caution. 

Oakton 

The major portion of Oakton is already developed. Most 
of those areas still available and attractive for future develop- 
ment lie within the 100-year floodplain of the Coral River 
and James Creek. However, in recent years the city has not 
experienced significant growth pressures as the majority of 
new development within the county has occurred outside the city 
boundaries in the rural areas. 

Existing development within the 100-year floodplain of 
the Coral River consists primarily of industrial and commercial 
activities including railroad terminals, factories, warehouses, 
etc. , some of which must essentially be located adjacent to 
the river. Some residential development also exists along Coral 
River north of the industrial zone. Development within the 
100-year flood boundaries of Scott Creek, James Creek is almost 
entirely residential, much of it low income, mobile home develop- 
ment. Development along Barney Creek is primarily middle to 
high income residential. 

Flood damages resulting from Hurricane Hazel totaled over 
$1 million and city officials have estimated that due to 
increases in property value and new development within the flood 
hazard area, the next major hurricane could result in damages 
two to three times that figure. Seven people died during that 
hurricane and over 1,500 families were left homeless. Flooding 
resulting from heavy rains has periodically resulted in sub- 
stantial damages exceeding $500,000 much of which is damage to 
public property such as roads, bridges and sewer and water lines 
Experts project that a very heavy rain could produce close to 
$1 million in damages to property along James Creek and other 
tributaries. 



-79- 



V. Political Context 



Hampton 



Hampton County is governed by a Board of Commissioners 
elected at large. The commissioners are generally sensitive 
to the need for a strong flood hazard management program in 
the county and are supportive of the state's coastal zone 
management efforts. The commissioners also recognize the 
importance of working closely with the incorporated areas of 
the county, particularly the city of Oakton , in developing a 
comprehensive plan. 

Some board members, however, are equally convinced of the 
need to promote continued economic development within the county 
and recognize the high economic value of shorefront properties. 
They are reluctant to impose what they might consider overly 
restrictive land use controls. 

The County has adopted standard zoning and subdivision 
regulations. These have recently been amended to incorporate 
the minimum requirements of the NFIP regular program, including 
for coastal areas: delineation of the high velocity zone; eleva- 
tion (on pilings) of new structures within the high hazard 
area to the 100-year flood level (which reflects storm surges 
but not wave height); minimum construction standards; and limita- 
tions on man-made alterations to sand dunes and mangrove swamps. 
Similar requirements also apply to inland flood hazard areas. 
Although the county did consider additional land use control 
measures such as mandatory set back requirements and prohibition 
of development on wetlands, officials voted these down as being 
too prohibitive. 

Oakton 

Oakton has a mayor-city county form of government. The 
mayor is elected by the voters and has considerable influence 
and power over actions of the city council. 

The present mayor has been in office for eight years, 
during which the city has not experienced any serious flooding. 
He does not consider flooding to be a significant problem and 
does not support the enforcement of stronger flood hazard 
management regulations. 

Oakton entered the regular phase of the NFIP program in 
1977 having developed an acceptable floodplain management pro- 
gram. This program consists of ordinances incorporated into 
their existing standard zoning regulations which essentially 
prohibit any new development in the floodway and require 
elevation of any new buildings within the 100-year floodplain 
to the 100-year flood level. To date, no attempt has been made 



-80- 



to further restrict development within the 100-year floodplain 
or to acquire additional portions of the hazard area for recrea- 
tion/open space or other purposes. (A one-mile stretch of 
James Creek is presently designated for recreation as is a 
portion of the southern shore of Barney Creek.) 

Local officials have encountered very little resistance 
to implementing the ordinances, since they do not appear to 
impose an unreasonable burden on most property owners. However, 
officials believe there would be strong public resistance to 
stronger ordinances which precluded development within the 100- 
year floodplain or involved any sort of acquisition/relocation 
program. Residents in the Barney Creek area, which is one of 
the more exclusive sections of town, are particulary resistant 
to any actions which might be initiated by local officials to 
restrict future use of their property. 

VI . Additional Institutional Considerations 

The State has enacted a Coastal Zone Management program 
which establishes specific state policies concerning prevention 
of unreasonable risk in hazard areas, minimizing future flood 
damages , encouraging establishment of parks and open space and 
flood hazard areas, and protecting natural and protective values 
of the shoreline. The state program requires that local govern- 
ments by the state to develop plans and implementation strategies. 

All dredge and fill activities in navigable waters must 
receive a permit from the Army Corps of Engineers. The State 
has direct permitting authority over all coastal wetland and 
waterway activities and reviews all proposed development pro- 
jects in these areas to ensure that the integrity of these 
natural resources will not be adversely affected, and that the 
projects are consistent with state policies including those 
of coastal zone management, water quality, etc. 

The areawide 208 plan prepared for the county identifies 
storm water runoff as a major source of water pollution in the 
county and has recommended that local governments implement 
non-structural measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of 
future development. Suggested implementation measures include 
requirements for on site stormwater retention facilities for 
all new developments, local sediment control ordinances, and 
local acquisition programs to protect natural flood storage 
areas . 

The State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan has identi- 
fied an undeveloped area in the northwest corner of the town 
at the intersection of the Coral River and Scott Creek as a 
high priority recreation site. 



-81- 



ffTLRNTIC 
OCERN 




WILTON ISLAND 



V-*' 



HAMPTON COUNJy 



FIOOD HA2fiRt> RREflS 



3 5 m.l«i 



1 milts 

N 



82- 



ATLRNTIC 
OCERN 




WILTON ISLAND 



HAMPTON COUNTy 

CURRENT LAND USE 
URBAN 



k\Vj TRANSITION AL 



k 



] KuRftL 



COUM7V 



CITY 
•— BOUND*!** 



3£ miltt 1 mAt% 



c 



-85- 

12:30 - 1:30 p.m. LUNCH 

2:30 - 3:30 p.m. FINAL SMALL GROUP DISCUSSIONS 
NOTES: 



O 




-se- 



ai 30 - 4:30 p.m. CONCLUSION — COMMUNITY FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

A CHALLENGE TO WORK TOGETHER 

Purpose : 

• To give participants an opportunity to 
exchange information on planned follow-up 
activities . 

• To help participants achieve a sense of 
what was accomplished by the program. 

• To relate planned follow-up activities 
back to goals identified early in the 
conference . 

Activity; 

• Series of short reports by small group 
leaders ; 

• Newsprint listing accomplishments of 
small groups posted around room; 

• Discussion of goals and accomplishments 
led by group facilitator. 



NOTES: 



-87- 



GLOSSARY 



ACTUARIAL RATES [1] - Insurance rates determined on the 
basis of a statistical calculation of the probability 
that a certain event will occur. Actuarial rates are also 
called "risk premium rates." They are established by FIA 
pursuant to individual community flood insurance studies 
and investigations that are undertaken to provide flood 
insurance in accordance with the National Flood Insurance 
Act and with accepted actuarial principles, including 
provisions for operating costs and allowances. 



AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD [1] - The land in the floodplain 
within a community subject to a 1 percent or greater chance 
of flooding in any given year. 



BARRIER ISLANDS [5] - Elongate seafront islands of sand 
formed by wave action. 



BASE FLOOD (REGULATORY FLOOD) - The selected flood frequency 
for regulatory purposes. The NFIP has adopted the 100-year 
flood as the base flood to indicate the minimum level of 
flooding to be used by a community in its floodplain 
management regulations. 



BERM - The horizontal portion of the backshore beach formed 
by sediments deposited by waves. 



BOG [6] - A wetland usually developing in a depression or 
lake with poor drainage. 



BOTTOMLAND HARDWOODS - Tree species that occur on water- 
saturated or regularly inundated soils. Classified as 
wetlands, these areas content both trees and woody shrubs 



BULKHEAD [5] - A vertical wall of wood, steel, or concrete, 
built parallel to the shoreline and designed to deflect 
waves and control erosion. 



CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER (CEO) [1] - The official of the 
community who is charged with the authority to implement 
and administer laws, ordinances, and regulations for that 
community. 



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COASTAL HIGH HAZARD AREA (CHHA) [1] - "Coastal high hazard 
area" means the area subject to high velocity waters, 
including, but not limited to, hurricane wave wash or 
tsunamis. The area is designated on a FIRM as Zone Vl-30 



COMMUNITY [1] - Any State or area or political subdivision 
thereof, or any Indian tribe or authorized tribal organiza- 
tion, which has authority to adopt and enforce floodplain 
management regulations for the areas within its juris- 
diction. 



EMERGENCY PROGRAM [1] - The program as implemented on an 
emergency basis in accordance with NFIP. It is an interim 
program to provide a first layer of subsidized insurance 
before the detailed risk studies from which actuarial 
rates are computed have been completed. 



ENCROACHMENT [4] - Any fill, structure, building, use, 
accessory use, or development in the floodway. 



ENCROACHMENT/FLOODWAY LINES [4] - The limits of obstruction 
to flood flows. These lines are on both sides of and 
generally parallel to the river or stream. The lines are 
established by assuming that the area landward (outside) 
of the lines will ultimately be developed in such a way 
that it will not be available to convey flood flows. 



EROSION [1] - The process of the gradual wearing away of 
land masses. 



ESTUARY [5] - A confined coastal water body with an open 
connection to the sea and a measurable quantity of salt 
in its waters. 



FIRST LAYER COVERAGE [1] - The maximum amount of structural 
and contents insurance coverage available under the NFIP 
Emergency Program. 

FLOOD [1] /FLOODING [1] - A general and temporary condition of 
partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas 
from the overflow of inland and/or tidal waters, and/or 
unusual and rapid accumulation of runoff of surface waters 
from any source. 



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FLOOD CONTROL WORKS - See FLOOD PROTECTION SYSTEMS. 



FLOOD DISCHARGE [3] - The total quantity of water flowing 
in a stream and adjoining overflow areas during times of 
flood. It is measured by the amount of water passing a 
point along a stream within a specified period of time 
and is usually measured in cubic feet of water per 
second (cf s) . 



FLOOD FREQUENCY [3] - The frequency with which a flood of 
a given discharge has the probability of recurring. For 
example, a 100-year frequency flood refers to a flood 
discharge of a magnitude likely to occur on the average 
of once every 100 years or, more properly, has a 1 per- 
cent chance of being exceeded in any year. Although 
calculation of possible recurrence is often based upon 
historical records, there is no guarantee that a 100-year 
flood will occur at all within the 100-year period or 
that it will not recur several times. 



FLOOD HAZARD [2] - The potential for inundation and involves 
the risk of life, health, property, and natural flood- 
plain values. 



FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP (FHBM) [1] - An official map of a 
community, issued through the NFIP, where the boundaries 
of the flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and related erosion 
areas having special hazards have been designated as 
Zone A, M, and/or E. 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT - Encompasses all local, State, and 
Federal activities taken before, during, and after a flood 
to reduce flood losses or in response to a flood disaster. 



FLOOD INSURANCE [1] - The insurance coverage provided under 
the National Flood Insurance Program. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY (FIS) (FLOOD ELEVATION STUDY) [1] - An 
examination, evaluation, and determination of flood hazards 
and, if appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations, 
or an examination, evaluation, and determination of mudslide 
(i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion hazards. 



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FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM) [1] - An official map of a 
community on which the FEMA has delineated both the special 
hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the 
community. 



FLOOD PROTECTION SYSTEMS (STRUCTURAL CONTROLS) [1] - Those 
physical structural works for which funds have been 
authorized, appropriated, and expended and which have 
been constructed specifically to modify flooding to 
reduce the extent of the area within a community subject 
to a "special flood hazard" and the extent of the depths 
of associated flooding. Such a system typically includes 
hurricane tidal barriers, dams, reservoirs, levees, or 
dikes. These specialized flood modifying works are 
those constructed in conformance with sound engineering 
standards. 



FLOOD-RELATED EROSION [1] - The collapse or subsidence 
of land along the shore of a lake or other body of 
water as a result of undermining caused by waves or 
currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels 
or suddenly caused by an unusually high water level in 
a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe 
storm, or by an unanticipated force of nature, such 
as a flash flood or an abnormal tidal surge, or by some 
similarly unusual and unforeseeable event which results 
in flooding. 



FLOODPLAIN/FLOOD-PRONE AREA - Any land area susceptible 
to being inundated by water from any source (see the 
definition of "flooding"). 



FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT [1] - The operation of an overall 

program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing 
flood damage, including but not limited to emergency 
preparedness plans, flood control works, and floodplain 
management regulations. 



FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS [1] - Zoning ordinances, 
subdivision regulations, building codes, health regula- 
tions, special purpose ordinances (covering, for example, 
floodplains, grading, and erosion control) and other appli- 
cations of police power. The term describes such State or 
local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide 
standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and 
reduction. 



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FLOODPLAIN PRESERVATION [2] - The prevention of modification 
of the natural floodplain environment or maintenance of the 
floodplain environment in a condition as close as possible 
to its natural state using all practicable means. 



FLOODPLAIN RESTORATION [2] - The re-establishment of a setting 
or environment in which the natural functions of the 
floodplain can again operate. 

FLOODPLAIN VALUES [2] - Those natural and beneficial attri- 
butes associated with the relatively undisturbed state of 
the floodplain, including values primarily associated with 
water, living, and cultural resources. 

FLOOD PROOFING [1] - Any combination of structural and 

nonstructural additions, changes, or adjustments to struc- 
tures that reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate 
or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, 
structures and their contents. 



FLOODWAY - That portion of the floodplain consisting of the 
stream channel and overbank areas needed to carry and 
discharge flood flows. The floodway is intended to carry 
the deep and fast moving water. 

FREEBOARD - A factor of safety usually expressed in feet 
above a flood level for purposes of floodplain management. 
"Freeboard" tends to compensate for the many unknown factors 
that could contribute to flood heights greater than the height 
calculated for a selected size flood and floodway conditions, 
such as wave action, bridge openings, and the hydrological 
effect of urbanization of the watershed. 



GROIN - A dam for sand. A groin is a structure built at 
right angles to a beach to interrupt longshore sand 
movement and trap sand in order to stabilize or widen 
the beach. 



100-YEAR FLOODPLAIN - The land area adjoining a river, stream, 
lake, or ocean which is inundated by the 100-year flood. The 
100-year flood is the regulatory (base) flood under the NFIP. 



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HYDRAULICS - The science dealing with the mechanical properties 
of liquids which describes the specific pattern and rate of 
water movement in the environment. 



HYDROLOGY - The science of the earth's waters which describes 
the occurrence, circulation, distribution, chemical, and 
physical properties of water and its reaction with the 
environment. 



LITTORAL [5] - Of or pertaining to the shore, especially of 
the sea; coastal. 



LITTORAL DRIFT [5] - The movement of sand by littoral (long- 
shore) currents in a direction parallel to the beach 
along the shore. 



MARSH [6] - A wetland dominated by herbaceous or nonwoody 
plants, often developing in shallow ponds or depressions, 
river margins, tidal areas, and estuaries. 



MANGROVE SWAMP (STAND) [5] - An assemblage of subtropical 
trees of the genus Rhezaphora forming dense thickets which 
extend into coastal waters. 



NONSTRUCTURAL [2] - Any action taken to reduce or prevent 
flood losses in a floodplain other than the construction 
of storage dams, retention dams, diversions, channel 
improvements, and levees. All those adjustments in 
floodplain occupancy not specifically intended to modify 
flood behavior. Such adjustments include such devices 
as public acquisition of land, relocation of facilities, 
flood proofing, warning systems, and land use regulation. 



PRACTICABLE [2] - Capable of being done within existing con- 
straints. The test of what is pracicable depends upon the 
situation and includes consideration of the pertinent 
factors, such as environment, cost, or technology. 



PRESERVE [2] - To prevent modification to the natural 
floodplain environment or to maintain it as closely as 
possible to its natural state. 



-93- 



REGULAR PROGRAM - The program authorized by the NFIP under 
which risk premium rates are required for the first part of 
available coverage (also known as "first layer" coverage) 
for all new construction and substantial improvements 
started on or after the effective date of the FIRM, or 
after December 31, 1974 for FIRM'S effective on or before 
that data. All buildings, the construction of which started 
before the effective date of the FIRM, or before January 1, 
1975 for FIRM'S effective before that date, are eligible 
for first layer coverage at either subsidized rates or risk 
premium rates, whichever are lower. Regardless of date of 
construction, risk premium rates are always required for the 
second layer coverage and such coverage is offered only 
after FEMA has completed the Flood Insurance Study for the 
community. 



REGULATORY FLOODPLAIN [3] - The area adjoining a river, 
stream, lake or ocean which is inundated by a regulatory 
flood. In riverine areas, the floodplain usually consists 
of a regulatory floodway and regulatory flood fringe (also 
referred to as a floodway fringe). In coastal areas, the 
floodplain may consist of a single regulatory floodplain 
area or a regulatory high-hazard area and a regulatory 
low-hazard area. 



REGULATORY FLOODWAY [3] - A portion of the area a selected 
flood would occupy consisting of a stream channel and 
overbank areas calculated to be capable of conveying the 
selected flood discharge without flood heights or velocities 
increasing to exceed stated levels. The regulatory floodway 
is not an actual channel or cement conduit (as the term 
"floodway" is sometimes understood by engineers). Rather, 
it is an area (with or without alterations by man) calculated 
to be of sufficient width and having sufficient flood con- 
veyance characteristics to pass the flood waters from 
upstream to downstream points without increasing flood 
heights more than a half foot, 1 foot, etc., or without 
substantially increasing velocities over what they would 
have been without assumed confinement. In this calculation, 
all areas outside of the floodway are assumed to play 
no role in passing flood flows, and the floodway itself 
is assumed to remain in an open condition. Floodway areas 
are subject to frequent high velocity flooding, often at 
considerable depths. 



-94- 



( REGULATORY) FLOOD FRINGE (also called the floodway fringe) - 
The portion of the regulatory floodplain beyond the limits 
of the regulatory floodway. It is subject to less frequent 
and lower velocity flooding and does not play a major role 
in passing flood flows. 

RESTORE [2] - To re-establish a setting or environment in which 
the natural functions of the floodplain can again operate. 

REVETMENT [5] - Armors the slope face of a dune or bluff 
with one or more layers of rock (riprap) or concrete. 



RIFFLES - Stream channel bottoms are not uniform. They 
change in repeating patterns between shallow parts called 
riffles and deeper pools. 



RIPRAP - Rock walls. 



RISK PREMIUM RATES - See ACTUARIAL RATES. 



SEAWALL [5] - A solid barricade built at the water's edge 
to protect the shore and to prevent inland flooding. 



SECOND LAYER COVERAGE - An additional amount of insurance 
coverage made available when a community officially enters 
the Regular Program of the NFIP. 



SEDIMENT LOAD - The amount of suspended sediment carried by 
the stream. The stream's sediment load varies with water 
velocity and sediment size. 



SNAGGING - Removal of submerged or partially submerged tree 
stumps or branches. 



STILL WATER STORM HEIGHT - The projected height or elevation 
of flood waters generated by coastal storms of various 
magnitudes calculated under ideal still water conditions 
where no wind generated waves or storm surges are present. 



-95- 



STATE COORDINATING AGENCY [1] - The agency of a State govern- 
ment or other office designated by a State governor or by 
State statute at the request of the NFIP Administrator to 
assist in the implementation of the National Flood Insurance 
Program in that State. 

STRUCTURE [1] - For floodplain management purposes; a structure 
is a walled and roofed building, including mobile homes, and 
a gas or liquid storage tank that is principally above ground. 
"Structure" for insurance coverage purposes means a walled and 
roofed building, other than a gas or liquid storage tank, that 
is principally above ground and affixed to a permanent site, 
including mobile homes on foundations. For the latter purpose, 
the term includes buildings under construction, alteration, or 
repair, but does not include building materials or supplies 
intended for use in such construction, alteration, or repair, 
unless such materials or supplies are within an enclosed 
building on the premises. 



STRUCTURAL - See FLOOD CONTROL WORKS 



SUBSIDIZED RATES [1] - The rates established by the NFIP 
Administrator involving in the aggregate a subsidization 
by the Federal Government. 



SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT [1] - Any repair, reconstruction, 
or improvement of a structure, the cost of which equals 
or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure 
either, (a) before the improvement or repair is started, 
or (b) if the structure has been damaged, and is being 
restored, before the damage occurred. For the purposes 
of this definition, "substantial improvement" is considered 
to occur when the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, 
floor, or other structural part of the building commences, 
whether or not that alteration affects the external dimen- 
sions of the structure. The term does not, however, include 
either (1) any project for improving a structure to comply 
with existing State or local health, sanitary, or safety 
code specifications that are solely necessary to assure 
safe living conditions or (2) any alteration of a structure 
listed on the National Register of Historic Places or 
a State Inventory of Historic Places. 



SWALE [5] - A low-lying area frequently moist or marshy; 
an intermittent drainageway; a slough. 



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SWAMPS [6] - A wetland dominated by woody plants, shrubs, and 
trees such as maples, gums, and Cyprus. 

TSUNAMI [5] - A great sea wave produced by submarine earth 
movement or volcanic eruption. 

VARIANCE [1] - A grant of relief by a community from the terms 
of a floodplain management regulation. 

WATER SURFACE ELEVATION [1] - The projected heights in relation 
to Mean Sea Level reached by floods of various magnitudes 
and frequencies in the floodplains of coastal or riverine 
areas. 

WATERSHED [4] - A region or area contributing untimately to 
the water supply of a particular watercourse or water body. 

WETLANDS [2] - Those areas that an inundated by surface or 
ground water with a frequency sufficient to support and, 
under normal circumstances, does or would support a preva- 
lence of vegetative or aquatic life that requires saturated 
or seasonally saturated soil conditions for growth and repro- 
duction. Wetlands generally include bottomland hardwoods, 
swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas such as sloughs, 
potholes, wet meadows, river overflows, mud flats, and 
natural ponds. 



-97- 



COMMON ABBREVIATIONS 

DR&R - Office of Disaster Response and Recovery of FEMA 

FEMA - Federal Emergency Management Agency 

FHBM - Flood Hazard Boundary Map 

FIA - Federal Insurance Administration of FEMA 

FIS - Flood Insurance Study 

FIRM - Flood Insurance Rate Map 

NFIP - National Flood Insurance Program 

REFERENCES 



As defined in the regulations for the National Flood 
Insurance Program, 41 FR 46962, 1976. 

A defined in the U.S. Water Resources Council guidelines 
for implementing Executive Order No. 11988, 43 FR 6030 
(1978). 

From J. Kusler and T. Lee, "Regulations for Flood Plains," 
American Society of Planning Officials, Planning Advisory 
Service Report No. 277 (1972). 

From Wisconsin Administrative Code, Chapter NR 16 
(July 1977) . 

From John Clark, Coastal Ecosystems Management ; 

A Technical Manual for the Conservation of Coastal 

Zone Resources (New York: John Wiley and Sons Interscience, 

1977). 

As defined in Elinor Lander Horwitz, Our Nation's Wetlands 
(Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978). 






I 



I 



APPENDIX I 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT AND 
NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION 

Community Action Guide Summary 



( 



a 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT AND 
NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION 

Community Action Guide Summary 



» 



This training document was prepared by the Conservation 
Foundation under contract to the Federal Emergency Management 
Agency (FEMA) . Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or 
recommendations expressed in this document are those of the 
authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the 
Federal Emergency Management Agency. 



Federal Emergency Management Agency 
Contract No. EMW-C-0014 



• 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Material in Chapters I through VI of this handbook has been 
written by Clem Rastatter, Margaret Schneider, John Clark, 
Jay Benforado, and Valerie Scopaz. Chapter VII was prepared 
by Michael Mantell. All are Conservation Foundation staff. 
Chapter VIII was prepared by a consultant to the Foundation, 
Elizabeth Haskell. 

Thanks go to the following reviewers who provided us their 
thoughtful editorial and technical comments: John Banta, Christopher 
Duerksen, John Kusler, Rudd Piatt, Claire Ruben, Gilbert White, 
Syd Howe, Larry Larsen, Ken Christopherson, Douglas Porter, 
Shirley Alsop, Paul Brooks, and Jerry Degan. 

In addition, a number of Federal Emergency Management Agency 
staff contributed a great deal of time in assuring the technical 
accuracy of this manual. These reviewers included Gary Sepulvado, 
Richard Krimm, Larry Zenzinger, Joseph Couglin, and John 
Schiebel, among others. 

Very special thanks and appreciation go to John H. Noble 
for his editorial and organizational comments; to our editor, 
Nancy Suniewick; and to Jenny Billet for managing and typing the 
manuscript. 



PREFACE 



In September 1979, The Conservation Foundation began work 
on a contract with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 
to develop a community training program on flood hazard mitiga- 
tion. * Our charge was threefold: 

• To enhance community understanding of the minimum 
standards and basic requirements of the National 
Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) , particularly 

the second phase also known as the regular NFIP 
program. 

• To help local community leaders understand the manner 
in which the protection of ecosystem functions may be 
integrated into a hazard mitigation program; 

• To assist leaders in communities that have entered 
or are about to enter the regular phase of the NFIP 
in providing informed leadership for implementable 
floodplain management programs. 

Under contract with FEMA, The Conservation Foundation 
conducted two pilot training institutes for governmental and 
nongovernmental leaders from flood-prone communities. Our 
task was to also write and produce a volume on community 
flood hazard management and natural resource protection, a 
slide show on the same subject, and a trainers' manual on 
how to present comparable training institutes in other 
communities . 

The material that follows is a summary of the volume 
on community flood hazard management and natural resource 
protection.** Developed for pre-institute reading, this summary 
is designed to serve two functions: first to ensure that 
participants in the training programs arrive at the training 
institute with a common understanding of some of the basic 
terms and concepts of community flood hazard management; 
second, to start participant examination of the manner in 
which they might involve others in their community in the 
development of a flood hazard management program. 



* Mitigation has been defined by the National Governors' 
Association as "including any activities that actually 
eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence of a 
disaster . . . " . 



** 



The volume itself, entitled Flood Hazard Management and 
Natural Resource Protection: Community Action Guide , 
is available from FEMA. 



CONTENTS 



PREFACE 

I. FLOODS: NATURAL EVENTS WITH MAN-MADE 

REPERCUSSIONS 

II. COASTAL AND RIVERINE FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT: 
GUIDELINES FOR CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES 
AND PROTECTION AGAINST FLOOD HAZARDS . . . 

III. CREATING A COMMUNITY PROGRAM TO MANAGE 

FLOOD HAZARDS 

IV. THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM . . . 



VI. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN COMMUNITY FLOOD HAZARD 
MANAGEMENT , 

VII. THE LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING 
COMMUNITY STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD HAZARD 
MITIGATIONS , 



Page 



8 
12 



V. NEW INITIATIVES FOR THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY 

MANAGEMENT AGENCY 23 



28 



33 



VIII. INSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS IN IMPLEMENTING 
COMMUNITY STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD HAZARD 
MITIGATION 37 

APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY 41 

APPENDIX B: PUBLIC PARTICIPATION TOOLS 55 



I. FLOODS: NATURAL EVENTS WITH MAN-MADE REPERCUSSIONS 

THE NATURE OF FLOODING AND FLOODPLAINS 

FLOODS, FLOODING, AND FLOODPLAINS 

Floods, the temporary inundation of normally dry land, 
are the result of a complex set of hydrologic* and hydraulic* 
interactions. 

In a riverine system, flooding occurs when conditions 
cause a stream channel to be filled with a greater volume of 
water than it can carry. The excess water rises up and flows 
over the channel banks onto the adjacent land. In a coastal 
system, flooding occurs when storm-driven waves rise above 
the mean high tide level and surge inland to inundate 
adjacent low-lying lands. 

Delineating these flood-prone lands and estimating the 
probability and frequency of inundation is an art which 
draws on both hydrologic and hydraulic principles (see 
Chapter IV) . 

BENEFITS OF FLOODS AND FLOODPLAINS 

Although the inundation of land areas may be hazardous 
to man, flooding has many beneficial components. Floods play 
a vital role in the development and maintenance of floodplains 
and their associated wildlife habitats. Generally, floods are 
an important source of nutrients and energy for floodplain's 
habitats. Flood waters are also responsible for the rich, 
flat alluvial soils that are so valuable for agricultural 
purposes. Floodplains provide easy access to the water for 
economic and recreational purposes and serve to lessen the 
potential destruct iveness of floods. Floodplains contribute 
to the: 

# Moderation of flood levels; 



* Hydrology , the science of the earth's waters, describes 
the occurrence, circulation, distribution, chemical, and 
physical properties of water and its reaction with the 
environment. Meteorologic conditions, soil type, 
vegetative cover, and land use, which can affect the 
quantity and distribution of water, are hydrologic factors. 
Hydraulics , the science dealing with the mechanical 
properties of liquids describes the specific pattern and 
rate of water movement in the environment. Stream channel 
shape and roughness which affect the pattern and rate of 
water movement are hydraulic factors. 



-2- 

• Retention and storage of flood waters; 

• Maintenance of water quality; and 

• Protection against erosion. 

THE NATURE OF FLOOD HAZARDS AND FLOOD DAMAGE 

Despite the beneficial aspects of floods and floodplains, 
with few exceptions floods have been viewed as destructive 
events, threats to human life and property and to a community's 
economic vitality. A frequent response to the flood threat was 
to fight the river or hold back the sea by building levees, 
flood walls, dikes, and breakwaters. Experience has shown 
these responses to have only temporary and partial effect. 
We are beginning to realize that human uses of the floodplain 
adversely affect the flooding potential of a riverine or 
coastal water system. 

THE MAGNITUDE OF THE FLOOD HAZARD PROBLEM 

Riverine and coastal floodplains constitute only about 
7 percent of the total land area of the U.S., yet flooding is 
the most widespread geophysical hazard. The federal government 
recognizes over 20,000 communities as being floodprone. ^— 

Estimates are that approximately one-half of U.S. communities 
suffer significant flooding from riverine and stream overflows 
alone. Floodplains are estimated to contain 6.4 million dwelling 
units and considerable non-residential development. Flood 
losses have increased steadily since the 1930s. In 1966, a 
federal task force on flood control policy estimated annual 
losses at $1 billion. The Water Resources Council's latest 
estimate placed annual losses at approximately $3.8 billion in 
1979 dollars. If present trends continue, WRC projects 1985 
annual flood losses (in 1979 dollars) of $5 billion. These 
ever-increasing flood-related damage estimates have spurred 
a re-evaluation of traditional flood management approaches 
in this country. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF FLOODS IN THE UNITED STATES 
HISTORICAL RESPONSES TO FLOOD HAZARDS (PRE-1968) 

The history of flood and flood hazard management is 
one of increasing governmental involvement. During the 
late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century, flooding 
was viewed as a regional or local problem. Consequently, 
attempts to deal with the problem were usually local in 
nature and scale. The period from 1824 to 1936 saw an 



-3- 



increasing amount of Federal activity dealing with flood 
protection on navigable rivers. The passage of the Flood 
Control Act of 1936 marked the beginnings of a comprehensive 
Federal policy toward flood prevention and control on a national 
scale. Initially, this policy advocated the use of both 
structural projects and nonstructural land management measures. 
In time, however, the structural approach became the preferred 
federal means of flood control. This structural dominance 
continued even as a number of flood hazard management experts 
began to voice — in the early 1950' s— -their belief that 
structural measures, alone, were not capable of mitigating 
the flood hazard. 



THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM: THE TRANSITIONS YEARS 
(1968-1978) 

In 1968, Congress created the National Flood Insurance 
Program (NFIP) . The two major thrusts of the 1968 Act (as 
amended) were (and are): 

• To make Federal flood insurance available to home- 
owners and business-owners already exposed to 
flood hazards; and 

• To require as a condition of insurance availability 
adoption of specified hazard mitigation practices, 
including land use practices which restrict develop- 
ment on delineated flood-prone lands. 

The Federal Insurance Administration, which was created 
by the act to administer the NFIP and is now part of the Federal 
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), was charged with identifying 
all flood-prone areas of the United States and establishing 
actuarial insurance rates based on the degree of flood hazard 
risk. 



LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES FOR FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION 

In the early 1970's, in recognition of the seriousness of 
rising disaster relief expenditures, both Congress and the 
President took initiatives designed to give new momentum to 
disaster mitigation and non-structural flood control 
strategies . 

Water Resources Development Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-251) 

Section 73 of the Water Resources Development Act 
requires that Federal agencies give consideration to non- 
structural alternatives in the planning or design of any 
federal project. Federal agencies are authorized to assume 



-4- 



at least 80 percent of the cost for these non-structural 
alternative including acquisition of floodplain lands for 
recreational, fish and wildlife, and other public purposes. 

The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-28) 

The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 established policies 
for the distribution of financial assistance during presiden- 
tially declared disasters. 

EXECUTIVE BRANCH INITIATIVES FOR FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION 

Floodplains and Wetlands Executive Orders 

On May 24, 1977, President Carter issued Executive Order 
11988, Floodplain Management, and Executive Order 11990, 
Protection of Wetlands. 

The Floodplains Order directs all federal agencies to 
provide leadership to reduce the risk of flood loss, 
minimize the impact of floods, and "restore and preserve 
the natural and beneficial values served by floodplains in 
carrying out its activities ..." Each agency was instructed 
to avoid siting on a floodplain unless there was no reasonable 
alternative site. Where an action must take place in a flood- 
plain, an agency must evaluate the potential effects of that 
action and take steps to minimize the activity's impacts on 
the floodplain. 

The Wetlands Executive Order also stresses avoidance, 
consideration of alternatives, and minimization of damage to 
valuable natural systems (wetlands). Both orders are important 
to local communities; their implementation by federal agencies 
will affect the full range of Federal investment in local 
communities . 

The Federal Emergency Management Agency 

The most recent stage of increasing involvement of 
the Federal government in flood hazard management was the 
creation in 1979 of the Federal Emergency Management Agency 
(FEMA). Coordinating the hazard mitigation efforts of five 
related agencies, FEMA is now responsible for Federal planning 
coordination and oversight of emergency preparedness, response, 
and mitigation of natural and man-made disasters. 

Together these Federal initiatives provide national 
recognition of the ever-increasing level of flood-related 
losses in this country and the need for a comprehensive, 
coordinated approach to flood hazard mitigation. These federal 
policies influence actions on the floodplains and must be 
taken into consideration in a community's flood hazard mitigation 
deci sions . 



-5- 



II. COASTAL AND RIVERINE FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT: GUIDELINES 
FOR CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND PROTECTION AGAINST 
FLOOD HAZARDS 

In both the riverine and coastal setting, ecological 
resources play an important role in flood hazard protection 
by buffering storms and moderating flood heights and velocities. 
Protecting these resources is frequently an effective flood 
hazard management strategy and should be a component of any 
community flood hazard management program. 

Guidelines for resource protection recommended in Chapter 2 
are based on the "design with nature" principle: planning for 
both hazards and resource management should start with an 
understanding of the forces of nature. While the specific 
application of this principle will vary from community to 
community — reflecting unique physical and ecological settings — 
five guiding management policies should apply in all flood- 
prone areas: manage the entire system; preserve the natural 
floodplain; protect the edge; preserve watercourses and wet- 
lands; and restore damaged floodplain environments. 



PART I: RIVERS 

Running through the landscape as a corridor, rivers 
and the lands they drain form an important ecological manage- 
ment unit. An effective program of river flood hazard and 
ecological management should consider the river and its 
watershed as a system. Activities in every part of the river 
corridor--not just in its floodprone parts — affect river 
flood potentials and ecological functions and should be 
wisely managed. 

River corridors extend from the stream's headwaters to 
the sea and across valleys from ridge line to ridge line of the 
drainage basin. Across the valley, the corridor can be 
divided into three places of concern — the river, floodprone 
lands, and the uplands . Within these places are natural 
resources that are of particular concern for their ecological 
and flood moderating values. These vital resources — wetlands 
and transitional features — require special management and 
protection. 

To protect the natural flood-moderating and ecological 
values of the river corridor system, the following guidelines 
are recommended : 

• Discourage alteration of the watershed terrain; 

• Discourage stream channelization, straightening, 
diking, bulkheading , and riprapping in favor of 
nonstructural alternatives; 



-6- 



Restrain activities such as excavation, fillinq, 4 

clearing, paving, grading, draining, or diking 
that alter the surface or hydrologic systems of 
wetlands ; 

Require structures and access ways to be designed 
so that they do not degrade wetland function; 

Require protective buffer strips along wetlands 
edges ; 

Require that all development be set back an 
appropriate distance from the "ordinary high water 
mark" of all streams; 

Require appropriate development standards wherever 
it is not feasible to include all transitional 
features and other vital resources in a protective 
buffer; and 

Restore natural river corridor values. 



PART II: COASTS 

Coastal management for the dual purposes of providing 
protection from flood hazards and conserving ecological 
resources should embrace the entire coastline and the watershed 
and inland hydrologic systems that it drains. Of greatest 
importance is the place where water and land interact—the 
coastal floodplain. Activities in every part of the watershed 
can affect coastal flooding, however, and should be included 
in a community's management program. 

Like the river corridor, the coastal area can be divided 
into places of concern — the coastal basin, coastal floodprone 
lands, and upland areas. Within these zones are found a 
variety of vital resources, requiring special management 
considerations. The vital resources include barrier 
islands, beaches, dunes, wetlands, and special vegetative 
edge features . 

The management policies applicable to coastal watersheds 
and hydrologic systems are also similar to those for riverine 
watersheds. Above all, alterations of the natural features 
of coastal areas should be discouraged. The other guidelines 
that follow, suggested in part I, are applicable to coastal 
watersheds: 

• Discourage alteration .of the watershed terrain; 

• Discourage alteration of natural drainageways such 
as streams; 



-7- 



• Restrain activities that alter the surface or 
hydrologic systems of wetlands; 

• Require structures and access ways across wetlands 
to be designed so that they do not degrade wetland 
functions; and 

• Require protective buffer strips along wetlands 
and other vital resource edges. 

The following additional guidelines are suggested to 
protect other vital coastal resources: 

• Select locations for navigation channels and for 
removal and deposit of the dredged material to avoid 
adverse effects on basin floors and critical areas 
such as grass beds. 

• Avoid removing sand from all parts of the beach 
system, including the shallow near shore zone; 

• Maintain natural beach processes by di scourging 
strucutres that adversely affect littoral (or 
ocean) sand transport; 

• Prevent disturbance of dunes and dune vegetation 
by requiring building to be landward of the active 
dune; by restraining traffic over dunelands; and 
by prohibiting excavation and removal on dunes; 

• Locate all structures inland of the beach; 

• Discourage activities that physically alter the 
face or toe of banks and bluffs; 

• Encourage the use of natural means of protection 
or property designed bulkheads to protect bank 
and bluff toes from erosion; and 

• Encourage restoration of degraded vital resource 
areas such as wetlands, dunes, and beaches. 



-8- 



III. CREATING A COMMUNITY PROGRAM TO MANAGE FLOOD HAZARDS * 

Each community bears the principal responsibility for 
addressing flood hazards within its borders. Each needs to 
fashion its own flood hazard management program. No single 
model exists for a community flood hazard management program. 
The management program in a community should be tailored to 
the community's unique physical and institutional setting 
and should respond to the community's goals. But the over- 
riding objective should be reducing flood losses and protecting 
natural systems, as discussed in the previous chapter, while 
avoiding unacceptable economic, social, and environmental 
costs . 

Fashioning a community flood hazard management program is 
a complex process. To help communities about to undertake the 
process, two innovative flood hazard management programs are 
described in part I of this chapter. Part II then suggests a 
series of key questions communities should address in 
structuring their individual flood hazard management programs. 

PART I . TWO INNOVATIVE FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 

The examples, Baltimore County and Charles River Watershed, 
are neither typical of community flood hazard management 
programs, nor are they model programs: communities vary too 
much to propose a "right" management program. The two 
examples do represent ambitious responses to local and regional 
flooding problems that illustrate the possibilities for mitigating 
flooding. These examples also demonstrate key elements of the 
community planning process and thus provide useful background 
for communities entering that process. 

In Baltimore County, a program of acquisition and relocation 
of flood-prone homes, combined with regulation of the 100-year 
floodplain and stormwater management policies, has been under- 
taken without outside funding. 

Along the Charles River in Massachusetts, a flood hazard 
management project combines natural systems preservation with 
structural flood control to achieve the multiple goals of 
flood control, habitat protection, and the provision of 
recreation and open space areas. 

PART II: FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT ISSUES 

Like those leaders in Baltimore County and along the 
Charles River, community planners fashioning flood hazard 
management programs face a series of issues. 



-9- 



WHAT FLOOD HAZARDS DOES THE COMMUNITY FACE? 

As discussed in chapter I, floods are natural events that, 
in interaction with man, can pose hazards to both life and 
property. The nature of a community's flooding problem, 
therefore, is dependent on both natural processes and on 
man-made factors . 

To identify and understand their flooding problems, 
community planners need a variety of data. In most communities, 
a variety of flood data exists, ranging from historical accounts 
to detailed hydraulic studies. Technical and financial assist- 
ance, provided by State and Federal agencies, can help communities 
evaluate and supplement these data. The major source of technical 
assistance for the community will often come through the National 
Flood Insurance Program. 

In addition to flood data, a community needs to assemble 
information on the population and property at risk. Zoning, 
documents, master plans and tax maps are helpful in identifying 
the type and condition of existing or committed land uses in 
the hazard areas. Within the classes of existing uses, 
developed land, as well as preserved or regulated areas, 
should be identified. 



WHAT ARE THE COMMUNITY'S GOALS FOR FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT? 

Before community leaders can put together a wise flood 
hazard management program, they must first decide what they 
want to accomplish — what their goals are. 

A recent survey of communities participating in the 
National Flood Insurance Program indicates that most 
communities have adopted multiple goals for their flood 
hazard management programs. The goals most frequently 
adopted in surveyed communities were reduction of losses 
and protection of health and safety. Over 40 percent 
of the surveyed communities participating in the regular 
phase of the NFIP also cited preservation of natural areas 
and open space as community goals. 

Another goal communities may wish to consider adopting 
is "divert development away from floodplain locations where 
practical." Adoption of a development diversion goal can 
help make community goals consistent with federal programs. 

Goals for any community based effort, of course, cannot 
be set in a vacuum or by only one group of interests. Many 
people and organizations have a stake in the goals established 
for floodprone lands, including: financial leaders; environmental 
conservation leaders; emergency preparedness civic organizations; 
and general pupose civic organizations. 



-10- 



HOW DO EXISTING PROGRAMS AND REGULATIONS RESPOND TO THE .<* 

FLOOD HAZARD IN THE COMMUNITY? 

In choosing strategies to achieve flood hazard management 
goals, community planners need to consider existing programs 
and regulations. An inventory of these programs and regulations, 
therefore, should be undertaken. Such an inventory would 
likely include review of existing zoning, subdivision, and 
building codes as well as review of State enabling legislation. 

WHAT STRATEGIES AND TOOLS ARE AVAILABLE TO ADDRESS 
FLOOD HAZARDS? 

There are three basic approaches to flood hazard manage- 
ment: (1) modify the flood itself, (2) modify man's suscepti- 
bility to flood damage; and (3) modify the impacts by distributing 
the losses (i.e., through insurance and disaster relief). 

Reducing man's susceptibility to flooding involves adjusting 
building practices and land uses in hazard areas, and protecting 
natural systems that moderate flooding. For puposes here, the 
strategies to accomplish these objectives can be divided into 
five groups: planning; regulation; acquisition/redevelopment; 
public information/education; and economics. 

< 
WHAT FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION STRATEGIES ARE MOST APPROPRIATE 

FOR THE COMMUNITY? 

Using all the information gathered on the flooding problem 
and on available management strategies, community planners 
are in a position to select specific measures to meet flood 
hazard management goals. 

In choosing among flood hazard management alternatives, 
community planners will need to consider social, economic, 
and environmental impacts of the alternative. Some impacts, 
of course, are beneficial. The most common benefits derived 
from flood hazard management programs are reduction in flood 
losses, improved safety, increased recreational opportunities, 
and protection of natural systems. Other impacts can be 
detrimental. Frequently cited "costs" of flood hazard manage- 
ment include reductions in some property values, rsulting 
in reductions in assessed valuations, and increased costs of 
construction in hazard areas. 

Though evaluating the costs and advantages of flood modera- 
tion approaches appears to be a formidable job, this type 
of evaluation is no different from that involved in any other 
community decision. Careful evaluation of the flood problem 
the community setting, and alternative management strategies 
within a broad community forum should result in the "airing" 



4 



-11- 



of critical trade-offs and enable the community to choose 
a course of action compatible with its flood problem 
and broader community needs. 

The ultimate success of any community flood hazard manage- 
ment program is dependent on this broad-based community support 
and on the effectiveness of the institutions assigned enforce- 
ment responsibilities. 



* 



• 



-12- 



IV. THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM 



WHAT IS THE NFIP ? 

The NFIP provides basic flood hazard data and a flood 
hazard management framework for every flood-prone community in 
the United States. The NFIP program offers insurance coverage 
and other benefits to local communities if they undertake certain 
flood hazard mitigation steps. 

INSURANCE 

Flood insurance becomes available to the community whenever 
an application to participate in the National Flood Insurance 
Program is made to FEMA. Insurance coverage is made available 
in two stages. Before completion of mapping showing the risk 
zones on which actuarial rates can be based, a first layer of 
coverage at subsidized rates is available. This period, from 
the start of community participation in the NFIP to the completion 
of the detailed mapping study (the Flood Insurance Study) is the 
Emergency Program. When detailed flood hazard risk studies are 
completed, and communities agree to undertake additional hazard 
mitigation responsibilities, a second layer of additional coverage 
becomes available at actuarial rates. This phase of the communities' 
participation in the NFIP is the Regular Program. 

New Directions in Insurance; Coastal 

With the issuance of the FEMA wide rule to implement the 

floodplains and wetlands Executive orders, new policies have 

been set in place that will affect flood insurance rates in 
the future. 

Beginning February 1, 1981, newly constructed or substan- 
tially improved structures in coastal high hazard areas (V zones)* 
will be individually rated to withstand damage from the base 
flood. (The base flood is the 100 year frequency storm for most 
activities, and the 500 year frequency storm for critical activit- 
ies — activities for which any risk of flooding is too great). 



* The Federal Insurance Administration must identify all 
coastal high hazard areas by October 1, 1981. 



. \ 



-13- 



Flood related factors that must be considered in individual 
insurance ratings include flood risk, flood related erosion 
risk, soil composition, stability of structure. In addition, 
the base flood elevation will be the designated wave height. 

In the past, actuarial rates in V-zones have been based 
solely on the relationship of the first-floor elevation of 
the structure to the base-flood elevation. The base-flood 
elevation in coastal areas has been the still-water surge of 
the storm having a 1 percent chance of occurrence in any 
given year and has not included wave height and runup. In 
addition, actuarial rates have before been unrelated to 
other factors that affect the actual flood risk exposure of a 
building in an exposed coastal location — i.e., flood related 
erosion, etc. Now wave height and other factors that relate 
to risk exposure will be used to determine the actuarial rate 
for each structure.* 



FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION ** 

The flood mitigation measures required of communities 
participating in NFIP are also staged, depending upon the 
amount of flood information provided to the community. 

Required flood hazard mitigation activities during the 
Emergency Program relate to the issuance of building permits 
and certain development activities, such as subdivisions. 
In the absence of engineering data, the community must develop 
a process for case-by-case consideration of developments in 
known flood-prone areas. In addition, the community is urged 
to gather the best available data on flood boundaries and 
elevations . 



* Although the legal definition of new buildings is 
tied to the date a community enters the NFIP Regular 
Program (and adoption of the Flood Insurance Rate 
Map), when there is a change in the FIRM and a change 
in the base-flood elevation, structures built before 
that change are subjected to the rates in effect when 
they were first eligible for insurance. 

** Defined as action taken to minimize flood damage potential 



-14- 



During the community's participation in the Regular 
Program, floodplain management requirements which are tied 
to the amount of information provided by FIA, cover land use 
in high hazard areas where new development should be restricted. 
These specific areas are identifed on maps given to the community 
by FIA. Information on these same maps usually establishes 
the heights to which structures have to be elevated and/or 
f loodproofed. 

WHO ARE THE ACTORS IN NFIP AND WHAT ARE THEIR ROLES? 

THE COMMUNITY 

Responsibility for implementing the NFIP rests with 
the community. As defined by NFIP regulations, a community 
is any political subdivision or area of a State with authority 
to adopt and enforce floodplain management regulations for the 
areas within its jurisdiction. The word "community" as used 
in the NFIP program can refer to a State, to a county, to a 
municipality, or to any other political subdivision with 
authority to implement the NFIP requirements. The role of 
specific actors within communities is described in chapter IV. 

STATE GOVERNMENT 

The State has several roles in implementing the National 
Flood Insurance Program. State properties and- buildings are 
eligible for flood insurance if they meet certain NFIP standards. 

State government also plays a key enabling role in the area 
of floodplain management. Many activities that local governments 
are required to carry out as conditions for their participation 
in the NFIP must first be allowed by State law (see chapter VII, 
Legal Considerations). State agencies can also require more 
restrictive regulations than those required by the NFIP. 

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 

The NFIP is implemented through the Federal Insurance 
Administration , which is a component of the Federal Emergency 
Management Agency (FEMA).* FEMA has both national staff (located 
in Washington) and regional staff working in each of the 10 Federal 



* Until the creation of FEMA in 1979, the Federal Insurance 
Administration (FIA) was a component of the Department of 
Housing and Urban Development (HUD) . With the reorganization 
of disaster related programs into FEMA, FIA became a division 
of FEMA. All NFIP rules and regulations have been recodified 
as FEMA regulations. (44 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter B) 
A Federal Insurance Administrator, retains primary responsibility 
for the program's implementation at the national level. 



-15- 



regions (figure I). At the regional level the FEMA staff responsi- 
ble for the implementation of the NFIP are found within the Office 
of Insurance and Mitigation. Both the regional and national staff 
include engineers, planners, and hydrologists ; all play critical 
roles in implementing the NFIP at the community level. 

Other Federal agencies are also involved in floodplain 
management and implementing the NFIP at the community level. 
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Soil Conservation Service 
and the Tennessee Valley Authority are three other principal 
Federal agencies that have technical assistance programs for 
floodplain management (see appendix A, chapter III). In addition, 
these and several other agencies contract with FEMA to conduct 
some of the basic engineering studies that bring communities into 
the NFIP's Regular Program. 

PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS 

Private organizations are involved both formally and 
informally in implementing the NFIP nationally. Engineering 
firms frequently are awarded contracts to prepare the flood 
insurance studies that enable communities to participate in the 
NFIP Regular Program. Other organizations provide technical 
services under contract to FEMA. Private consulting firms 
conduct technical studies that often precede changes in 
regulatory direction. Businesses and environmental organizations 
monitor policy shifts that affect the implementation of the NFIP. 

HOW DOES A COMMUNITY PARTICIPATE IN THE NFIP ? 

IDENTIFICATION AND APPLICATION 

For most communities in the United States, involvement with 
the NFIP began in the early to mid 1970's. First, these communities 
were identified by the Federal Insurance Administration as flood 
prone (i.e., having areas subject to at least a 1 percent 
annual chance of flooding. 

After a nonparticipating community has been identified 
as floodprone, or wishes to become eligible for flood insurance 
coverage, community officials apply to FEMA for admission to the 
Emergency Program. 

If the nonparticipating community has been given a flood 
hazard boundary map, it has 12 months to join the Emergency 
phase of the NFIP and adopt the required floodplain management 
regulations. The steps for community involvement in the NFIP 
are summarized in Table I. 



-16- 



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-17- 

TABLE I 
Steps for Community Involvement in the NFIP 



FIA Identification of 
Community as Flood Prone 



FIA Preparation 
of FHBM 



Community Application 
to Program 



Community Preparation of Map 
and other Application Materials 



Community Passage of Appropriate Ordinances 
and Regulatory Authority 



Community Enrolled in Emergency Program 



Review by State 

and FIA 
Regional Office 



Community Identified 
for Accelerated 
Conversion 



Conversion 



Community Emergence 
on Priority List 








CCO Appointed , 
FIS Begun 











Review by State 

and FIA 
Regional Office 



Time and Cost Meeting 



Intermediate Meeting 



Final Meeting, 
Presentation of FIS 



Publication of Proposed 
Flood Elevations and 
Insurance Zones 



Aooeals Period - 90 days 



Publish final flood 
elevations 



Effective date of FIRM Map 
(within six months of final 
publication of flood elevations) 



Community Passage of Floodplain 
Management Ordinances 

(within 6 months of publication 
of final elevations) 



Community Enters Regular Program 



18- 



WHAT ARE THE BASIC REGULATORY CONCEPTS AND TOOLS OF 
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN THE NFIP ? 

THE BASE FLOOD CONCEPT 

To predict flood damage, it is necessary to determine 
the area of land affected and the height to which water will 
rise (flood elevation) in that area. 

Floods are normally described in terms of their frequency 
(or more accurately, their probability of occurring. FIA has 
selected the 100-year flood (with a 1 percent chance of 
occurrence annually) as the base flood for the NFIP. 

100-Year Flood 

The 100-year base flood in a riverine setting is normally 
determined on an engineering model that uses information on 
historic floods, climatological patterns, and current hydro- 
logic and hydraulic watershed data. In a coastal setting, 
the 100-year base flood calculation also involves use of historic 
records — ocean gauges and climatological data — but instead of 
the runoff information developed from the hydrologic calculations 
of a riverine situation, the area covered by a coastal flood is 
generally related to the storm coming in from the ocean. (The 
cause of coastal flooding is generally wind-driven water. ) The 
geographic area inundated by the 100-year flood in coastal 
situations is calculated in an engineering model that estimates 
where the still-water storm surge (usual height of astronomic 
tide plus surge) will cover the land. 

Floodplain; Regulated Land Areas 

For regulatory purposes, the floodplain is divided into 
parts or districts — each of which has a different set of 
regulatory requirements. 

Floodway 

The floodway was designed to reserve a portion of the flood- 
plain for the primary purpose of conveying flood flows, and any 
development which would impede this flow was prohibited in this 
district. 

In a riverine setting, the floodway is defined as the 
channel of a river (or other watercourse) and the adjacent land 
area that must be kept open (unconfirmed either horizontally or 
vertically) to provide for the discharge of the base flood 
without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation. 
Regulatory floodways typically allow rises in flood elevations 
of anything from zero to two feet. The NFIP, as noted, has 
adopted a one-foot-rise floodway. 



-19- 



Coastal High Hazard Areas 

Coastal high hazard areas — those parts of the coastal 
floodplain subject to wave action — are identifed on flood 
insurance rate maps (FIRM's) as the velocity or V-zones since 
they are the areas most vulnerable to the force of coastal storms 
An area is designated a V-zone where the still-water storm height 
(tide plus surge) is sufficient to support at least a 3-foot 
wave, assuming, of course, that the distance along the water is 
great enough for waves to gain such height. 

It's important to note that elevations used in the velocity 
zone in Atlantic and Gulf Coast communities have thus far been 
still-water storm heights and historically have not included 
wave height. 

Flood Fringe 

The so-called flood fringe is that part of the floodplain 
between the coastal high hazard area or the floodway and the 
boundary of the 100-year flood. The amount of land in the flood 
fringe varies according to the topography of the community. If 
the community has adopted a zero-rise floodway for its floodway 
district, the flood fringe may be extremely narrow or nonexistent, 

Regulated Development 

All development that takes place in the 100-year floodplain 
in coastal and riverine areas must be evaluated for its impact 
on flood levels and designed to standards for elevation, flood 
proofing, and/or anchorage that protect against flood damage. 

WHAT ARE THE WORKING TOOLS OF THE NFIP ? 

FIA makes available a number of floodplain management 
tools free of charge to flood prone communities. These tools 
provide the basic data base or starting point for the minimum 
regulatory program requried by the NFIP and for many other 
floodplain management activities communities may wish to 
undertake . 

FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP (FHBM) 

The flood hazard boundary map is often provided to a 
community when it enters the Emergency Program or shortly 
thereafter. It outlines the special flood hazard area (the 
100-year floodplain) . It is prepared quickly from existing 
data and contains no flood elevation information. 



■20- 



FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY (FIS) 

The flood insurance study is the detailed engineering study 
of flood hazards conducted by a qualified firm or government 
agency with the input of the community during a series of 
meetings. Its purpose is to identify and evaluate flood hazards 
and corresponding water surface elevations. 

Flood Profiles 

Flood profiles are contained in the flood insurance study. 
The flood profiles for riverine floods typically show the cross 
section elevation of the stream bed and the 10-year, 50-year, 
100-year, and 500-year flood at specific intervals along the 
stream. 

Flood Boundary and Floodway Map 

The flood boundary and floodway map is a major floodplain 
management tool in riverine communities. It identifies the 
boundaries of the floodway and of the 100- and 500-year flood. 
This map may also contain ground elevation information at a 
few places, as well as the cross section location of flood 
elevation (profile) information from the flood insurance 
study. 

Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) 

Flood insurance rate maps divide the flood hazard area 
into risk zones from which actuarial rate are established. 



MAP LOCATOR SYSTEM 

The FIA is planning to institute over several year a 
map location service. Lending institutions, insurance agents, 
and real estate brokers will be able to call a central toll- 
free number to determine the degree of flood hazard of a 
particular property or structure. 



WHAT ARE THE COMMUNITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE NFIP ? 

Community involvement in the NFIP can be viewed as a con- 
tinuum in which, as new data are acquired, new requirements 
are imposed. Community participation and requirements begin 
as a community is identified as flood-prone and enters the 
Emergency Program. Table II provides a summary of NFIP 
program requirements. 



-21- 



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-23- 



V. NEW INITIATIVES FOR THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY 



National policies now being implemented by FEMA promise 
to influence, in important ways, the activities of flood- 
prone communities. Two shifts in FEMA policy are particularly 
important. They are: FEMA's response to the floodplains and 
wetlands Executive orders; and new initiatives by FEMA to take 
advantage of post-disaster opportunities for hazard mitigation. 

FEMA ORGANIZATIONS: DRR AND FIA 

One major purpose of creating the Federal Emergency Manage- 
ment Agency was to coordinate and centralize federal efforts 
to encourage long-term disaster mitigation. FEMA brought under 
its umbrella two previously separate agencies with closely 
related disaster mitigation missions: the Federal Disaster 
Assistance Administration (now FEMA's Office of Disaster 
Response and Recovery — DRR) , and the Federal Insurance Admini- 
stration (utilizing the same title within FEMA). As suggested 
by Table I, both DRR and FIA are responsible for a variety of 
actions that directly and indirectly affect the manner in which 
individual communities address flood hazard problems. 

FEMA AND THE FLOODPLAINS AND WETLANDS EXECUTIVE ORDERS 

On September 9, 1980, FEMA issued final regulations in 
response to the Floodplains (11988) and Wetlands (11990) 
Executive orders. These regulations are applicable to all of 
FEMA's actions, the interim rule will eventually affect the 
full range of activities before, during and after a flood 
disaster which are conducted by DRR and FIA. The new regula- 
tions apply to activities in flood hazard areas. In addition, 
actions outside a floodplain or wetland, but which affect those 
areas, are also covered. 

The Eight-Step Process 

The interim rule establishes an eight-step decision-making 
process modeled on Water Resources Council guidelines, for 
evaluating activities on the floodplain. The eight steps are 
as follows: 

Step 1 - Determine if action is located in a wetland and/or 
the 100-year (or, if appropriate, due to the nature 
of the action, 500-year) floodplain. 

Step 2 - Early public notification and involvement in the 
decision. 

Step 3 - Identification of practicable alternatives. 



-25- 



Step 4 - Identification of the full range of direct and 

indirect impacts that would result from the action. 

Step 5 - Identification of measures to minimize adverse 

impacts and to restore, preserve, and enhance the 
natural beneficial values of floodplains and 
wetlands . 

Step 6 - Reevaluate the proposed action in light of its 
impact and determine it it is truly the only 
practicable location. 

Step 7 - Publicly explain for any final decision why 

the floodplain or wetland is the only practicable 
alternative. 

Step 8 - Monitor implementation of any floodplain or 
wetland action to ensure that minimization 
requirements are fully implemented. 

Standards to Minimize Flood Damage 

In addition to this eight-step process, the FEMA rule 
prescribes substantive standards for the minimization of flood 
damage. These minimization standards are slightly different 
for the different kinds of hazard mitigation activities con- 
ducted by DRR and FIA. They are mutually supportive and together 
will form a strong framework for flood hazard mitigation, 
particularly in the highest hazard areas--the riverine floodway 
and the coastal high hazard area. 

NEW INITIATIVES IN THE POST-DISASTER SETTING 

Immediately following a major flood, thousands--sometimes 
millions--of federal dollars flow into a community to assist 
recovery. In the past, this recovery has focused on rebuilding 
the community in the same place and frequently in the same 
manner as before the flood. Many people concerned with flood 
hazard mitigation are now looking at the post-flood situation as 
an opportunity to reduce susceptibility to future flood hazards. 
One of the major purposes for the creation of FEMA was to encourage 
hazard mitigation in disaster situations. A common leadership 
directed toward hazard mitigation should ensure a profitable 
marriage between the flood hazard management expertise of FIA 
and the disaster response expertise of the Office of Disaster 
Response and Recovery. 

On July 10, 1980, the Director of the Office of Management 
and Budget (OMB) in the Executive Office of the President, signed 
a directive on Flood Disaster Recovery. This directive provided 
for FEMA leadership in an interagency task force aimed at pro- 
moting the use of common flood disaster planning and post-flood 
recovery practices by all Federal and state agencies operating 



-26- 



into an interagency agreement providing for interagency, inter- 
disciplinary, and intergovernmental hazard mitigation teams to 
operate in post-disaster situations. 

DISASTER RELIEF AND FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION: SECTION 406 

Communities receive federal assistance for pre-disaster 
contingency planning through the National Flood Insurance 
Program. In addition, FEMA has major responsibilities in the 
disaster situations. 

As discussed in Chapter I, Section 406* of the Disaster 
Relief Act of 1974 specified that disaster loans and grants 
be conditioned to ensure that (1) building repairs are in 
accordance with acceptable safety standards, and (2) actions 
are taken to reduce future susceptibility to natural hazards, 
"including safe land use and construction practices . . . " . 
Many of the substantive requirements for the implementation 
of Section 406 will flow from FEMA's implementation of the 
floodplains Executive order. 

HAZARD MITIGATION OPPORTUNITIES 

FEMA staff identify two major mitigation opportunities 
in post-disaster situations: flood protection of damaged 
structures and relocation of substantially or repetitively 
damaged structures. 

FEDERAL INSURANCE ADMINISTRATION: RELOCATION STRATEGIES 

During the past few years, FEMA has developed its own 
strategies to support the relocation of certain flood damaged 
properties out of the floodplain, and to acquire certain 
properties in flood risk areas so that these properties may 
be maintained in open space usage. The two strategies described 
below are: 

• An insurance payment strategy (called Constructive 
Total Loss) that allows the owner of a severely 
damaged property to be paid an insurance payment 
as if the property has been totally destroyed. 
Thus made economicaly whole, the owner of a severely 
damaged structure may be able to move his/ or herself 
out of the flood risk area. 



The single largest source of federal disaster assistance 
is funded under the Act, now implemented by FEMA. 



-27- 



^u) 



• 



• A comprehensive strategy purchase for the purpose 
of maintenance of open space uses certain severely 
and repetitively damaged properties (with authority 
derived from Section 1362 of PL 90-448 as amended). 

The long-term recovery of the area will often be dependent 
upon actions taken during the immediate post-disaster period 
to minimize the community's exposure to future flood hazards. 

Specialists in natural disaster recovery planning identify 

four overlapping periods in the recovery process. It is useful 

to examine these periods in terms of their hazard mitigation 
opportunities . 

1) Emergency period -- search and rescue activities 
take place, emergency feeding and medical attention, 
housing and debris removal. 

2) Restoration period — restoration of public utilities, 
housing, and commercial and industrial structures. 
Damage Survey Reports are conducted. 

3) Reconstruction I -- rebuilding capital stock to 
pre-disaster levels. 

4) Reconstruction II — activity focuses on commemorative 
activities, betterment, and development. 

The challenge of the post-disaster recovery period is 
to develop mechanisms that allow the decision maker to take 
a broad view of the emergency situation and avoid making 
decisions that lock the community into a set of actions that 
ensure repetition of the disaster. The key to many communities* 
ability to make appropriate post-disaster mitigation decisions 
may well lie in effective contingency planning before the 
disaster. 



-28- 



VI. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN COMMUNITY FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT 

Citizen participation is an essential element of democratic 
government. Citizens' involvement can contribute significantly 
to the improvement of government decision-making. This reason 
alone has resulted in the increase over the last decade in Federal 
compliance requirements for substantial citizen participation in 
the development and/or management of a variety of programs, 
including flood hazard mitigation. Such legal requirements aside, 
public involvement in planning a community flood hazard management 
program can be highly productive. 



INCORPORATING PUBLIC VALUES TO MAKE BETTER PLANS 

A community's residents often have a more intimate under- 
standing of particular community problems than the technical 
experts or consultants working on a project. Citizens know 
a community's goals and can best determine how a flood hazard 
management program should mesh with these and give them new 
definition. Since they will be the ones to experience the 
impact of any adopted program, they are in the best position 
to decide the future of their community. Citizens' input, thus, 
will assure that any plan developed will be better than one one 
involving taxpayers. 



GAINING VOTER SUPPORT AND RESOLVING CONTROVERSIES 

In many communities, voter approval will be needed to 
adopt and implement a flood hazard management program. 
Controversial issues are bound to arise during the development 
of a community flood hazard management program. It is far 
better to debate publicly these issues early in the planning 
process, rather than later, so that reasonable compromises 
can be worked out. Voters who have taken part in planning 
and who feel they have had a chance to influence decision 
making will most likely support the program and encourage 
their friends, neighbors, and community organizations to 
do the same. This caring can translate into assistance from 
citizens in monitoring the implementation of the program, 
as well as support for hard political decisions made during 
the course of implementation. 

The real payoff of governmental/civic leader partnership 
may come in the form of other long-term community benefits 
that go beyond flood hazard mitigation. Citizens who participate 
in planning a project will develop a sense of continuing 
responsibility for it. They will expend the extra effort to 
secure added benefits — recreation, natural resource conservation, 
and so on--that make the difference between an ordinary flood 
control program and an outstanding one. 



-29- 



CAMPAIGNING FOR CITIZEN PARTICIPATION 

An effective citizen participation program requires major 
commitments from local officials and agency staff members and 
from civic-minded citizens. It is likely to cost both private 
time and public money. Citizen involvement might initially 
mean delays in implementing the local flood hazard management 
program. In the long run though, public involvement should 
contribute to a better program— more reflective of community 
needs and goals and, what is most important, more likely to 
be supported by the voters and taxpayers. 

When designing a civic leader public participation 
component of a community flood hazard management program, 
several key issues must be addressed: 



PURPOSE, ROLES, AND RESPONSIBILITIES 

Both the purpose of public participation program 
and the roles and responsibilities of the participating 
public leaders and local governmental officials must be 
determined and be stated clearly at the start of planning to 
avoid misunderstandings and even anger later. 

LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS 

Several legal considerations must be accounted for in 
the development of a public involvement program. These 
include : 

o The regulations and guidance issued by Flood 

Insurance Administration to implement the National 
Flood Insurance Program which included several 
requirements for public notification and community 
coordination/consultation during production of the 
Flood Insurance Study. 

o The requirements of the floodplains Executive 

order (11988) which applies to all Federal agencies 
that either directly or indirectly influence action 
that might affect floodplains. Public involvement is 
a key provision in the eight-step decision-making 
process required under the order's implementation 
guidelines . 



TARGETED INTERESTS 

One of the more difficult questions local officials 
face when developing a public participation program is "Who 
are the public to be involved?" This question leads to several 
additional questions: Is the public those "interested" citizens 



-30- 



who are already involved in local decision-making processes 
or those who have an economic stake in a final decision? Are 
these citizens truly representative of the broader public 
interest? If not, how can others be identified who could or 
should be involved? 

The final flood hazard management program selected is 
likely to affect a significantly or be of interest to a 
number of different interest groups within a community. 
Civic and government actors designing a public participation 
program should keep the various interest groups in mind. 
These interests include: economic interest such as insurance 
agents and mortgage lenders; environmental/conservation groups; 
floodplain residents; members of local service organizations 
such as the Red Cross; and the general taxpayers. 



ISSUES FOR PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT 

Determining just what issues and questions the public 
can help resolve in the course of the public participation 
program requires attention to two important matters: 

Officials designing a public involvement component of 
a flood hazard control program should take care that the 
citizens who eventually volunteer their time and energy to 
find acceptable flood control solutions are not overworked. 

Having become sensitized to matters of timing, scheduling, 
and other constraints of budget and training, officials must 
then determine at what points the public should be involved. 
At each step in the community decision-making process, a number 
of opportunities occur for involving the public in decision 
making. Public involvement is an essential element: in goal 
setting; at several points in the data gathering process; 
during identification of alternative flood mitigation strategies; 
in the selection of a program; and during the selection and 
assignment of institutions to implement the flood control 
program. 



STAFF AND MATERIAL RESOURCES FOR PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT? 

Just as public participation program designers need to be 
aware of the scheduling and budgetary restraints in relation 
to volunteers, so do they need to consider staff resources 
and funds and the availability of resource help, materials, 
and facilities in developing a public involvement component. 
To some extent, these factors will determine the scope of the 
public participation effort. However, although it is important 
to be realistic about what is possible, program developers 
should not hold back from undertaking a suitable program because 



-31- 



of seemingly limited human and financial resources. What may 
seem like a sizable short-term investment could have long-term 
benefits that far outweigh the initial time and commitment 
costs . 



THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATION TOOLS 

Public participation can be achieved in a wide range of 
activities designed to inform and involve the public. Most 
of the mechanisms of public participation fit into one of 
three categories, as shown in table VI-1. Each of these 
tools is described in detail in Appendix B of this 
Summary Guide. 



Table VI-I * 
Mechanisms of Public Participation in Flood Hazard Control 



Education/ Information 

Newspaper Articles 
Radio and TV programs 

Speeches and 

Presentations 
Field Trips 
Exhibits 
School Programs 

Fi 1ms 

Brochures 

Newsletters 

Reports 

Letters 

Conferences 



Review/Reaction 

Public Hearings 
Survey 
Questionnaires 

Public Inquiries 
Public Meetings 



Interaction/ 
Dialogue 

Workshops 
Special Taks 
Forces 

Interviews 
Advisory Boards 
Informal Contacts 
Study Group 
Di scussions 

Seminars 



Katharine P. Warner, "Public Participation in Water 
Resources Planning," University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971 



-32- 



POSSIBLE OBSTACLES 

The development of a working public involvement program 
in a community may well require perserverance on the part of 
informed community leaders. Citizens will want to work closely 
with the local officials and with the planning staff to ensure 
that public involvement programs: closely track the decision- 
making process; identify important community issues; and 
target the important affected and interested public in a 
community. 

While different projects and activities generate different 
levels of interest in the community in many cases, a community 
leader will be able to encourage public involvement by pointing 
out to various groups how their interests coincide with or are 
affected by the flood hazard management planning process. 

REWARDS OF PARTICIPATION 

Public involvement in the flood hazard management 
planning process does bring rewards. The ultimate purpose 
of public involvement in flood hazard management planning 
is mitigation of current and future community flood hazards 
at a lower environmental, economic, and social cost. 



-33- 



VII. THE LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING 
COMMUNITY STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION 



Local governments have significant powers to mitigate 
flood hazards. Power to regulate, tax, and acquire property 
enable a community to select confidently among the array of 
available strategies. These strategies, however, are not 
without limits and some will be more effective than others 
in both hazard mitigation and courtroom challenges. 

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES — WHAT ARE COMMUNITIES REQUIRED TO DO? 

Community responsibility to mitigate flood hazards generally 
originates from three different sources. Various Federal 
statutes and their implementing regulations require community 
flood actions. Some of these Federal laws deal directly with 
the problems of flood hazard mitigation, while others have an 
indirect impact in addressing closely related subjects. 
Through programs, regulations, statutes, and constitutional 
provisions, some State governments also require communities 
to act. Recent judicial developments that may hold local 
governments financially responsible for certain types of flood 
damages is the third source of community responsibility. The 
need to avoid costly suits and damages requires that localities 
take appropriate flood hazard mitigation actions. 

Potential Local Government Liability Requires Flood 
Hazard Mitigation 

Local governments are increasingly being held financially 
responsible for damages suffered by individuals in a range of 
areas including fire protection, earthquakes, and to a limited 
extent, flooding. Very few decisions exist thus far, but 
there are indications that localities may one day find 
themselves liable when they have not acted reasonably in 
mitigating foreseeable flood hazards. 

Potential Liability 

Inadequate Local Government Action 

Local governments may be held liable for taking inadequate 
or negligent action with regard to flood hazards. 

Local Government Inaction 

Courts have generally not ruled on cases where there has 
been no action by a locality to mitigate flood hazards. Courts 
are typically reluctant to judge government responses that 
may be based on political considerations or trade-offs rather 
than on a knowing or negligent disregard for flood hazards. 






-34- 



Nonetheless , a local government might be held responsible 
to citizens for damages caused primarily by its failure to 
exercise reasonable care in anticipating a flood. Such an 
outcome might occur especially when State or Federal flood 
programs are offered and not complied with, and a history 
of flooding exists. 

A Lack of Enforcement 

A locality may also be liable for flood damages when it 
has established a flood program but fails to enforce it. 

Responsibility to Adjacent Localities 

With the emerging trend of regional responsibility, a 
local government could be liable for flood damages it causes 
to an upstream, downstream, or crossstream locality. 

Elements of a Liability Suit 

Generally, in suits for flood damages against localities, 
the party bringing the suit must show that the losses suffered 
were caused by the government's act or failure to act. Proving 
that the government's conduct caused the damages may be extremely 
difficult since so many other factors could have intervened 
to produce the flood damages. Nevertheless, once causation is 
demonstrated, courts will probably examine the "reasonableness" 
of the government's behavior. Reasonableness will be determined 
from surrounding circumstances, including an inquiry as to 
whether the flood and damages could have been anticipated 
(f oreseeability ) , whether it was an ordinary or extraordinary 
flood, and the relative costs and benefits of government action 
versus inaction. 

Ways to Avoid Liability 

Several steps can be taken by a locality to significantly 
lessen the likelihood of being held liable for flood damages. 

1. COMPLY WITH FEDERAL AND STATE FLOOD HAZARD PROGRAMS. 

2. STATE CLEARLY THE FINDINGS, REASONS, AND BASIS FOR 
ACTION ON A REVIEWABLE RECORD. 

3. BE FAMILIAR WITH APPLICABLE PRINCIPLES OF LIABILITY. 

4. INSPECT AND DISCOVER HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS ON THE 
GOVERNMENT'S OWN PROPERTY. 

5. USE A WARNING OR DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY. 



-35- 



LEGAL AUTHORITY — WHAT DO COMMUNITIES HAVE THE POWER TO DO? 

The powers come from a variety of sources and four are 
particularly important in flood mitigation: 

1. Regulatory powers are the most widely used and 
consist primarily of zoning, subdivision regulations, 
building code provisions, and disclosure laws. 

2. Taxing powers provide for the use of such strategies 
involving tax incentives and disincentives and special 
floodplain assessments. 

3. Spending powers enable expenditures for flood hazard 
mitigation purposes, including structural improvements, 
land acquisition, and regulatory enforcement among 
other strategies. Communities may be defeating the 
effect of strategies intended to restrict floodplain 
encroachment, however, by providing services and 
facilities to those areas. By putting sewers and 
building roads, localities may encourage development 
and use of that area. Thus, the more significant 
aspect of the spending power for flood mitigation may 
be the power not to spend. 

4. Acquisition powers provide communities with the ability 
to purchase or comdemn complete parcels of land, arrange 
for easements or limited rights to land, and guarantee 
necessary access during a disaster for such things 

as mitigation efforts and relief. 

LIMITATIONS — WHAT CONSTRAINTS EXIST ON THE EXERCISE OF 
COMMUNITY POWERS? 

Community powers are largely determined by constitutional 
doctrines, their sources, and judicial interpretations of each. 
The constitutional limitations and other special problems that 
may constrain various flood mitigation powers include: 

Due Process 

Due process is a constitutional guarantee which generally 
requires that a community exercise its powers in a reasonable 
manner. In more specific terms, due process requires the govern- 
ment action to be within the limits of its powers and for proper 
objectives. Additionally, the means used must be related to 
accomplishing the objective and in a manner which is not arbitrary, 



-36- 



The Taking of Property | ( 

Floodplain regulations generally limit land uses and con- 
struction. When the floodplain landowner's use of land is 
restricted by such regulations, has the government "taken" the 
land — that is, unconstitutionally burdened that property without 
paying compensation? 

If a court finds that a "taking" has occurred, it will 
generally invalidate the regulations as to the particular piece 
of property involved in the suit. Since the facts of each case 
largely determine the court's ruling, it is imperative that all 
facts supporting that community's action be brought forth to 
justify it. 

Equal Protection 

Equal protection in the floodplain context requires that 
a government have a valid reason for treating similarly situated 
lands differently. Parcels of land similar in elevation and 
distance from the stream cannot be regulated differently unless 
a rational reason exists. 

FACTORS TO STRENGTHEN POWERS 

Several methods exist for a community to avoid limitations 
on its power to mitigate floods and, in fact, increase its powers 
while possibly improving flood mitigation efforts. The concepts 
underlying these methods will not ensure judicial acceptance 
in every case, because not all community's have the same powers, 
nor do all courts interpret them in the same manner. In general, 
however, the following methods have enabled communities to 
exercise their powers in a number of different courts and 
contexts relating to floodplains. 

1. COMMUNITY ACTIONS THAT ARE PART OF A LOCAL, REGIONAL, 
STATE, OR FEDERAL PROGRAM ARE STRONGER. 

2. SOME COURTS GIVE INCREASED WEIGHT TO LAND USE REGULATIONS 
THAT CONCERN THE PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY 
SIGNIFICANT AREAS AND VALUES. 

3. A CLEAR AND DETAILED STATEMENT OF PURPOSES AND FACTS 
WILL STRENGTHEN THE PRESUMPTION IN FAVOR OF THE 
COMMUNITY ACTION AND ENABLE A COURT TO UNDERSTAND AND 
UPHOLD IT BETTER. 

4. CAREFUL AND THOROUGH DRAFTING TO PERMIT AS MUCH DEVELOP- 
MENT AS IS POSSIBLE, CONSISTENT WITH THE PURPOSE OF 
FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION, WILL LESSEN THE LIKELIHOOD 

OF A SUCCESSFUL CHALLENGE. 



**) 



» 



-37- 



VIII. INSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS IN IMPLEMENTING COMMUNITY 
STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION 

WHO ARE THE GOVERNMENT ACTORS AND WHAT DO THEY DO? 

In a typical community today, a wide array of government 
officials at various levels and in various agencies perform 
flood hazard mitigation tasks and related assignments: 

• Local governments exercise most land use planning and 
control , including floodplain regulation, setting basic 
land use patterns in an interaction with private market 
forces. Most floodplain regulatory strategies will need 
to rely on this existing network to a great degree. 

• Regional planning agencies , such a metropolitan planning 
commissions and councils of governments, conduct regional 
comprehensive and special purpose planning and coordina- 
tion, but have few, if any, implementation powers and 

do not regulate development. 

• State governments are increasingly involved in floodplain 
management. Typically, States will adopt floodplain 
standards or guidelines to be implemented at the 

local level. 

• Federal agencies perform diverse functions that both 
directly and indirectly influence floodplain land 
uses . 



HOW TO DESIGN AN INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE FOR NEW FLOOD 

MANAGEMENT TASKS 

A major aim of a floodplain management strategy is to 
assign to appropriate agencies the tasks that they can best 
perform and then provide some means to coordinate actions 
among them. Who performs flood management tasks is often as 
important as what functions are authorized, because the imple- 
mentation can make or break the best floodplain management 
strategy. An awareness of implementation realities needs to 
be built into a proper strategy from its inception. 

In assigning new flood management tasks to governmental 
institutions, five questions need to be answered: 

1. By what criteria should a governmental system be 
judged in light of floodplain management needs? 

2. What levels of government are best qualified to 
assume new tasks? 

3. Within any one local government, what agencies 
should be assigned flood management tasks? 



-38- 



4. What should be the roles of elected officials, 
part-time citizen boards, and full-time public 
employees? 

5. How can various agencies and governments that 
impact a single watershed be coordinated? 

CRITERIA FOR ASSIGNING FLOOD MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS 

The great diversity of local, regional, and state govern- 
ments in the United States precludes the existence of any single 
answer to the questions posed above. Rather than describing one 
institutional model to accommodate every circumstance, five 
goals, or normative criteria, are suggested here that can be 
used to judge a governmental structure. Ideally, governmental 
institutions, taken as a whole, should be: 

(a) Administratively efficient; 

(b) Politically acceptable; 

(c) Economically effective; 

(d) Politically accountable; and 

(e) Equitable. 

WHAT LOCAL GOVERNMENT ENTITIES ARE BEST QUALIFIED TO 

ASSUME NEW TASKS ? 

Each level of government has its own strengths and limita- 
tions. A coordinated local/regional/.State/Federal flood manage- 
ment strategy will seek to take advantage of the abilities of 
each level of government and minimize the limitations. 

THE ROLE OF POLITICS, PERSONALITIES, AND PROFESSIONS IN 
ASSIGNING FLOOD MANAGEMENT TASKS 

The impact of structure and governmental form on 
floodplain programs can be significant. However, in assigning 
regulatory and other powers to various government agencies, 
structure may not be as important as the politics of the 
regulatory agency and the personalities and professions of the 
staff. These considerations are particularly important in 
deciding which agencies should regulate floodplain actions 
after the levels of government are selected. 






-39- 



WHAT SHOULD BE THE ROLES OF ELECTED OFFICIALS, CITIZEN 
BOARDS, AND PUBLIC EMPLOYEES? 

State and local governments use a variety of citizen 
boards and commissions to administer zoning and other land use 
controls and to direct special districts and soil conservation 
districts. Some boards are elected, other appointed by the 
governor, the city or county council, or the mayor. 

These State and local citizen bodies can be particularly 
useful in generating political support and voter acceptance 
for regulatory programs and in expanding citizen participation 
in decision making. However, citizens who serve part-time and 
who are usually unpaid are less effective in making decisions 
that require considerable technical expertise or investment of 
time, such as issuing permits, conducting surveillance, or 
bringing enforcement actions. For these reasons, boards 
composed of appointed or elected members should adopt goals 
and policies, while the day-to-day implementation of those 
policies should be left to professional technical staffs. 



HOW CAN THE AGENCIES AND GOVERNMENTS THAT IMPACT A SINGLE 
WATERSHED BE COORDINATED? 

Intergovernmental cooperation among municipal, county, 
regional, State, and Federal interests is a key to any 
effective strategy. Overcoming the vertical, functional, 
and horizontal fragmentation that characterizes government 
functioning vis-a-vis flood control is no easy task, since 
it is deeply rooted in governmental structures, laws, traditions, 
and political differences. 

Intralocal or Functional Coordination 

Within each local government where several agencies perform 
flood management tasks, a floodplain coordinator or lead agency 
is needed to coordinate these various tasks. The local govern- 
ing body should designate one full-time official who is responsible 
and accountable for coordinating floodplain management programs, 
within his or her own government, ties to higher levels of 
government, and progress toward goals. 

Intergovernmental or Vertical Coordination 

Links should be provided between the community and 
State and Federal agencies. This connection might be provided 
by direct and frequent contact between the local coordinator 
and the State coordinating agency designated by the governor. 



■40- 



Interlocal or Horizontal Coordination 

The most important type of collaboration in implementing 
a flood control program is among regulating local governments 
that share the same watershed. The range of techniques to 
secure area-wide approaches include: assigning regional council 
of local elected officials coordination review powers over 
major permits or construction activities; developing joint 
service agreements or joint regulations; authorizing local or 
interlocal special districts to undertake flood management 
tasks; transfering functions from municipalities to higher 
levels of government--the county or the State; joint acquisi- 
tion programs; granting extraterritorial powers, by which 
local governmental floodplain regulatory powers extend over 
ad jointing unincorporated land; and sharing of planning and 
engineering staffs. 









-41- 



I 



> 



APPENDIX A 



GLOSSARY 



» 






<^ 






-4 3- APPENDIX A 



• 



GLOSSARY 



ACTUARIAL RATES [1] - Insurance rates determined on the 
basis of a statistical calculation of the probability 
that a certain event will occur. Actuarial rates are also 
called "risk premium rates." They are established by FIA 
pursuant to individual community flood insurance studies 
and investigations that are undertaken to provide flood 
insurance in accordance with the National Flood Insurance 
Act and with accepted actuarial principles, including 
provisions for operating costs and allowances. 



AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD [1] - The land in the floodplain 
within a community subject to a 1 percent or greater chance 
of flooding in any given year. 



BARRIER ISLANDS [5] - Elongate seafront islands of sand 
formed by wave action. 



BASE FLOOD (REGULATORY FLOOD) - The selected flood frequency 
for regulatory purposes. The NFIP has adopted the 100-year 
flood as the base flood to indicate the minimum level of 
flooding to be used by a community in its floodplain 
management regulations. 



BERM - The horizontal portion of the backshore beach formed 
by sediments deposited by waves. 



BOG [6] - A wetland usually developing in a depression or 
lake with poor drainage. 



BOTTOMLAND HARDWOODS - Tree species that occur on water- 
saturated or regularly inundated soils. Classified as 
wetlands, these areas content both trees and woody shrubs 



BULKHEAD [5] - A vertical wall of wood, steel, or concrete, 
built parallel to the shoreline and designed to deflect 
waves and control erosion. 



CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER (CEO) [1] - The official of the 
community who is charged with the authority to implement 
and administer laws, ordinances, and regulations for that 
community. 



-44- 



COASTAL HIGH HAZARD AREA (CHHA) [1] - "Coastal high hazard 
area" means the area subject to high velocity waters, 
including, but not limited to, hurricane wave wash or 
tsunamis. The area is designated on a FIRM as Zone Vl-30. 



COMMUNITY [1] - Any State or area or political subdivision 
thereof, or any Indian tribe or authorized tribal organiza- 
tion, which has authority to adopt and enforce floodplain 
management regulations for the areas within its juris- 
diction. 



EMERGENCY PROGRAM [1] - The program as implemented on an 
emergency basis in accordance with NFIP. It is an interim 
program to provide a first layer of subsidized insurance 
before the detailed risk studies from which actuarial 
rates are computed have been completed. 



ENCROACHMENT [4] - Any fill, structure, building, use, 
accessory use, or development in the floodway. 



ENCROACHMENT/FLOODWAY LINES [4] - The limits of obstruction 
to flood flows. These lines are on both sides of and 
generally parallel to the river or stream. The lines are 
established by assuming that the area landward (outside) 
of the lines will ultimately be developed in such a way 
that it will not be available to convey flood flows. 



EROSION [1] - The process of the gradual wearing away of 
land masses. 



ESTUARY [5] - A confined coastal water body with an open 
connection to the sea and a measurable quantity of salt 
in its waters. 



FIRST LAYER COVERAGE [1] - The maximum amount of structural 
and contents insurance coverage available under the NFIP 
Emergency Program. 

FLOOD [1] /FLOODING [1] - A general and temporary condition of 
partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas 
from the overflow of inland and/or tidal waters, and/or 
unusual and rapid accumulation of runoff of surface waters 
from any source. 






-45- 



FLOOD CONTROL WORKS - See FLOOD PROTECTION SYSTEMS. 



FLOOD DISCHARGE [3] - The total quantity of water flowing 
in a stream and adjoining overflow areas during times of 
flood. it is measured by the amount of water passing a 
point along a stream within a specified period of time 
and is usually measured in cubic feet of water per 
second (cf s) . 



FLOOD FREQUENCY [3] - The frequency with which a flood of 
a given discharge has the probability of recurring. For 
example, a 100-year frequency flood refers to a flood 
discharge of a magnitude likely to occur on the average 
of once every 100 years or, more properly, has a 1 per- 
cent chance of being exceeded in any year. Although 
calculation of possible recurrence is often based upon 
historical records, there is no guarantee that a 100-year 
flood will occur at all within the 100-year period or 
that it will not recur several times. 



FLOOD HAZARD [2] - The potential for inundation and involves 
the risk of life, health, property, and natural flood- 
plain values. 



FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP (FHBM) [1] - An official map of a 
community, issued through the NFIP, where the boundaries 
of the flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and related erosion 
areas having special hazards have been designated as 
Zone A, M, and/or E. 



FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT - Encompasses all local, State, and 
Federal activities taken before, during, and after a flood 
to reduce flood losses or in response to a flood disaster. 



FLOOD INSURANCE [1] - The insurance coverage provided under 
the National Flood Insurance Program. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY (FIS) (FLOOD ELEVATION STUDY) [1] - An 
examination, evaluation, and determination of flood hazards 
and, if appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations, 
or an examination, evaluation, and determination of mudslide 
(i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion hazards. 



-46- 



FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM) [1] - An official map of a 
community on which the FEMA has delineated both the special 
hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the 
community. 

FLOOD PROTECTION SYSTEMS (STRUCTURAL CONTROLS) [1] - Those 
physical structural works for which funds have been 
authorized, appropriated, and expended and which have 
been constructed specifically to modify flooding to 
reduce the extent of the area within a community subject 
to a "special flood hazard" and the extent of the depths 
of associated flooding. Such a system typically includes 
hurricane tidal barriers, dams, reservoirs, levees, or 
dikes. These specialized flood modifying works are 
those constructed in conformance with sound engineering 
standards. 

FLOOD-RELATED EROSION [1] - The collapse or subsidence 
of land along the shore of a lake or other body of 
water as a result of undermining caused by waves or 
currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels 
or suddenly caused by an unusually high water level in 
a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe 
storm, or by an unanticipated force of nature, such 
as a flash flood or an abnormal tidal surge, or by some 
similarly unusual and unforeseeable event which results 
in flooding. 

FLOODPLAIN/FLOOD-PRONE AREA - Any land area susceptible 
to being inundated by water from any source (see the 
definition of "flooding"). 

FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT [1] - The operation of an overall 

program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing 
flood damage, including but not limited to emergency 
preparedness plans, flood control works, and floodplain 
management regulations. 

FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS [1] - Zoning ordinances, 
subdivision regulations, building codes, health regula- 
tions, special purpose ordinances (covering, for example, 
floodplains, grading, and erosion control) and other appli- 
cations of police power. The term describes such State or 
local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide 
standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and 
reduction. 



ft 



-47- 



FLOODPLAIN PRESERVATION [2] - The prevention of modification 
of the natural floodplain environment or maintenance of the 
floodplain environment in a condition as close as possible 
to its natural state using all practicable means. 



FLOODPLAIN RESTORATION [2] - The re-establishment of a setting 
or environment in which the natural functions of the 
floodplain can again operate. 



FLOODPLAIN VALUES [2] - Those natural and beneficial attri- 
butes associated with the relatively undisturbed state of 
the floodplain, including values primarily associated with 
water, living, and cultural resources. 



FLOOD PROOFING [1] - Any combination of structural and 

nonstructural additions, changes, or adjustments to struc- 
tures that reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate 
or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, 
structures and their contents. 



FLOODWAY - That portion of the floodplain consisting of the 
stream channel and overbank areas needed to carry and 
discharge flood flows. The floodway is intended to carry 
the deep and fast moving water. 

FREEBOARD - A factor of safety usually expressed in feet 
above a flood level for purposes of floodplain management. 
"Freeboard" tends to compensate for the many unknown factors 
that could contribute to flood heights greater than the height 
calculated for a selected size flood and floodway conditions, 
such as wave action, bridge openings, and the hydrological 
effect of urbanization of the watershed. 



GROIN - A dam for sand. A groin is a structure built at 

right angles to a beach to interrupt longshore sand 

movement and trap sand in order to stabilize or widen 
the beach. 



100-YEAR FLOODPLAIN - The land area adjoining a river, stream, 
lake, or ocean which is inundated by the 100-year flood. The 
100-year flood is the regulatory (base) flood under the NFIP. 



-48- 



HYDRAULICS - The science dealing with the mechanical properties 
of liquids which describes the specific pattern and rate of 
water movement in the environment. 



HYDROLOGY - The science of the earth's waters which describes 
the occurrence, circulation, distribution, chemical, and 
physical properties of water and its reaction with the 
environment. 



LITTORAL [5] - Of or pertaining to the shore, especially of 
the sea; coastal. 



LITTORAL DRIFT [5] - The movement of sand by littoral (long- 
shore) currents in a direction parallel to the beach 
along the shore. 



MARSH [6] - A wetland dominated by herbaceous or nonwoody 
plants, often developing in shallow ponds or depressions, 
river margins, tidal areas, and estuaries. 



MANGROVE SWAMP (STAND) [5] - An assemblage of subtropical 
trees of the genus Rhezaphora forming dense thickets which 
extend into coastal waters. 



NONSTRUCTURAL [2] - Any action taken to reduce or prevent 
flood losses in a floodplain other than the construction 
of storage dams, retention dams, diversions, channel 
improvements, and levees. All those adjustments in 
floodplain occupancy not specifically intended to modify 
flood behavior. Such adjustments include such devices 
as public acquisition of land, relocation of facilities, 
flood proofing, warning systems, and land use regulation. 



PRACTICABLE [2] - Capable of being done within existing con- 
straints. The test of what is pracicable depends upon the 
situation and includes consideration of the pertinent 
factors, such as environment, cost, or technology. 



PRESERVE [2] - To prevent modification to the natural 
floodplain environment or to maintain it as closely as 
possible to its natural state. 



-49- 



REGULAR PROGRAM - The program authorized by the NFIP under 
which risk premium rates are required for the first part of 
available coverage (also known as "first layer" coverage) 
for all new construction and substantial improvements 
started on or after the effective date of the FIRM, or 
after December 31, 1974 for FIRM'S effective on or before 
that data. All buildings, the construction of which started 
before the effective date of the FIRM, or before January 1, 
1975 for FIRM'S effective before that date, are eligible 
for first layer coverage at either subsidized rates or risk 
premium rates, whichever are lower. Regardless of date of 
construction, risk premium rates are always required for the 
second layer coverage and such coverage is offered only 
after FEMA has completed the Flood Insurance Study for the 
community. 



REGULATORY FLOODPLAIN [3] - The area adjoining a river, 
stream, lake or ocean which is inundated by a regulatory 
flood. In riverine areas, the floodplain usually consists 
of a regulatory floodway and regulatory flood fringe (also 
referred to as a floodway fringe). In coastal areas, the 
floodplain may consist of a single regulatory floodplain 
area or a regulatory high-hazard area and a regulatory 
low-hazard area. 



REGULATORY FLOODWAY [3] - A portion of the area a selected 
flood would occupy consisting of a stream channel and 
overbank areas calculated to be capable of conveying the 
selected flood discharge without flood heights or velocities 
increasing to exceed stated levels. The regulatory floodway 
is not an actual channel or cement conduit (as the term 
"floodway" is sometimes understood by engineers). Rather, 
it is an area (with or without alterations by man) calculated 
to be of sufficient width and having sufficient flood con- 
veyance characteristics to pass the flood waters from 
upstream to downstream points without increasing flood 
heights more than a half foot, 1 foot, etc., or without 
substantially increasing velocities over what they would 
have been without assumed confinement. In this calculation, 
all areas outside of the floodway are assumed to play 
no role in passing flood flows, and the floodway itself 
is assumed to remain in an open condition. Floodway areas 
are subject to frequent high velocity flooding, often at 
considerable depths. 



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(REGULATORY) FLOOD FRINGE (also called the floodway fringe) - 
The portion of the regulatory floodplain beyond the limits 
of the regulatory floodway. It is subject to less frequent 
and lower velocity flooding and does not play a major role 
in passing flood flows. 

RESTORE [2] - To re-establish a setting or environment in which 
the natural functions of the floodplain can again operate. 

REVETMENT [5] - Armors the slope face of a dune or bluff 
with one or more layers of rock (riprap) or concrete. 



RIFFLES - Stream channel bottoms are not uniform. They 
change in repeating patterns between shallow parts called 
riffles and deeper pools. 



RIPRAP - Rock walls. 



RISK PREMIUM RATES - See ACTUARIAL RATES. 



SEAWALL [5] - A solid barricade built at the water's edge 
to protect the shore and to prevent inland flooding. 



SECOND LAYER COVERAGE - An additional amount of insurance 
coverage made available when a community officially enters 
the Regular Program of the NFIP. 



SEDIMENT LOAD - The amount of suspended sediment carried by 
the stream. The stream's sediment load varies with water 
velocity and sediment size. 



SNAGGING - Removal of submerged or partially submerged tree 
stumps or branches. 



STILL WATER STORM HEIGHT - The projected height or elevation 
of flood waters generated by coastal storms of various 
magnitudes calculated under ideal still water conditions 
where no wind generated waves or storm surges are present. 



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STATE COORDINATING AGENCY [1] - The agency of a State govern- 
ment or other office designated by a State governor or by 
State statute at the request of the NFIP Administrator to 
assist in the implementation of the National Flood Insurance 
Program in that State. 

STRUCTURE [1] - For floodplain management purposes; a structure 
is a walled and roofed building, including mobile homes, and 
a gas or liquid storage tank that is principally above ground. 
"Structure" for insurance coverage purposes means a walled and 
roofed building, other than a gas or liquid storage tank, that 
is principally above ground and affixed to a permanent site, 
including mobile homes on foundations. For the latter purpose, 
the term includes buildings under construction, alteration, or 
repair, but does not include building materials or supplies 
intended for use in such construction, alteration, or repair, 
unless such materials or supplies are within an enclosed 
building on the premises. 



STRUCTURAL - See FLOOD CONTROL WORKS 



SUBSIDIZED RATES [1] - The rates established by the NFIP 
Administrator involving in the aggregate a subsidization 
by the Federal Government. 



SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT [1] - Any repair, reconstruction, 
or improvement of a structure, the cost of which equals 
or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure 
either, (a) before the improvement or repair is started, 
or (b) if the structure has been damaged, and is being 
restored, before the damage occurred. For the purposes 
of this definition, "substantial improvement" is considered 
to occur when the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, 
floor, or other structural part of the building commences, 
whether or not that alteration affects the external dimen- 
sions of the structure. The term does not, however, include 
either (1) any project for improving a structure to comply 
with existing State or local health, sanitary, or safety 
code specifications that are solely necessary to assure 
safe living conditions or (2) any alteration of a structure 
listed on the National Register of Historic Places or 
a State Inventory of Historic Places. 



SWALE [5] - A low-lying area frequently moist or marshy; 
an intermittent drainageway; a slough. 



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SWAMPS [6] - A wetland dominated by woody plants, shrubs, and 
trees such as maples, gums, and Cyprus. 



TSUNAMI [5] - A great sea wave produced by submarine earth 
movement or volcanic eruption. 



VARIANCE [1] - A grant of relief by a community from the terms 
of a floodplain management regulation. 



WATER SURFACE ELEVATION [1] - The projected heights in relation 
to Mean Sea Level reached by floods of various magnitudes 
and frequencies in the floodplains of coastal or riverine 
areas. 



WATERSHED [4] - A region or area contributing untimately to 
the water supply of a particular watercourse or water body. 



WETLANDS [2] - Those areas that an inundated by surface or 
ground water with a frequency sufficient to support and, 
under normal circumstances, does or would support a preva- 
lence of vegetative or aquatic life that requires saturated 
or seasonally saturated soil conditions for growth and repro- 
duction. Wetlands generally include bottomland hardwoods, 
swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas such as sloughs, 
potholes, wet meadows, river overflows, mud flats, and 
natural ponds. 



-53- 



COMMON ABBREVIATIONS 

DR&R - Office of Disaster Response and Recovery of FEMA 

FEMA - Federal Emergency Management Agency 

FHBM - Flood Hazard Boundary Map 

FIA - Federal Insurance Administration of FEMA 

FIS - Flood Insurance Study 

FIRM - Flood Insurance Rate Map 

NFIP - National Flood Insurance Program 

REFERENCES 



1. As defined in the regulations for the National Flood 
Insurance Program, 41 FR 46962, 1976. 

2. A defined in the U.S. Water Resources Council guidelines 
for implementing Executive Order No. 11988, 43 FR 6030 
(1978) . 

3. From J. Kusler and T. Lee, "Regulations for Flood Plains," 
American Society of Planning Officials, Planning Advisory 
Service Report No. 277 (1972). 

4. From Wisconsin Administrative Code, Chapter NR 16 
(July 1977) . 

5. From John Clark, Coastal Ecosystems Management ; 

A Technical Manual for the Conservation of Coastal 

Zone Resources (New York: John Wiley and Sons Interscience, 

1977) . 

6. As defined in Elinor Lander Horwitz, Our Nation's Wetlands 
(Washington, D.C. : Government Printing Office, 1978). 



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"* 



APPENDIX B 



PUBLIC PARTICIPATION TOOLS 



3 



• 



-57- 



APPENDIX B 



: , 



PUBLIC PARTICIPATION TOOLS 



Education/ Information 

Newspaper Articles 
Radio and TV Programs 
Speeches and 

Pre s en ta tons 
Field Trips 
Exhibits 
School Programs 
Films 
Brochures 
Newsletters 
Reports 
Letters 
Conferences 



Review/ React ion 

Public Hearings 
Survey 

Questionnaires 
Public Inquiries 
Public Meetings 



Interaction/ 
Dialogue 

Workshops 
Special Task 

Forces 
Interviews 
Advisory Boards 
Informal Contacts 
Study Group 

Discussions 
Seminars 



EDUCATION/ INFORMATION MECHANISMS 

The educational tools designed to promote the quality of 
public understanding of issues must deal with the informational 
needs of both the most and the least sophisticated interest groups 
in your community. These tools will be used to: 

• familiarize the public with the nature of the flooding 
problem being addressed in the design of a flood hazard 
management program; 

• apprise the public of key issues that may be of community 
concern ; 

• Apprise the public of opportunities for input into key 
issues; and 

• provide detailed information in lay language on the tech- 
nical and political aspects of flood hazard management. 

The use of informational tools will be essential to the con- 
duct of any public participation program — whether conducted by a 
local government entity or by a citizen organization. These infor- 
mational mechanisms cannot be the end of the public participation 
program, however. Meaningful public involvement will require the 
use of reactive and interactive mechanisms as well. 

MAILING LISTS 



The development of a comprehensive mailing list of all 
organizations and individuals likely to be interested in or 
affected by a flood hazard management program should be one 
of the first steps in a public participation program. The list 



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should include public officials, business and civic groups, 
public interest and environmental organizations, and represen- 
tatives from outside the planning area such as upstream and 
downstream residents who may have an interest in the program. 
The list should be supplemented throughout the planning process 
as more people become aware of the program, attend meetings, 
and ask for information. The mailing list will be useful for 
distributing newsletters, fact sheets and other information mate- 
rials and meeting and hearing announcements, and for conducting 
surveys or widespread public consultation activities. Citizen 
groups should be involved in developing such a mailing list, 
both for themselves and for the use of governmental agencies 
with pubic participation responsibility. 



NEWS MEDIA 

Newspapers, local magazines, and radio and television sta- 
tions reach the general public and help to stimulate interest 
in the program. They should be kept informed of all items of 
general interest. Key issues should be clarified and made 
interesting to news editors and environmental reporters through 
news briefings and special media events, such as a visit to a 
flood hazard area (particularly if there is evidence of damage) . 

Except when used to support in-depth feature stories, the 
background material prepared for news items should be brief 
and non-technical. When technical or complicated information 
is to be included in an interview or media event, it should 
always be concisely stated in a fact sheet and included with 
a brochure and/or background materials in a press kit. Press 
kits should be prepared for all events that you hope will be 
covered by the media. 

In order to use the media effectively you should consider 
undertaking the following activities, early in the program 
development process. 

• Visit media offices at the beginning of the process. 

-- identify key personnel responsible for covering 
stories that might be related to the program. 

— learn media requirements for stories — deadlines, 
filming requirements, requirements for public 
announcements . 

• Hold background briefing for media personnel identified. 
Learn from media personnnel what kinds of issues are 
likely to receive media attention. 

• Develop a media plan which will anticipate media coverage 
for various aspects and stages of the planning process. 
The plan should include: 



.9 



3 



♦ 



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news releases about specific aspects of the planning 
process, such as hearings, appointment of advisory 
groups, and workshops. In order to ensure arrival 
at the appropriate desk, these should always be 
hand delivered. 

public service announcements (PSA's) for radio and 
television stations to publicize meetings and hearings 
or to call attention to some aspect of the plan, 
such as selection of alternatives. Radio stations 
will usually prepare PSA's from written copy sent 
to them. Television stations may request someone 
to appear in the PSA, or they h.ay want to film on 
location. It is always best to handle these arrange- 
ments in person. 

participation in radio and television talk shows . 
Make sure the individuals who appear are able to 
respond to a wide range of questions in an infor- 
mative and congenial manner. 



PUBLICATIONS 

Publications may consist of such things as published 
versions of draft components of the proposed management pro- 
gram, draft and final Environmental Impact Statements, (if 
applicable) or of a variety of short brochures, flyers, fact 
sheets or bulletins designed to facilitate public input to the 
Flood Hazard Management Plan. These publications may be stored 
in depositories, handed out at meetings, enclosed with mailings, 
and supplied to the media. 

• Flyers : A flyer should be very brief — one or two 
pages, perhaps include a picture or two. It might 
explain the purpose of the management program and 
give the name, address, and phone number of the 
public official in charge of the planning. 

• Brochures ; A brochure is a brief booklet which may, 
for example, describe the need for the program, refer 

to federal and state laws and regulations, detail various 
steps in the planning process, and provide background 
information for new advisory committee members, govern- 
ment officials, newsmen, and other interested persons. 
A summary of the draft management plan might be distri- 
buted as a brochure, prior to any final pubic meeting. 

• Fact Sheets ; Probably one of the most useful publica- 
tions will be the fact sheets, each on a single issue 
of concern in the program, such as community costs 
associated with continued flooding, hazard protection 



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value of critical natural resources, alternative manage- 
ment strategies, etc. Fact sheets might also be used 
to outline the consequences of alternative approaches 
and draw upon the experience of other communities where 
appropriate. 

• Technical Bulletins : It might prove advisable to prepare 
one or more detailed publications about the technical 
aspects of the program, such as determination of flood- 
way and floodplain boundaries, and distribute these to 
advisory committee members and other specialized interests. 

Individuals responsible for developing publications will 
want to be aware of the many publications already developed 
by FEMA, by the state agency, and by others (such as 
those developed for The Conservation Foundation's training program) 
Preparation of publications can be costly. Use should be made of 
existing general materials whenever possible, with new publications 
focusing on the specific community situation. The FEMA Regional 
Office may be able to help locate appropriate materials. 

NEWSLETTERS 

A newsletter should be published at regular intervals and 
mailed to persons and organizations on the mailing list (or on a 
list compiled by community leaders). For ma-ximum utilization, 
the newsletter might be designed as a slip sheet that can be 
distributed with organizational mailings. 

A newsletter is usually started early in the planning 
stages and continued throughout the planning process. It is 
an excellent way of reporting a variety of news to those either 
interested in or whom may become interested in the Flood 
Hazard Management planning. 

Some of the types of articles and information appropriate 
to newsletters include: general water resource and flood hazard 
management news; feature articles explaining alternative programs; 
summaries of relevant workshops and meetings, hearings, meetings 
and workshop notices; reports or recommendations of a citizens 
advisory committee; and letters to the editor. 

INFORMATION DEPOSITORIES 

The local governmental agency might find it useful to 
maintain a central information file or depository which includes 
significant program planning documents (such as relevant maps, 
proposed ordinances, etc.). Ideally, these depositories should: 

• be in buildings (such as libraries) whose 
hours openly facilitate community use; 



- 



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^ 



• have copying machines on the premises; 

• in larger communities be in a number of locations; 

• for more complex projects have staff support (perhaps 
volunteer) to assist any search for materials. 

SPEECHES 

A number of forums can be selected for speeches and audio- 
visual presentations on the flood hazard management program. 
Appropriate forums include service clubs, regular meetings of 
civic groups, churches, environmental organizations, chambers 
of commerce, and educational institutions. A speakers' bureau 
including authorities on several aspects of the planning pro- 
cess should be organized. The local official, Planning 
Commissioners, members of his technical staff, advisory committee 
members, and other community leaders knowledgeable about the 
planning should be invited to participate. 

Speakers should possess effective speaking ability and 
be able to tailor their remarks to the interests of the groups 
to be addressed. Presentations should be prepared on a variety 
of topics, and then be used as a basis for individual talks. 
Handouts, slide shows, and exhibits will assist in making a 
speaker's presentation more interesting and understandable. 

EXHIBITS 

Exhibits are visual displays which may be as simple as 
maps, charts, and diagrams or as sophisticated as a walk- 
through maze which allows the participant to make alternative 
selections regarding the future growth and character of his 
community. Simple exhibits may be used in conjunction with 
public meetings, hearings, speeches, or seminars. More sophis- 
ticated displays may be stationed in public buildings or 
shopping malls where they can reach large numbers of people. 
Large exhibits should be designed to both provide information 
and receive public input. They are best managed if constructed 
so they do not require an attendant. 

REACTIVE/ INTERACTIVE/DIALOGUE MECHANISMS 

Most of the mechanisms described below can be considered 
reactive or interactive depending on how the information obtained 
will be used: Will the mechanism be used simply to obtain public 
response to an agency decision (reactive) or also to allow an 
agency to respond to considerations posed by the public (inter- 
active) ? 



- 62- 



Functional two-way communication can help keep officials 
in constant touch with the needs and expectations of the public. 
Basic organizational and administrative techniques, such as those 
discussed below, can provide the framework for public involvement 

CONSULTATIONS 

The word consultation means the act of seeking advice and 
exchanging views. A variety of formal and informal mechanisms 
can be utilized to fulfill the consultation requirements of 
public participation regulations. Some of these mechanisms 
are: 



INFORMAL CONSULTATIONS 

Face-to- face interviews or conferences, are useful both 
for transmitting information and for receiving public input. 
Consultations will be needed throughout the planning process, 
but particularly in its early stages. Interested citizens and 
organizations should initiate discussions with governmental 
decision makers when they have information to offer, or issues 
to be resolved. 

Consultations initiated by citizen organizations often 
will be most useful if arranged on an ad hoc basis covering 
specific issues of concern to that organization. Such activi- 
ties will often be particularly well-received by a governmental 
agency when they involve a number of different organizations 
representing a variety of interests. On the other hand, effec- 
tive advocacy of a particular position may require that the 
organizations requesting the consultation come from similar 
interests. 



TASK FORCES 

A task force is usually a small group of people, including 
some with special expertise, which is assigned to research or 
resolve a specific problem in a limited time frame. Task forces 
may look at problems which are generally outside the scope of 
a typical local land use planning process, such as potential 
increase in a community's future flooding problems resulting 
from upstream development. 



-63- 



^ 



Frequently the work of a task force will require some 
understanding of technical issues relating to flood hazard 
management. With appropriate assistance from staff involved 
in the local planning efforts, citizens' organizations are 
often able to study problems and arrive at creative solutions 
that might not otherwise be considered to be politically accep- 
table. 

The problem to be considered by a task force should be 
clearly defined before its members commence work. A work 
schedule should be prepared, and a fair cross-section of 
knowledgeable persons representative of a range of viewpoints 
should be selected to serve. Task force members should be fur- 
nished with sufficient background information to enable them 
to thoroughly understand the problem at hand and to deal with 
it in a short period of time. One person (either on the task 
force or serving as staff to the task force) should be appointed 
to formally summarize the results, including any missing data 
or unresolved issues. 



WORKSHOPS 

A workshop is a small group meeting at which all parti- 
cipants have some familiarity with the topic to be discussed 
and are afforded the opportunity to comment in considerable 
detail. Such meetings are particularly useful in the middle 
stages of the planning process when the basic facts are known, 
but the alternative proposals have yet to be thoroughly examined 
Workshops require substantial preparation time to be successful, 
but offer one of the most useful ways to explore in depth what 
people think about the ramifications of the flood hazard manage- 
ment program. 

In order to ensure a successful workshop, the organizer 
should undertake the following preparations: 

• succinct definition of the objectives of the 
workshop. What are participants expected to 
accomplish; 

• preparation or identification of materials to be 
distributed to participants before the workshop 
that will facilitate discussion during the workshop; 

• a briefing of speakers and resource people on 
what their roles are to be and what information 
they will present; 

• attention to the administrative details of the 
workshop to minimize confusion and maximize the 



-64- 



comfort of participants (i.e., Will the workshop 
take place over a meal time? Will meals be pro- 
vided? If not, where can participants go to 
quickly grab a bite to eat?, etc.) 



SURVEYS 

Several kinds of surveys can be used in planning for flood 
hazard management. A technical survey might be designed to 
elicit information from those with technical knowledge (such 
as local and/or state agencies) to provide data on how much they 
spend each year on flood disaster related projects. A general 
survey designed to gauge public opinion and pinpoint community 
values and goals might be circulated before selection of alter- 
natives in order to determine public response to such alternatives 
as acquisition and relocation of flood prone properties. Or 
residents might be asked to respond to questions regarding the 
extent of past flooding damages, amount of flood insurance claims, 
etc. 

Data collection through surveys can be very useful. In 
the Buffalo, New York Water Quality Management Plan for example, 
a survey revealed a depth of public support for improved water 
quality that led to stronger implementation recommendations 
than the decision makers would have otherwise supported. 

Surveys can also be expensive and time consuming. Those 
planning to conduct a survey should consider using academic 
resources as a source of volunteer assistance. For example, 
university students may be available to help in the preparation 
of a survey including pre-testing that survey. High school 
classes, or scouting groups might be willing to help distribute 
a survey and compile resulting data. 



CITIZEN ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

A formally constituted Citizens' Advisory Committee (CAC) 
has the potential for serving as an institutionalized consul- 
tation mechanism with the ability to provide continuous input 
to each stage of the planning process. If properly balanced 
and adequately staffed (representing a broad base of community 
interests), a CAC may ensure that important knowledgeable 
interests in the community will have continuing input into the 
planning process. 

Citizens' advisory committees have been utilized in various 
environmental programs throughout the years, and they have been 
the subject of considerable well-founded criticisms. The cri- 
ticisms leveled at CAC's have basically fallen into the following 
three categories. 



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• Their membership is often dominated by interests with 
an economic stake in the issues under consideration. 
While CAC's may be designed as a means for regularizing 
and institutionalizing the input of those with limited 
access to the decision-making process, they frequently 
do not achieve those goals. 

• A CAC may become a barrier to public participation 

if it is viewed by the sponsoring agency as the whole 
public participation program. If the local government 
only consults with the CAC, then the decision maker 
simply receives the thoughts of another group of people 
who may or may not represent the general public. 

• A CAC may be ineffective if their role is poorly de- 
fined, or staff support is inadequate, regardless of 
whether or not it is appropriately constituted. 

Citizen organizations should be careful not to blindly 
promote a CAC as a key activity of a public participation 
program. If CAC's are selected as a public participation 
method, be sure to give equal attention to the makeup of the 
committee, functions of the committee, and its staff support. 

A number of questions will have to be carefully resolved 
within the community as the advisory committee is being for- 
mulated. 

• membership (what economic interests are represented? 
What types of local government officials, public 
interest representatives?) 

• size (will the advisory committee have 10 members or 
30 members?) 

• role and responsibilities (will the advisory committee 
have some responsibility for the execution of the 
public involvement program? To what degree will the 
advisory committee periodically expand its membership 
through ad hoc task forces?) 

The CAC should be appointed in the early stages of the 
planning process. It will establish a necessary communication 
link between the local officials and the public; provide a 
valuable forum for reconciling varying viewpoints; analyze, 
review and make recommendations; and reflect community values 
and goals during the planning stages. The CAC may also assist 
in the development of a public participation workplan, advise 
on politics, and participate in public meetings, workshops, 
and seminars. 



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It is important that the committee's role be established 
early in the planning-process. To be fully effective, the com- 
mittee must have direct input into all major decisions affecting 
the plan. Their value will be greatly reduced if they become 
only a reactive panel. If possible, all CAC activities should 
be funded, and adequate staffing should be provided. 



PUBLIC MEETINGS 

Public meetings afford an opportunity to introduce and 
stimulate interest in flood hazard management planning. They 
also afford the chance to clarify issues and give concerned 
citizens a forum in which to present their questions and air 
varying points of view. 

Meetings should be scheduled throughout the planning 
process to provide information as well as receive citizen's 
opinions. They provide a valuable opportunity to explore the 
environmental, social, economic, legal, and political ramifi- 
cations of various alternatives considered during the planning 
stages . 

These meetings can take a variety of forms, for example: 

• meetings designed to accomplish a task; 

• meetings designed to identify and negotiate conflicts; 

• open forums simply intended to air a variety 
of viewpoints; and 

• large mass meetings to present basic information. 

Public meetings also may be sponsored in different insti- 
tutional frameworks. For example: 

• the Citizens Advisory Committee may hold a working 
public meeting designed to broaden input from other 
publics on specific issues; 

• the local officials may hire the local chapter 
of the League of Women Voters to sponsor an open 
forum on specific issues; 

• an already scheduled town meeting may focus its 
attention on flood hazard management issues needing 
resolution. 



^ 



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CAC's should normally play a role in formal public meetings 
so that they can receive input from the public and effectively 
advocate legitimate public interest. 



CHARETTES 

One of the more sophisticated and creative consultative 
mechanisms, charette is an intensive brainstorming session in 
which a number of people representing different interests get 
together to define problems and come up with solutions. It may 
last anywhere from a couple of hours to a few days, and par- 
ticipants are given no breaks. In its manual, Citizen Participa- 
tion Techniques, the Institute for Participatory Planning 
(Laramie, Wyoming) list the following characteristics of a 
successful charette: 

• problems can serve as a catalyst to focus 
peoples' attention and facilitate discussion; 

• there should be large and small meeting rooms 

if more than a few people are involved. Most of 
the work will be done in small groups; 

• all kinds of materials should be available, par- 
ticularly roles of paper and magic markers; 

• all food should be brought in. Some breaks 
for "cat naps" should be made available; 

• planners, environmental specialists and other 
technicians should be sprinkled among the lay 
people to facilitate meaningful discussion. 



TRAINING MECHANISMS 

Three of the most common training mechanisms are: 

Seminars -- as described here are essentially training 
exercises designed to assist a small group in understanding 
the importance of community flood hazard management and the 
components to be considered in developing a truly comprehensive 
program. The seminars may be repeated several times with dif- 
ferent audiences and may be planned by concerned citizens or 
by local government. The purpose of the seminar is to convey 
necessary information early in the planning stages, so that 
citizens who will continue to be involved will be knowledge- 
able about the issues and able to participate more effectively. 
Seminars or training sessions should be held by the local 
government official for advisory committee members, task forces 
local government staff, and others active in the planning 
process. 



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Conferences -- involve the presentation of information to 
a medium to large audience in a manner that facilitates the 
group's understanding of issues that need resolution. Con- 
ferences may combine techniques common to public meetings, 
workshops and seminars. The key ingredient, however, is a 
formal learning experience that will assist audience parti- 
cipants in understanding the issues that must be resolved 
before decisions can be made. 

Simulation and Games -- one of the most sophisticated public 
involvement mechanisms is the simulation of actual planning sit- 
uations as a technique for mediating conflict and for training 
citizen participants and planners with differing points of view. 

A central goal of many public participation programs is 
to create forums for the development of a consensus on the best 
solution to the community's flooding problems. Creating a con- 
sensus for whatever solution emerges from the planning process 
requires a highly complex interplay of political forces. 
Sometimes it is possible to stimulate these interactions in 
a less-charged atmosphere by developing a "let's pretend" situ- 
ation which has been highly simplified to permit acting out 
the interplay of forces. 

The simulation will often require the hiring of a spec- 
ialist to develop the game and conduct the activities. 



BUILDING A COALITION 

One of the most effective ways citizen organizations can 
utilize the mechanisms described above is to build a broad- 
based coalition within their community to affect the decision- 
making process. An organization's various efforts to affect 
the decision-making process will be viewed more favorably by 
the general public and by the local government grantee if it 
is evident that a broad-base of community support is involved. 

Whether you decide to hold a workshop or seminar or to 
establish a task force, you will wish to consider expanding 
the number of organizations and individuals involved in such 
an activity. Building such a coalition will involve informal 
meetings with a number of different interests in order to 
establish common points of concern. 

Building a coalition may not mean that all organizations 
agree with all or even most of the possible positions vis-a-vis 
flood hazard management. It may simply mean that the organi- 
zations forming the coalition agree to disagree on certain 
issues, have identified certain issues they have in common, 
and share the objective to regularly communicate with the 
decision-making body. 



y 



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PUBLIC HEARINGS 

Public hearings are normally a reactive mechanism and are 
meant to give individuals and organizations a formal oppor- 
tunity to express their opinions on an issue immediately prior 
to decision-making. Although in theory most public hearings are 
scheduled just before decision-making, in reality they usually 
take place after the staff has completed its work and has arrived 
at a tentative conclusion. All too often the burden is on the 
public to prove that a different conclusion is warranted. 

Public hearings have been criticized not only because of 
the heavy burden of proof on the public to change an agency 
course, but also because the manner in which they are handled 
often discourages rather than encourages citizen input. 

Officials responsible for public hearings may wish to 
consider holding one earlier in the decision-making process 
than is requierd by regulation. This approach would give 
officials the opportunity to better consider and respond to 
public input before finalizing recommendations. 



USING EXISTING INSTITUTIONS FOR PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT 

In addition to the tools for public involvement in the 
flood hazard management planning process discussed in preceding 
sections, there will be a number of opportunities for affecting 
final plans outside the formal planning process. We cannot 
hope to describe the range of opportunities available because 
they will vary enormously depending upon the institutional 
structure of your community and your community's relationship 
to other state and regional governments. 

In constructing a public participation program, you should 
examine the various governmental and non-governmental tools 
for decision-making that exist in your community and tailor 
your program to make maximum use of these tools. 



TOWN MEETINGS 

New England towns and villages annually hold town meetings 
in the spring to approve the yearly budget and specific actions 
or programs to be undertaken by the Town Council or Board of 
Selectmen. The town meeting might be used togain approval 
for local expenditures to acquire and relocate flood-prone 
properties or decisions to otherwise regulate development in 
flood hazard areas. In many New England towns, the ordinances 
required to implement the NFIP must be brought before the town 
meeting. 



-70- 



Citizens who wish to be involved in flood hazard manage- 
ment planning will wish to participate in all town meetings 
in which relevant issues are on the agenda. In addition, if 
flood hazard management is not on the agenda, local decision- 
makers might be responsive to requests that it be added. A 
New England town meeting may offer a unique opportunity to 
reach a broader constituency in the community than is possible 
at other times. 



CONSERVATION COMMISSIONS 

Conservation Commissions, like town meetings, are unique 
to the northeast and may significantly influence flood hazard 
management planning. Commissioners have the authority to review 
land use management proposals and environmental impact statements 
(if an EIS is prepared) and to assess the natural resource 
implications of the proposed program. They will probably 
also have a wealth of data available to assist citizens in 
making their own determinations regarding the environmental 
impact of a proposed program. 



PLANNING BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS 

Many communities will have some type of planning and/or 
zoning board or commission to develop and/or approve economic 
development plans, land use plans, or individual requests for 
zoning. These agencies should be integrally involved if not 
solely responsible for developing a community flood hazard 
management program or at least determining whether or not the 
proposed program is consistent with other local plans. 

Planning boards and commissions frequently have regular 
meetings which are open to citizens. In such meetings, citizens 
may raise questions about the implications of certain aspects 
of the Flood Hazard Management Program. 

Such boards and commissions may not have much power or 
authority in a community. Concerned citizens, however, can 
exert considerable influence to insure better coordination 
between the Planning Commission and those planning for flood 
hazard management, thus ensuring these programs are more re- 
sponsive to broader planning concerns. 



-71- 



REGIONAL PLANNING AGENCIES 

Most areas of the country now have regional planning agen- 
cies of some kind. These agencies will have the responsibility 
for conducting an initial review (known as A-95 Review) of FIA 
flood insurance studies, state and local floodplain management 
regulations, and any proposed federal program or activities which 
may impact floodplains to assure consistency with other local 
and regional plans and to assess environmental impacts. The 
A-95 Review Process provides regional planning agencies with 
the opportunity to review and comment on a local floodplain 
management program from a regional perspective, but the 
recommendations generally are not legally binding. 

CABLE TELEVISION 

In a number of communities around the country, local cable 
TV stations have sponsored regular public-service programs pro- 
duced in the community and dealing with issues of special local 
interest and concern. Local groups could develop programs 
focusing on the flood hazard management planning process and, 
for instance, discuss the local and regional flooding problems 
being addressed and present controversial issues. 

Several communities are experimenting with the use of a 
two-way capability that will allow cable TV viewers to transmit 
back to local stations, offering a feed-back opportunity not 
normally associated with television. In flood hazard management 
planning areas with a scattered rural population, this two-way 
capability may significantly add to the usefulness of a public 
meeting if it is transmitted on TV. 

The two-way capability of cable TV is still in the exper- 
imental stage, and may not be widely available to you. Locally 
originated public service programming, however, is not at all 
experimental, and may be a useful mechanism to foster broader 
public involvement in flood hazard management. 

* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1980 - 330-313 



co 4 
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CITY OF FLOODVILLE, Ml 

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FLOOD PROFILES 



RIVER RAISIN 




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FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY 
Federal Insurance Administration 

CITY OF FLOODVILLE, Ml 

(FLOOD CO.) 



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APPROXIMATE SCALE 

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FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY 
Federal Insurance Administration 

CITY OF FLOODVILLE, 

(FLOOD CO.) 



400 



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FLOOD INSORANCE RATE MAP I -09 



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